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applications of steam and electricity, to To PROF. ROBERTS BEAUMONT, M.I. Mech.E., railways, steam shipping, telegraphy, the for his paper on “Recent Inventions in Weaving peiny post, the increase in the rate of pro

Machinery.” duction. These were shared by other nations.

To E. PRICE-EDWARDS, for his paper on “ Sound The class which is benefited by our strange

Signals." fiscal policy is the foreign producer, who,

To J. CLIFTON ROBINSON, Assoc. Inst.C.E.,

M.I.E.E., for his paper on “ Electric Traction : supported by his own strong home market,

London's Tubes, Trams and Trains." competes with English manufacturers in their

To MAJOR-GENERAL Sir John F. CREASE, own markets on unfair and unequal terms.

K.C.B., for his paper on “Ceuta and Gibraltar." Surely he should be made to pay something

To EDWARD T. SCAMMELL, for his paper on “The to enable us to educate our own people to meet Timber Resources of the Australian Commonwealth.” him on fair and equal terms. Our technical To H. WARINGTON SMYTH, for his paper on institutions are larguishing for the want of "Boats and Boat Building in the Malay Peninsula." financial support. I have only to-day taken part in a begging function to solicit support

In the Indian Section : for the very college-King's College-in which

To PROFESSOR WYNDHAM R. DUNSTAN, F.R.S., I was myself educated. Such an appeal as

for his paper on “ The Coal Resources of India." was made to-day would be instantly responded

To THOMAS WILLIAM HOLDERNESS, C.S.I., for

his paper on “ The Indian Famine of 1899, and the to by some patriotic millionaire in America.

Measures Taken to Meet it.” Five per cent. ad valorem duty on foreign

To THOMAS JEWELL BENNETT, for his paper on manufactured goods would place technical and

“ The Past and Present Connection of England with scientific education in this country on a solid

the Persian Gulf.” basis. Lord Playfair said in 1891, when speaking of

In the Colonial Section :the McKinley Act in the United States : “ If

To COMMANDER B. WHITEHOUSE, R.N., for his the Americans be right in principle, and

paper “To the Victoria Nyanza by the Uganda if they be successful in practice, the whole

Railway."

To W. T. PRESTON, for his paper on “The policy of the United Kingdom is founded on a

French-Canadian Relationship to the Crown.” gigantic error, and must lead to our ruin as a commercial nation." The average English In the Applied Art Section : man thinks that the error is at home, and To HALSEY RICARDO, for his paper on “The that, unless we wake up and “pay the piper," | Architect's Use of Enamelled Tiles:' Lord Playfair's fear will be realised. . To REV. HERBERT THURSTON, S.J., for his paper

I scarcely hope to believe that I have in this on “The History of the Rosary in all Countries." address established my position that there is a definite science in business, and that I have indi.

The Chairman then presented the Society's cated the laws of this science. I have, however,

gold medal, , awarded under the Shaw Trust shown that diagrams, properly maintained and

for Industrial Hygiene :studied, teach absolute facts, and it is the

To MR. JAMES TONGE, Junr., of Westhoughton,

Lancashire, for his Hydraulic Mining Cartridge—an observation of these facts, and the deduction of laws from them, that form a basis of science

appliance for breaking down coal in mines without

the use of explosives. in manufactures, commerce, business, and even government itself, which, if true and Sir Owen ROBERTS, in proposing a cordial vote of followed, will retrieve our commercial pre

thanks to the Chairman for his valuable and most ineminence.

teresting address, said that while he thought there

were scientific methods in business, he doubted After delivering the Address the Chairman whether there was an actual science of business. presented the Society's medals which were

He most thoroughly agreed with what Sir William awarded for papers read during last Session.

Preece had said as to the necessity of academical

education in England taking cognisance of commerce For papers at the Ordinary Meetings :--

The New University of Birmingham had begun on To J. GORDON PARKER, Ph.D., for his paper on the right lines, and the University of London had * Leather for Bookbinding.”

taken the same course, recognising a faculty of comTo HERBERT STONE, for his paper on “The merce and industry. There were also in London Identification of Wood, and its Application to Scien some admirable institutions at which scientific tific and Commercial Purposes."

methods in business could be learned. The London To PROF. GEORGE FORBES, F.R.S., for his paper School of Economics, lately erected in Clare Market, on “Range Finders.”

