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remarkably rapid, and the present depression is ex- | very seasible one. My recent three months' tour in ceptionally acute. Mr. Head gives some well-con Russia also included a visit to the Caucasian sidered hints for relieving this depression. He does manganese deposits at Tchiatouri, for the purpose of not, however, indicate two directions in which the comparing them with the Brazilian deposits, all of South Russian ironmaster might possibly turn his which are personally known to me. I am in full attention with advantage. Russia produces more agreement with yourself and Mr. Head as to the manganese ore and more petroleum than any other cordiality with which Englishmen are received in country in the world. Would it not be possible to Russia, and regret the imperfect understanding which utilise more extensively these valuable products on exists in England respecting that country and its the spot, by developing the manufacture of spiegel. people. eisen and ferromanganese, and by increasing the employment of petroleum for metallurgical purposes ?
MEETINGS OF THE SOCIETY. Remarkable as the figures given by the author showing the comparative 'production of pig iron in
ORDINARY MEETINGS. 1899 are, they are less striking than later statistics. Wednesday evenings, at Eight o'clock :In 1901, when Russia produced 2,831,000 tons of pig
JANUARY 14.-" Industrial Trusts." By Prof. iron, the United States produced 15,878,354 tons,
W. Smart, LL.D. SIR ROBERT GIFFEN, K.C.B., the United Kingdom 7,928,647 tons, and Germany
LL.D., F.R.S., will preside. 7,860,893 tons. Similarly, the latest South Russian
JANUARY 21.—“The Metric System,” By A. statistics show more clearly than the figures given by
SONNENSCHEIN. ALEXANDER SIEMENS will preside. the author the present plight of the iron and coal
JANUARY 28.—“The Cost of Municipal Trading." industries. The report presented at the meeting of
By Dixon H. DAVIES. The LORD CHIEF JUSTICE, ironmasters at Kharkoff last month gives particu.
G.C.M.G., will preside. lars of the South Russian production during the year
FEBRUARY 4.-“ Methods of Mosaic Construcended on September ist, 1902. During that period
tion.” By W. L. H. HAMILTON. the Donetz coalfield yielded 9:4 per cent. less than
FEBRUARY 11.-" The Port of London.” By Dr. the production of the previous year, a diminution
B. W. GINSBURG. unprecedented in the history of the coalfield. The
FEBRUARY 18.-" Three-Colour Printing.” By production of coke showed a decrease of 11.3 per
HARVEY DALZIEL. CARMICHAEL THOMAS will cent., and the production of pig iron a decrease of
preside. 2.75 per cent. On September ist, 1902, of the 56 blast furnaces in South Russia, only 23 were in
Dates to be hereafter announced :operation. The output of iron ore was, in conse
"Existing Laws, By-laws, and Regulations reqence of the crisis in the iron trade, notably reduced.
lating to Protection from Fire, with Criticisms and Only 48 of the 79 mines at Krivoi Rog were at work. Suggestions." By T. BRICE PHILLIPS. (FotherA comparison between the possible productivity of gill Prize Essay.) the district and the production during the year, "Oil Lighting by Incandescence.” By ARTHUR affords a clear indication of the depression. The
Kitson. collieries furnished only 59 per cent. of their possible
" The Use of Electrical Energy in Workshops and output, the coke ovens 42 per cent., the blast furnaces
Factories." By ALFRED C. EBORALL, M.I.E.E. 55 per cent., and the Krivoi Rog mines 37 per cent.
