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and in writing, as Miss Sorabji, had been kind enough followed, to find that the quality which is, in to speak. She had stated that people had recently my opinion, alike the crowning virtue and the put forward the picturesque side of. Hindu life, and most noticeable feature of Hindu domestic life was that everything had been done to palliate and excuse, absolutely ignored. Lord Harris spoke of the the existing state of things. But he maintained that Hindu characteristics of temperance, patience, and the state of things in India did not call for excuse or courtesy, but all the speakers omitted to lay stress palliation, that a good and suitable state of things on their humanity, as shown by the uniform existed, and there was no greater need for excuses in kindness to children which beautifies the family India than elsewhere. She had also stated that if i life of the Hindu. I have no sympathy witb reforms which had been put forward, such as her those who constantly disparage their own countrypurdahnishin scheme, were not intrinsically good they men, but the frequency of illtreatment, neglect and would die. It was true that they might, but it was cruelty towards children by parents in this country is equally true that they might be adopted. In that undoubtedly a blot on the national escutcheon and a case he thought criticism was a good thing, and 'disgrace to our civilisation and Christianity. But there was sure that a lady of Miss Sorabji's enterprise is no room for the operations of the National Society and intellect must know that it was better that for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children in Bengal, the opposite side should be put forward, even for the crime doest not exist; its officers would be idle by a person so unequal to the task as himself, and their work a sinecure. During my 26 years of rather than it should be left unstated. She had also service as Magistrate, Judge, and Member of Council stated that the Legislative Councils would do every- ' not a single instance has come before me either in my thing that was right. Having been a member of the public or private capacity of the illtreatment and Legislative Council, he knew that they were com neglect of children which form so pathetic a part in posed of human beings, and that they would not the pictures of domestic life in this country presented resent, and sometimes needed, a little outside assis. į by the daily press. Nor is the systematic illtreatment tance. When Miss Sorabji spoke of the hardships of women common in Bengali households. Murders of the reformers, there was nobody in the room who and violent assaults no doubt occur, and are due sympathised with her more sincerely than he did in most cases to that teterrima causa, jealousy, himself. He sympathised with people who had the but criminologists will agree that this distorted courage of their convictions (of whom Miss Sorabji | and morbid product of a natural and even laud. was a shining example), and who stood up against all able sentiment is a less heinous motive for crime the difficulties with which they had to contend, but than others where cupidity is concerned, and it did not follow that they were on that account the one which is hardly a stigma on the national more competent to reform the customs and religions character. As a study in sociology, it would be, they had left. He also wished to point out to Miss interesting to trace the sources and development of Sorabji that he had quoted other authors in support these kindly parental and conjugal relations. of his positions. He quoted Mr. Crooke, for the Exigencies of space compel me to restrict myself to North-West Provinces ; Mr Clarke, for Bengal; and the suggestion that the origin is to be found in the also Captain Temple, now Sir Richard Temple, for dogmatic theology of Manu, to whom Mr. Rees has Upper India. In reply to Miss Sorabji's statement made such frequent reference. To those who doubt that few purdah cases were brought into Court, he the value of the ethics of Manu in moulding the believed that the fewer cases were brought into Court character of Hindus in the direction of humanity the better it would be for India, whether the cases I would venture to commend the eloquent words of were those of the comparatively few purdahnishins, or Sir W. Jones in his preface to the Institutes, in which of the multitudinous folk who were no more purdah he speaks of “the spirit of sublime devotion, of people than ourselves.
benevolence to mankind, and of amiable tenderness
to all sentient creatures " which pervade the work. On the motion of the CHAIRMAN, a hearty vote. But the priceless spiritual benefits conferred on a of thanks was accorded to Mr. Rees.