| was an institution which need not fear comparison

with any school of commerce in the world. The City money must be forthcoming to accomplish the of London College had valuable evening classes in object. He had not advocated protection. His commerce, and a large annex was now being built idea of a tax on foreign manufactures was no to the college for the establishment of a day class | more protection than the recently imposed tax on for the study of scientific methods in business. corn; the price of bread had not been raised. Those two institutions, coupled with the various A five per cent. ad valorem duty on those goods classes held in almost all the polytechnics, and which were flooding the markets of the country, the admirable commercial examinations of the would produce 4 millions per annum of the out Society, lest no excuse for the young students of pockets of the foreign producer, and on that business in London not learning all that could be sum it would be possible to raise 150 millions, known of the scientific methods of business. He which could be devoted to the erection and equiphad not been converted to some of the Chairman's ment of technical institutes all over the country. free trade theories. The instance so interestingly It was not a political matter at all ; it was a pure quoted of the United States was not, he thought, a business matter, and Lord Rosebery had stated case in point. If England was a vast continent with that the British Government should be run on business 80,000,000 of people, with all sorts of climate and principles. home industries, it might be a protectionist country too, but such conditions did not obtain.

Sir WALTER Peace, K.C.M.G., in seconding the motion, said that after 50 years of active trading life

Miscellaneous. he considered free trade, to be the greatest superstition that ever befooled a people. Under the term of free trade--because free trade had never existed and

JAPANESE SHIPBUILDING. nerer would-England had throttled the greatest

For years the policy of Japan has been directed industry of the country—agriculture, and made the with the view of building up a strong navy and people dependent for their food entirely on foreigners.

merchant marine. Her position in the East is, in He thought the Chairman in his reference to the pros

many respects, analogous to Great Britain in the perity which followed the introduction of free trade

West, and according to the United States Consulhad omitted the most important factor of all, the

General at Yokohama, her aspirations and opporlimited liability principle, which, by the aid of the

tunities both point to the sea as furnishing her best printing press, had increased a hundred fold the actual defence in case of war, and a profitable vocation for potential wealth of the country. As an instance of

her sons in time of peace. With this object the this it would be remembered that American securities

Government is planning regular and systematic depreciated in value 200 millions sterling after the

additions to the strength of the navy, and is seeking receipt of Senator Blaine's despatch to the Marquis

the best means for the encouragement of shipof Salisbury on the Venezuelan question ; but the

building. High ship subsidies have long been paid, loss was simply on paper, not in cash. He hoped

and any plan which promises to promote the estabthe subject of trade and the fiscal policy of the

lishment of iron manufacturing plant, and other country would be brought up for discussion at a

industries necessary to shipbuilding, receives careful future meeting of the Society.

consideration. In 1892, about one-thirteenth of the

exports, and one-eighth of the imports of Japan, The resolution having been carried unanimously,

were carried in Japanese vessels ; in 1901, its shipping

had increased so much that three-cighths of the The CHAIRMAN, in reply, thanked the members

exports, and one-third of the imports, or a tonnage for the cordiality with which the resolution had

considerably in excess of the total imports and been passed Sir Owea Roberts had not quite

exports of 1898, were conveyed in native vessels. appreciated his term of science as applied to

The tonnage of Japanese merchant steamers entering business, thinking that he (the Chairman) should

Japanese ports in 1901 amounted to 3,861,659 tons, have used the term scientific methods for business.

and this was surpassed only by the British ships, His idea of science was that propounded by

with a tonnage of 4,080,583 tons. Germany and Thomas Huxley, who said that science was system

Russia both exceed the United States, from which atised or organised common-sense. If organised

country 175 ships, with a tonnage of 404,724 tons, common sense was not the basis of business, what

entered Japanese ports. One of the largest steamship was? And as organised common sense was

companies in Japan is the Nippon Yusen Kaisba science, science was the basis of business. He

(Japan Steam Mail Company), which bas lines of had been pleased to hear there were so many

boats making regular trips to ports in Europe, commercial schools in existence, and would have

America, Australia, British India, China, and Korea. mentioned the fact in his address if he had