"Modern Bee-Keeping." By WALTER FRANCIS
REID, F.C.S. Mr. W, H, HERDSMAN (Messrs. Edward Riley and “Tonkin, Yunnan and Burma.” By FRED. W. Co.) writes to Professor Le Neve Foster, F.R.S.: CAREY, late H.B.M.'s Acting Consul at Szemao, At the Society of Arts' meeting last week, I listened
China. to Mr. Head's very interesting paper, and also to “Education in Holland.” By J. C. MEDD. your remarks on the same, but had to leave before the conclusion of the discussion. Having myself
INDIAN SECTION. visited, last summer, the several districts in Thursday Afternoons, at 4.30 o'clock :question, I think Mr. Head's description of the JANUARY 22.–“Indian Domestic Life.” By ore bodies as “boat-shaped” is calculated to John DAVID REES, C.I.E. The LORD HARRIS, convey a better mental idea of their real character G.C.S.I., K.C.I.E., will preside. than is the word “lenticular." I agree, how- FEBRUARY 26.-" Cleanings from the Indian ever, with you that the Kertch iron ore deposits Census." By JERVOISE ATHELSTANE BAINES, C.S.I. are in all probability much larger, and likely to MARCH 12.-" The Currency Policy of India." prove of greater importance, than those of Krivoi | By J. BARR ROBERTSON. SIR EDWARD A. Rog. Apparently Mr. Head had not visited SASSOON, Bart., M.P., will preside. them, or he would not say they are not important. APRIL 23. - " The Province of Sind." By The friability of the Donetz coal is no doubt a natural i HERBERT Mills BIRDWOOD, C.S.I., M.A., LL.D. quality, quite independent of the weather, and Mr. MAY 14.-" The Province of Assam.” By Sir Head's explanation of the cause seems to me to be a CHARLES JAMES LYALL, K.C.S.I., M.A., LL.D.
Surveyors, 12, Great George-street, S.W., 8 p m.
Mr. H. T. Scoble, “Rural Drainage and Sewage Tuesday Afternoons, at 4.30 or 5 o'clock :
Disposal.” FEBRUARY 10, at 5 p.m.—“ Women in Canada.”
Geographical, University of London, Burlington. By the COUNTESS OF ABERDEEN.
gardens, W., 8} p.m. MARCH 3, at 4.30 p.m._“The Uganda of To-day."
Camera Club, Charing-cross-rd., W.C., 87 p.m. Dr. By HERBERT SAMUEL, M.P.
T. Glover Lyon; “Pure Air, without Draughts."
Medical, 11, Chandos-street, W., 8} p.m. MARCH 31, at 4.30 p.m.-" British North Borneo.”
London Institution, Finsbury-cir E.C., 5 p.m., By HENRY WALKER, Commissioner of Lands,
Rev. W. H. Dallinger, “Re Studies in the British North Borneo.
Lives of Spiders." MAY 5, at 4.30 p.m.-“ Preservation of the Species | Tuesday, Jan. 13...Royal Institution, Albemarle-street, W., of Big Game in Africa." By E. North BUXTON.
3 p.m. Professor A. Macfayden, “ The Physiology
of Digestion." (Lecture 1.)
Medical and Chirurgical, 20, Hanover-square, W. APPLIED ART SECTION.
8} p.m. Tuesdays, at 4.30 or 8 o'clock.
Civil Engineers, 25, Great George-street, S.W.,
8 p.m. Mr. H. F. Joel, “ Electric Automobiles." JANUARY 20. 8 p.m:-“ Principles which should
Photographic, 66, Russell-square, W.C., 8 p.m. guide all Applied Art.” By G. F. BODLEY, R.A.
Anthropological, 3, Hanover-square, W., 8 p.m. FEBRUARY 3. 4.30 p.m.-“Technical Education
Colonial, Whitehall-rooms, Whitehall-place, S.W., in connection with the Book-producing Trades.”
8 p.m. Mr. W. A. Hickman, “The Canadian
West and North-West." By DOUGLAS COCKERELL.
| WEDNESDAY, JAN. 14...SOCIETY OF ARTS, John-street, FEBRUARY 17. 8 p.m.—“Heraldry in Decora
Adelpbi, W.C., 8 p.m. Prof. W. Smart, “ Indus. tion.” By GEORGE W. Eve, A.R.E. LEWIS
trial Trusts." FOREMAN DAY will preside.