pious Hindu by a son or a daughter's son must inevitably enhance the value of offspring and add a
powerful stimulus to the ties of natural affection.' Mr. T. DURANT BEIGHTON writes :-As one of [cf. Manu ix. $$ 137, 138, and 139.] . those who were precluded by lapse of time from taking Into the controversy between Mr. Rees and Sir part in the discussion of Mr. Rees's interesting and W. Lee-Warner I have no space to enter, but I suggestive paper, perhaps you will kindly allow me demur to Mr. Rees's proposition that “caste is very briefly to indicate what I intended to have said Hinduism and Hinduism is caste." As well might a had time permitted. I will endeavour to imitate the Roman Catholic say that the observance of mass and modesty of the civilian of whom Lord Harris spoke, confession was Christianity. Conformity with the and confine my remarks to that portion of India with rules of caste may be evidence that the conformist is which I am best acquainted, viz., the Lower Provinces an orthodox or even a religious Hindu, just as the of Bengal. I was surprised during the course of Mr. tcompliance with accepted rules may be one step Rees's paper, and still more so in the debate which towards showing that a man is a devout Roman
Catholic. But both the Hindu and the Roman of prominent Hindu reformers bowing before the would alike protest against this narrow creed being of influence of caste. Could they have done otherthe essence of their religion. Nor can I at all agree wise with any advantage to the society to which they with what I understand to be Mr. Rees's view of the belonged, and which they were working hard to Queen's Proclamation of 1858, if I am right in improve? The only answer is in the negative. They supposing that he considers the abolition of Sati and acted upon the well-known principle taught in other Acts passed prior and subsequent to that England by Edmund Burke. If they wanted to lead Proclamation which compel Hindus as well as all they must follow the feelings of the people whom other subjects of the Empire to abandon practices | they wanted to lead. Acting otherwise would have which conflict with the general criminal law, as a meant self isolation and annihilation of all their violation of the guarantee to safeguard their customs influence over those who would be guided by them. and religion. Besides the abolition of Sati, the It is a self-sacrifice leaders have often to make. Mr. Legislature has within the last century put an end to Rees is right in what he says about the condition of human sacrifice, the exposure of children for destruc women in India. A woman is the ruler in the tion by sharks and alligators on the banks of rivers, family. In domestic matters a husband should be, the murder of so-called sorcerers and witches, the and often is, a subordinate. A Hindu lady may not practice of dharna, the burying alive of lepers, be learned in books, may not discuss politics, yet she and the mutilations which formerly attended the is an intelligent assistant, with supreme power in the celebration of the Charak Puja or swing festival. house. To put her in any other light is doing I may, perhaps, be allowed to say that I have injustice to Hindu society. I do not agree with Mr. dealt at length with all these practices and their Rees's views as to the study of philosophy in the origin in an article published some years ago, colleges. Need I remind him that many native called “Obiolete Crime in Bengal and its Modern administrators in India were very good students of Aspects." Will it be believed for a moment that Indian philosophy ? not a vestige of what Mr. Walter Bagehot calls “verifiable progress" in morality has been established in India among the masses that have been subject to our rule for so many generations ? Every one of the practices above mentioned can be justified by scores of
NINTH ORDINARY MEETING. texts from the shastras, but I doubt if anyone will
Wednesday, February 4, 1903; SIR GEORGE seriously maintain that the authoritative prohibition BIRDWOOD. K.C.I.E., C.S.I., in the chair. of these crimes by the Government is regarded by the most fanatical of modern Hindus as prejudicially
The following candidates were proposed for interfering with his customs or his caste, or that he
election as members of the Society :-would not scout the suggestion of returning to these and kindred outrages against civilised lise, even if the Beisenberg, H., Rathcote, Pattison-r ad, Hampstead, prohibition were removed.
N.W. One word more. In the difference of opinion Bell, James, 34, Kensington-square, W., and Guild. which manifested itself between Mr. Rees and Miss hall, E.C. Sorabji, whose high intelligence and charm of manner | Daw, John Williams, M.I.M.M , Ashanti Goldfields. add to the value of any debate in which she takes part, Corporation, Limited, 6, Southampton-street, I entirely agree with Mr. Rees. Notwithstanding the Holborn, W.C. unusual honour of large type which was accorded to | Fraser, J. C., Messrs. Stephen, Fraser and Co., Miss Sorabji in the Times, I think the intrusion of an Limited, Port Elizabeth, South Africa. outsider into the domestic circle, especially if armed Gould, Edward, care of Standard Bank, Barberton, with the ægis of official sanction, would be useless for East Transvaal, South Africa. the purpose suggested, and would tend to subvert Mitchell, George, M.I.Mech.E., The Vacuum Brake that mutual confidence and affection which is the Company, Limited, 32, Queen Victoria-street, greatest charm of Hindu life. Where purdahnishin E.C., and 59, Frances-road, Windsor. women are capable of entering into legal business Morgan, Edward Domett, A.I.E.E., 73, Wightman(and where they are not, cadit quæstio) their customs road, Harringay, N. give them ample opportunity of discussing matters Munro, John, O.K. Copper Mine, via Mungana, viva voce at any length with friends, lawyers, and North Queensland, Australia. officials, their faces remaining hidden behind the Nanjiani, Khan Sabib K. R., Godhra, Panch purdah. This fact must be known, by his own ex Mahals, Bombay, India. perience, to every prominent official in India.