At a recent general meeting of the company it was been previously aware of it. The formation of

proposed to assist in the establishment of a new such schools should be urged everywhere, but I route by the Hunan Company of China, the object being to secure seeders for the steamers at the heating and stirring are necessary. After the mass Shanghai terminus. While striving to build up their has swollen, it is mixed with 7:5 parts of alcohol, shippiog, the Japanese are not unmindful of the į and stirring is continued. The resulting product necessity for good harbours. Yokohama is the most is poured into moulds, or after further dilution may northerly port in the empire, and Yedo Bay, on which · be spread in thin layers on glass. Consul-General it is situated, forms an ideal natural harbour, much Hughes, of Coburg, is of opinion that “ as an resembling San Francisco Bay in its narrow mouth and i underlay for sensitive photographic films, the wide expanse. A substantial breakwater renders still material has important advantages, not the least more secure the upper part of the bay, which is being being that it remains flat in developing.” continually improved by dredging and the extension of dock facilities. A dock is also being built at Hakodate, on Tsugaru Strait, which is between the principal island and the northern one. It is expected ! MEETINGS FOR THE ENSUING WEEK, that this will be completed within the year, and Monday, Nov. 24. SOCIETY OF ARTS, John-street, Hakodate will probably become a naval repair station

Adelphi, W.C., 8 p.m. (Cantor Lectures.) Prof. for Japanese men-of-war and such foreign vessels as

Vivian B. Lewis, "The Future of Coal Gas and

Allied Illuminants.” may desire to come in. During the past three years,

East India Association, Westminster Palace Hotel, the number of vessels passing through the Tsugaru

4 p.m. Mr. R. H. Elliot, “ The Economical Strait has more than trebled, some boats which

Effects of Recent Indian Currency Legislation." travelled by the Inland Sea, and coaled at Nagasaki Scottish Society of Arts, 117, George-street, Edin

burgh, 8 p.m. or Moji, having latterly preferred to take the northern

Chemical Industry (London Section), Burlingtonroute and coal at Mororan. Those who favour this

house, W., 8 p.m. route claim that the current here is more favourable,

Imperial Institute, South Kensington, 85 p.m. that there is less danger of encountering stormy

Surveyors, 12, Great George-street, S.W., 8 p m. weather, and that the voyage is shortened.

Discussion on paper by Mr. C. H. Hooper,

“Compensation for Fruit Planting." Geographical, University of London, Burlington

gardens, W., 8} p.m.

Actuaries. Staples-inn Hall, Holborn, E.C., 5} p.m. Correspondence.

Camera Club, Charing-cross-road, W.C., 83 p.m.

Mrs. Le Blond, “Mountaineering from a Woman's

Point of View.”

Medical, 11, Chandos-street, W., 8 p.m.
BRAZILIAN CARBONS.

London Institution, Finsbury-circus, E.C., 5 p.m. I have perused, with much interest, the article

Dr. A. Smith Woodward, "Some Newly Dis

covered Extinct Animals." in your Journal of the 14th November, re Brazilian

| TUESDAY, Nov. 25... Medical and Chirurgical, 20, Hanoverdiamonds and carbons. Regarding the largest

square, W., 8. p.m. carbon ever found, it was not broken up in Paris,

Civil Engineers, 25, Great George-street, S.W., 8 I broke it up here myself. The exact weight was

p.m. Discussion on paper by Messrs. Charles 3,078 carats.

Hopkinson, Bertram Bopkinson, and Ernest I bought the stone on the 24th

Talbot, “Electric Tramways." September, 1895, for £6,464, broke it up in pieces

Photographic, 66, Russell-square, W.C., 8 p.m. suitable for use in diamond drills, and resold the

Anthropological, 3, Hanover-square, W., 83 p.m. whole at ten per cent. profit. Had I the stone | WEDNESDAY, Nov. 26...SOCIETY OF ARTS, Johnnow it would be worth £26,163.

street, Adelphi. W.C., 8 p.m., Dr. Gustave The present

Goegg. “Le Tunnel du Simplon, et la Nouvelle price of carbon at the mines for good carbons

Ligne de Chemin de Fer Directe Anglo-Italienne one carat and upwards is £8 ios. to £9 per

pour l'Orient.” (In French.) carat, not £5.

Royal Society of Literature, 20, Hanover-square, W., J. K. GULLAND.

8} p.m. 8, Victoria-street, London, S.W.

British Astronomical, Sion College, Victoria17th November, 1902.

embankment, E.C., 5 D.m.
THURSDAY, Nov. 27...Royal, Burlington-house, W., t. p.m.

Antiquaries, Burlington-house, W., 8} p.m.
London Institution, Finsbury-circus, E.C., 6 p.m.

The Hon. J. H. Turner, “British Columbia.”
General Notes.

Electrical Engineers, 25, Great George-street, S.W.,

8 p.m. Prof. Sir Oliver Lodge, “Electrons." Camera Club, Charing-cross-road, W.C., 87 p.m.