Japan Society, 20, Hanover-square, S.W., 81 p.m. MARCH 17. 4.30 p.m.-“ Artistic Fans." By
Mr. W. Crewdson, “The Dawn of Western Miss HANNAH FALCKE.
Influence in Japan."
Royal Literary Fund, 7, "Adelphi-terrace, W.C., MAY 19. 4.30 p.m.-“ The Mounting o a Play”
3 p.m. (Stage Costumes and Accessories). By PERCY Archäological Association, 32, Sackville-street, W., MACQUOID, R.I.
W.C., 43 p.m.
THURSDAY, JAN. 15...Antiquaries, Burlington-house, W., Monday Evenings, at Eight o'clock:
E} p.m. JULIUS HÜBNER, “Paper Manufacture.”
Linnean, Burlington-house, W., 8 p m.
London Institution, Finsbury-circus, E.C., 6 pm. Four Lectures:
Rev. W. Marshall, “ The Romance of Archi' LECTURE I.–FEBRUARY 2.-History—Cellulose
tecture." Raw materials-Boiling, wasbing, breaking, and
Royal Institution, Albemarle-street, W., 3p.m. Dr. bleaching of rags-Esparto-Straw.
A. J. Evans, “Pre-Phænician Writing in Crete,
and its Bearings on the History of the Alphabet " LECTURE II.-FEBRUARY 9.-Soda recovery
(Lecture I.) Manila hemp, Jute and other raw materials-Me
Mining and Metallurgy, at the Rooms of the chanical wood—Wood cellulose, Beating-Sizing,
Geological Society, Burlington-house, W., 8 p.m. Loading--Colouring.
1. Mr. E. Henry Davies, “Notes on Copper LECTURE - IH.-FEBRUARY 16.- Stuff-chest
Mining in the Vale of Avoca, County Wicklow,
Ireland." 2. Mr. G. H. Blenkinsop, “Notes on Regulator - Sand-tables – Strainer - Hand-made
the Berehaven Copper Mines." 3. Mr. A. J. paper-Fourdrinier paper machine.
MacInerny, “Notes on an Iron Property near LECTURE IV.-FEBRUARY 23.- Single cylinder
Tunis." and other types of paper-making machines, Finishing
Historical, Clifford's-inn, Fleet-street, E.C., 5 p.m. - Cutting--Statistics-Paper-testing-Experimental
Mr. A. Savine, " The Bondmen of the Elizabetban
Age." paper making.
Numismatic, 22, Albemarle-street, W., 7p,m. PROF. J. A. FLEMING, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S.,
Optical, 22, Hanover-square, W., 8 p.m.
FRIDAY, JAN. 16...Royal Institution, Albemarle-street, W., “ Hertzian Wave Telegraphy in Theory and
8 p.m. Weekly Meeting, 9 p.m. Prof. Dewar, Practice.” Four Lectures.
“ Low Temperature Investigations." March 2, 9, 16, 23.,
Civil Engineers, 25, Great George-street, S.W., 8
p.m. (Students' Meeting.) Prof. W. C. Unwin, W. WORBY BEAUMONT, Mem. Inst.C.E.,
“The Measurement of Water." “Mechanical Road Carriages.” Four Lectures.
Mechanical Engineers, Storey's-gate, S.W., 8 p.m. April 27, May 4, 11, 18. .
Mr. H. F. Donaldson, “Cutting Angles of Tools for Metal Work as Affecting Speed and Feed." Quekett Microscopical Club, 20, Hanover-square,
W.C., 8 p.m. MEETING FOR THE ENSUING WEEK.