Quicke, William G., Assoc. M.Inst.C.E., Gas
Works, Perth, Western Australia.
Tilden, Douglas, 1545, Webster-street, Oakland, Mr. VishvaNATH P. VAIDYA writes testifying to California, U.S.A. the correctness of Mr. Rees's description of a Hindu Townsend, E. Ross, Agricultural Offices, Salisbury, home. He adds :-Lord Harris cited two instances Rhodesia, South Africa.
· The following candidates were balloted for and as Sir Digby Wyatt states “this was the and duly elected members of the Society: first practical effort to revive pictorial mosaic Atchison, Arthur F. T., Cooper's-hill, Englefeld amongst us." green, Surrey.
Such was the position of the mosaic art in Cater, Herbert Elliott, B.A., Southdown, The England in 1862. It shows that a certain Downs, Wimbledon, S.W.
interest in the art had been created, and this Day, Harry Daborn, Railway Approach, Godalming, interest was stimulated by Sir Digby Wyatt, · Surrey.
who in that year read a valuable and most Eliot, Sir Charles Norton Edgcumbe, K.C.M.G.,
interesting paper before the Royal Institute of C.B., Government-house, Mombasa, East Africa.
British Architects on “Pictorial Mosaics as Fletcher, Banister Flight, 29, New-bridge-street, E.C.
an Architectural Embellishment,” dealing with Ford, Albert, Welsbach Ligh¢ Company of Austral
the subject (as he himself states) from the asia, Limited, Wellington, New Zealand.
point of view “from which we may best realise Isherwood, William Herbert, 18, Wrangthorn
what architects have to learn and to do, in terrace, Hyde-park, Leeds. Russell, Charles Bartlett, 16, Teignmouth-road,
order to effect a practical revival of the art at Brondesbury, N.W.
the present day,” and with this aim in view Toogood, John F., F.R.G.S., Bipposu Mines, Ltd.,
he gave the main historical phases of pictorial Ashanti, West Africa.
mosaic, and dwelt upon the various scopes Walsh, Albert, P.O. Box 39, Cape Town, Scut's and difficulties of the art in its production and Africa.
application. Wilson, William, 1, Belmont-street, Chalk Farm, Many artists and architects now gave serious N.W.
attention to the revival of the art. The improve
ment in public taste, aided by an increased The paper read was—
feeling for colour and decoration, gave encouragement to those who were interested in the
revival, and it was not long before several METHODS OF MOSAIC CONSTRUCTION. eminent firms in this country succeeded in . BY W. L. H. HAMILTON.
producing mosaics in enamel. The names of
Messrs. Simpson and Sons, Messrs. Rust and It is now more than sixty years ago since Co., and Messrs. Harland, Fisher and Co., the revival in this country of mosaic as an occur to me, as some of their full length figures architectural adjunct may be said to have are to be seen in the principal hall of the South begun. In 1840, Mr. Blashfield endeavoured Kensington Museum. But not until some to produce decorative pavements, and in this years later were any important enamel mosaics endeavour he was assisted by Mr. Minton and | executed in this country. Messrs. Maw and Co., who succeeded in In Italy, the traditions of the workers in making excellent material for that purpose. mosaic had been handed down through cenFollowing Mr. Blashfield (and to a certain turies, and although the art had fallen low, it extent working in co-operation with him) came had never altogether died out About the Sir Digby Wyatt, who, in 1848, published a year 1860, a poor glassblower of Murano, work on the subject, and gave much practical named Lorenzo Radi, with the love of his art assistance to the manufacturers who were strong within him, made efforts to improve the engaged in producing the tesseræ. Their manufacture of enamels, and especially of gold efforts appear to have been mainly concen mosaic, and in his necessity. he applied to a trated on the production of pavements, geome. Venetian lawyer, Dr. Salviati, who found the trical in design, and made of such materials means to enable him to continue his efforts in as asphalte, coloured cement, and compressed the production of the Smalti (or enamel), by china clay. The results obtained were so means of which Radi was endeavouring to satisfactory that on the announcement of the revive the mosaic art in Venice. In a small intended exhibition of 1862, Messrs. Maw and way these efforts were successful, but for want Co. decided to move a step in advance of of means and prestige they would have resulted what had hitherto been done, and to produce a in failure, had not an artist of high merit and pictorial pavement in several colours. They great social position extended to them a helptherefore commissioned Sir Digby Wyatt to ing hand. I refer to the late Sir Austen Henry design a pavement of that character for them Layard-a man who was not only an artist in which they executed in tesseræ of nearly a the highest and broadest sense of the term, hundred different tints made by themselves; but who was also a distinguished diplomatist and archæologist. From the moment he ex- | cement, the cartoon is outlined on the cement, tended his protection to the revived industry, and the mosaists, with the cartoon before them, the success of that industry was assured. He, proceed to place the tesseræ on the wall one together, with a few other English gentlemen, by one. provided the necessary capital. The business It is needless to say that under certain conwhich had been established by Radi and ditions the very finest mosaics can be—and Salviati, became their property, and was even in recent times have been produced by speedily merged into the concern which they this method. The ancient mosaists it would then formed under the title of the “Venice and seem invariably employed it, and probably no Murano Glass and Mosaic Company.”