Mr. W. Webster, “ History of the English Ballad A SUBSTITUTE FOR CELLULOID.-The extensive

from the Earlies Times.” commercial use of celluloid has caused many people | Friday, Nov. 28... United Service Institute, Whitehall-yard, to seek for substitutions or imitations of it. In

3 p.m. Commander H. Orpen, “The Origin, Germany, in the vicinity of Coburg, an imitation

Evolution, and Future of the Personnel of the has been made by dissolving in 16 parts — by

British Navy."

Clinical, 20, Hanover-square, W., 8} p.m. weight-of glacial acetic acid, 1.8 parts of nitro

Physical, Chemical Society's Rooms, Burlingtoncellulose, and adding 5 parts of gelatine. Gentle

house, W., 5 p.m.

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SECOND ORDINARY MEETING.

Wednesday, November 26, 1902 ; Sir Notices.

WILLIAM HENRY PREECE, K.C.B., F.R.S.,

Chairman of the Council, in the chair.
NEXT WEEK.

The following candidates were proposed for

election as members of the Society :MONDAY, DECEMBER 1, 8 p.m. (Cartor

Aitken, Thomas, Esq., Assoc. M.Inst.C.E., Surveyor's Lecture.). PROFESSOR VIVIAN B. LEWES,

Office, County-buildings, Cupar, Fise, Scotland. “ The Future of Coal Gas and Allied Illumin

Baker, George Samuel, “ Frontenac," Donnington-, ants." (Lecture II.).

road, Willesden, N.W. WEDNESDAY, DECEMBER 3, 8 p.m. (Ordin

DECEMBER 3,8 p.m. (Ordin- | Barber, René R., Messrs. William Barber and Bros. ary Meeting.) ALFRED WATKINS, “Some Georgetown, Ontario, Canada. Aspects of Photographic Development.”

Cole, Charles Henry, Assoc.M.Inst.C.E., H.M. [A collection of Developers and Developing Dockyard, Malta. . Apparatus will be exhibited in the Library.] Connett, Albert Newmann, M.Am.Soc.C.E., Tyn. Further details of the Society's meetings will

dale-lodge, Bromley, Kent.

Eborall, Alfred Cecil, M.I.E.E., 115, Tulse-bill, S.W. be found at the end of this number.

Foot, Herbert, B.A., F.I.A., 13, Marlborough.

place, St. John's-wood, N.W.
Hardcastle, Edward, Rose cottage, New-road side,

Horsforth, near Leeds.
JUVENILE LECTURES.

Hardy, William Eversley, St. Oswald, Alexandra

road, Norwood. The usual short course of lectures adapted | Northcott, James, 12, Herne-hill, S.E. for a juvenile audience will be delivered on Pearson, Captain James Bruce, care of Managing Wednesday afternoons, December 31st and Agents, British India Steam Navigation Co., Ltd., January 7th, at 5 o'clock, by Professor

Calcutta. EDWARD B. POULTON, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S. Simpson, Percy, “Ocean Wave," St. Ives, Cornwall, (Hope Professor of Zoology in the University of Oxford), on the “ Means of Defence in the

The paper read was-
Struggle for Life among Animals.”
LECTURE J.-" The Methods by which Animals

LE TUNNEL DU SIMPLON, ET LA hide in order to escape their Enemies and catch their

NOUVELLE LIGNE DE CHEMIN DE Prey."

FER DIRECTE ANGLO-JTALIENNE LECTURE II._ “ The Ways in which Animals

POUR L'ORIENT. warn their Enemies and signal to their Friends.” Members who desire tickets for the course

PAR LE DR. GUSTAVE GOEGG, are requested to apply for them at once. | Docteur-es-Sciences, Professeur à l'Ecole Supérieure de

Each member is entitled to a ticket admitting two children and an adult.

J'éprouve un vif regret de ne pouvoir A sufficient number of tickets to fill the m'exprimer assez correctement dans votre room will be issued to members in the order langue, pourtant si fertile et si simple à la fois. in which applications are received.

Heureux j'aurais été de rendre ainsi un

Commerce de Genève.

hommage mérité à un pays auquel tous mes large sympathie entre Genève et l'Angleterre compatriotes, comme moi-même, vouent un en furent la conséquence. sincère et profond respect.