WY, JAN. 17...Royal Institution, Albemarle-street,
W., 3 p.m.. Sir Frederick Bridge, “ The BiMonday, Jan. 12.. Cyclists' Touring Club (Metropolitan
Centenary of Samuel Pepys: His Musical ConSection), (at the HOUSE OF THE SOCIETY OF ARTS),
temporaries, Criticisms, and Compositions." (Lec7 p.m. Address by Sir Martin Conway.
Journal of the Society of Arts, Proceedings of the Society.
CANTOR LECTURES. " THE FUTURE OF COAL GAS AND
FRIDAY, JANUARY 16, 1903.
All communications for the Society should be addressed to
the Secretary, John-street, Adelphi, London, W.C.
NEXT WEEK. TUESDAY, JANUARY 20, 8 p.m. (Applied Art Section.) G. F. BODLEY, R.A., “The Principles which should Guide all Applied Art."
WEDNESDAY, JANUARY 21, 8 p.m. (Ordinary Meeting.) A. SONNENSCHEIN, “The Metric System.” ALEXANDER SIEMENS in the chair.
THURSDAY, JANUARY 22, 4.30 p.m. (Indian Section.) JOHN DAVID REES, C.I.E., “ Domestic Life in India.” LORD HARRIS, G.C.S.I., K.C.I.E., in the chair.
BY PROFESSOR VIVIAN B. LEWES,
Royal Naval College, Greenwich. Lecture IV.-Delivered December 15th, 1902.
The title of “ Allied Illuminants” presupposes a closer relationship than the mere fact that different substances are utilised for the production of light, and certainly no bond of alliance could be closer than that which exists between coal gas and oil as illuminants.
Born and bred in the same cradle, they have walked hand in hand ever since, as it was whilst Lord Dundonald was first distilling coal in order to obtain coal naphtha from it that he also made coal gas, and although at that period interest in the liquid illuminant caused its gaseous brother to be overlooked, the work of Murdoch and the puffing of Winsor put coal gas into a position which caus:d it to outshine the liquid twin.
In treating of oil lighting, as existing in the immediate past, and as destined to play an important part in the future, it is clear that the animal and vegetable oils, which were much in evidence in illuminating the dark ages, and forming a twilight to the brilliant illumination of the past century, may be disregarded; so that, considering only mineral oils, the relationship existing between coal gas lighting and oil lighting is the closest that one can conceive.
If certain classes of coal be distilled at a comparatively low temperature, we obtain oil, and if other classes are distilled at a high temperature we obtain coal gas. For the past twelve years oil gas has played so important a part in the carburetting of coal gas that the relationship between them becomes still more inseparable.
In some parts of the world nature in her prodigality supplies natural gas, and even in this country some is to be found, for there are not wanting those who look forward to Sussex becoming a Pennsylvania on a small scale. However, natural gas is small in quantity as compared with the natural sources of mineral oil, and this gives the latter illuminant a distinct advantage.
Further details of the Society's Meetings will be found at the end of this number.
LIST OF MEMBERS. The new edition of the List of Members of the Society is now ready, and can be obtained by members on application to the Secretary.
COVERS FCR JOURNAL. For the convenience of members wishing to bind their volumes of the Journal, cloth covers will be supplied, post free, for is. 6d. each, on application to the Secretary.
The advent of the coal gas industry in the lation roused by Colonel Drake succeeding in early twenties provided tar from which light obtaining petroleum by boring in districts oils could be obtained hy distillation, and the where previously it had merely occurred as a consumption of these in the Read-Holliday scum on the surface of stagnant water, and lamp has ever since been a favourite source of the next year or two resulted in the flooding of light for the coster and the travelling showman. the market with oil at prices never before In this lamp the principles which underly | deemed possible. This led to the introduction many of our most modern developments for of lamps from Germany for its consumption, burning oil for heating and lighting are to be but American ingenuity soon led to many imfound, as it is a wickless lamp which gasifies provements, and from 1859 to 1879, something the coal tar naphtha that yields the flame, the like 1,600 patents were taken out for lamps flame itself providing the necessary heat to fitted for the consumption of oil. keep the supply of gas constant. Other lainps | Nor was America alone in its efforts to of the same type are also made for the con- | improve the methods for the consumption sumption of oils of higher flash point, but of mineral oil. Some of the most distinct although of great utility in illuminating open advances in this direction were made in spaces, the danger of a leakage of burning oil England by such workers as Messrs. Hincks, and the slight irregularity in the supply of oil Silber, and Defries, with the result that we to the vapourising chamber render them unfit have to-day lamps for the consumption of oil for use in buildings containing inflammable that develop from it an amount of light unmaterials.