other process was known to them. The first important commissions obtained | The first works executed in England by the by the company were the decoration of the | Venetian mosaists were so executed, and the Wolsey Chapel at Windsor and that of the result was entirely successful, but it was soon Albert Memorial in Kensington-gardens. The made clear that unless some less expensive and general designs for both works were by Sir | more expeditious means could be devised for Gilbert Scott, and were carried out under his executing and fixing mosaics very little could directions from the cartoons of Mr. John be done to advance the art either in this Clayton, of Messrs. Clayton and Bell.
country or elsewhere. About this time also were executed for the Anyone possessing a knowledge of mosaic South Kensington Museum several full length art knows that it is futile to expect the producfigures from the designs of the late Lord tion of a really good mosaic unless the work Leighton, Sir Edward Poynter, P.R.A., Mr. | is carefully supervised by a properly qualified Val Prinsep, R.A., and other distinguished artist. Men no longer “work for the angels," artists.
and even the best workmen require the superIn Westminster Abbey, the “ Last Supper,” vision of the master. Where the artist is over the communion table, was executed from designer and mosaist in one, as were so many the design by Mr. Clayton; and in St. Paul's of the ancient mosaists, and where time and Cathedral two of the large spandrils under the money are secondary considerations, the pringreat dome were covered with mosaics from cipal disadvantages of this method disappear; cartoons by Mr. George Frederick Watts and but it is rarely indeed that such a fortuitous the late Alfred Stevens.
combination of circumstances is to be met From that time to the present day much with. The artist who by reason of his genius excellent work has been done in various parts and reputation, would be commissioned to of the United Kingdom, in the Colonies, and design a scheme of mosaic decoration for in America, by several well-known English some large cathedral or public building, firms of mosaists as well as by the Venetians, would probably not be a mosaist in the and the demand for mosaic decoration is sense of possessing a close technical knowsteadily increasing. Of that there is no ledge of the art, and if he were, he could not doubt; and the question of the hour is not be expected to overlook for several hours each whether mosaics should be executed, but how day the workmen who are placing the tesseræ they should be executed so as to obtain the on the wall. Even supposing it were possible best results at the least possible cost. It is to secure so considerable a part of his time, with a view to elucidating this question that I | the cost would necessarily be enormous. His have prepared some notes on the methods of designs and intentions have therefore to be mosaic construction which I hope may be of carried out by another, who must be both interest, and may at the same time tend to artist and mosaist. Such men are not easy to remove misconception and prejudice.
find, and when it is remembered that any large Speaking broadly, there are two methods of firm of mosaists working by this method would construction :
require to retain on their staff many such (1) The Old Method, viz. :- That of fixing artists, it will be seen that the difficulty prethe tesseræ on the wall directly and one by sented is a very formidable one indeed. one.
Another difficulty which presents itself in (2) The New Method, whereby the mosaic is the application of this method is the necessity first executed on paper, and thence transferred of sending workmen from their homes to any to the wall.
part of the world where a mosaic is to be The Old Method is simple enough; the wall executed. In the first place it is difficult to destined to receive the mosaic is prepared with get first-class workmen to leave their homes,
the cost of the mosaic. There are also diffi- 1 to be demolished and begun all over again, or, culties which may, and in n any cases do, worse still, the defects are permitted to remain affect the quality of the work. The conditions because the expense of removing them would under which a mosaist working on the spot be too great! has to carry on his work, are frequently well. There are in addition technical difficulties nigh insupportable. He is dependent on the into which I need not enter. Those I have climate of the country in which he finds him cited are sufficient to indicate the reason self, and even under the most favourable which led the mosaists who 35 years ago atmospheric conditions he must work in the revived the art, to the conclusion that unless imperfect light which comes to him through some other process could be found, little pro. the shrouds and scaffolding by which he is gress could be made either in this country or surrounded : in winter he is chilled by the abroad. cold, and in summer he is half suffocated by When one remembers how much that is