Le trait d'union se confirme encore ce soir, L'Angleterre et Genève ont eu depuis des aussi tout naturellement suis-je porté a remersiècles des points de contact nombreux dans cier le Comité de la Société des Arts de l'aimpresque tous les domaines, aussi bien dans le able accueil qu'il a bien voulu réserver à une domaine religieux que dans celui des sciences, importante question économique qui préoccupe des arts, et de la philosophie.

en ce moment le continent européen et dont Il y a deux mois à peine, Genève applaudis- | Genève est le berceau. sait avec enthousiasme Sir W. Ramsay votre grand chimiste. Avec son autorité pleine de

1.-LE SIMPLON. simplicité imposant le respect et la sympathie, Dans trois années au plus tard, la grande votre savant à l'esprit si distingué, a conduit barrière des Alpes sera percée d'une brèche ses auditeurs dans le for intérieur de ses nouvelle. Après le Mont Cenis, après le méditations, émerveillés qu'ils étaient de Brenner, après le St. Gothard, le Simplon lui suivre ce chercheur infatigable au travers des aussi viendra bouleverser le système écono. mille difficultés que ses recherches devaient | mique du continent, et apportera dans le comrencontrer. Genève conserve du reste une merce des nations sa part d'inconnues auxdette de reconnaissance envers plusieurs de quelles il faudra se plier. vos grands génies, car poétisée par eux, elle a Le passage du Simplon, historiquement été ainsi appelée à être une source d'attraction moins célèbre que celui du Grand St. Bernard, pour vos compatriotes.

est pourtant depuis des siècles déjà considéré George Eliot en effet a dit :

comme de la plus haute importance. Il mène “I am in an atmosphere of love and refinement,

exactement de la Vallée du Rhône, d'où il se I am quite satisfied to be at Geneva instead of Paris ;

détache à Brigue, au Val d'Ossola et au Lac in fact, I am becoming passionately attached to the Majeur. mountains, the lake, the streets, my room, and above Jadis, c'était un chemin de mulets côtoyant all, the dear people with whom I live."

d'effroyables précipices à travers les gorges du

Gondo pour gagner ensuite les plaines luxuJohn Ruskin écrivait en 1886:

rieuses de la Lombardie. De gigantesques “I am more thanksul every year of added life, that

combats s'y livrèrent à la fin du 18e siècle I was born in London, near enough to Geneva for me

entre les troupes françaises et autrichiennes; to reach it easily. The Genevese are pure, learned to

aussi Bonaparte, désireux d'avoir une belle a man, to a woman, to a boy, to a girl, progressing

route accessible à l'artillerie, qui menât en to and fro, mostly on their feet, and only where they

Italie, ordonna-t-il de construire la route have business. And this bird's nest of a place to be

actuelle. Elle fut terminée en cinq ans, coûta the centre of religious and social thought and phy. sical beauty to all living Europe, that is to thinking

| dix huit millions de francs et peut encore être and designing Europe, France, Germany, and Italy !" classée de nos jours parmi les voies les plus

belles qui soient au monde. C'est un ingé. Lord Byron longtemps notre hôte dans sa résidence à Cologny près. Genève a glorifié

nieur de Genève, M. Céard, qui conçut l'exé.

cution technique de cette route. notre lac Léman :

Depuis sa création, des grandes malles. “Clear, placid Leman! thy contrasted lake

postes y ont circulé deux fois par jour, dans With the wide world I dwell in is a thing Which warns me with its stillness, to forsake

chaque sens entre Brigue et Domo d'Ossola. Earth's troubled waters for a purer spring.

Cette route devint si fréquentée en toutes This quiet sail is as a noiseless wing

saisons, le besoin de communications entre la To waft me from distraction. Once I lived

Lombardie et la Vallée du Rhône s'affirmait à Torn ocean's roar: but thy soft murmuring Sounds sweet as if a sister's voice reproved

tel point, qu'il parut à des esprits clairvoyants – That I with stern delights should ever have been so qu'une nouvelle percée des Alpes devait se moved."

faire sur ce point. Par surcroît l'ouverture du C'est ainsi que le peuple anglais, guidé par canal maritime de Suez avait tellement ses écrivains, et amateur de voyages, a été modifié les conditions de transit entre l'Europe attiré par les ressources que lui offre la nature et l'extrême Orient, que chaque nation du de notre pays.

continent européen sentait du plus haut intérêt, Des relations souvent étroites se sont cimen- d'attirer sur son territoire, la plus grande part tées de familles à familles, nos écoles furent du mouvement commercial qui devait en fréquentées par votre jeunesse et peu à peu une résulter.

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