dreamt of in the early days of the oil industry, The Read-Holliday lamp was practically the whilst the advances in the manufacture of the only mineral oil lamp existing up to the middle oil lamp have been accompanied by the disof the last century, and 1850 marks the birth covery of oil deposits in every part of the of the great mineral oil industry. In 1847, world. James Young, whose name is as indelibly con- | As the oil leaves the well it is a mixture nected with mineral oil lighting as is that of of many hydrocarbons, mineral oils even Murdoch with ccal gas, discovered, or had varying amongst themselves in the class of pointed out to him, a leakage of oil from a seam hydrocarbons which are present in them. in the Riddings Colliery at Alfreton. Collect The crude oil has then to be subjected to a ing this, he succeeded in preparing from it | rough fractional distillation, which yields first by distillation a valuable lubricant; but the of all such easily volatilised products as demand for it very soon exceeded the supply petroleum spirit and the low flash point oils, that he could obtain, and in his attempts to whilst those distillates that have a flash point keep pace with the trade he had created, he of over 73° Fahr., and yet are of sufficient found that the same oil could be obtained by mobility to be fed with regularity by the capitthe distillation of certain grades of shale. larity of the wick to the flame, come under the Hence arose the Scottish oil industry.
heading of lamp oil, and are utilised in the The purpose for which the oil was obtained ordinary mineral oil lamp. was at first purely that of lubrication, and the In the burning of such oil it is drawn up light oils distilled off from the heavier by the wick from the lamp reservoir into the ones which were fitted for this purpose zone of heat created by the combustion, and were practically a waste product. Although is there converted into a gaseous mixture some attempts were made to utilise the lighter of hydrogen and hydrocarbons which yield distillates for burning in a lamp, no practical the flame, whilst the actions going on within results were obtained until 1853, when it was the flame yield the light which is emitted before noticed that this oil was being bought at a the complete conversion by combustion of the very cheap rate, and was being exported to flame gases into carbon dioxide and water Hamburg. Curiosity being aroused, it was vapour, the ultimate products of complete found that the oil was being used in Germany | combustion. in lamps made by Stohwasser, of Berlin. This In order to secure the best results with the led to the introduction of these lamps into combustion of oil in a lamp, it is necessary to England, where they were afterwards manu- | devote special care to several factors, so that factured, with improvements, by Messrs. Laide the lamp shall burn with a smokeless flame law, in Edinburgh.
of as high illuminating power as possible, and It was in 1859 that commercial circles in emit only the products of complete combustion. America were convulsed by the fever of specu- ! One of the most important points is the wick,
by which the oil is fed to the flame, and the amount of light that can be developed by the amount of oil so supplied must be carefully combustion of the oil. The most generally regulated, as if the oil be in excess the air accepted estimate of this important factor is supplied to the flame is unable to burn it com that given by Dr. Boverton Redwood, who pletely, with the result that the lamp smokes states that the oil consumption with duplex and products of incomplete combustion are | burners giving a duty of about 28 candles, formed, whilst if the flame be starved, the loss averaging 50 grains per candle per hour, whilst of light is very great. The quality of the wick, with argand burners with a duty of 38 candles, moreover, demands careful attention, and it | it is about 45 grains per candle per hour. It should be woven loosely from a coarse thread must be remembered, however, that although made of long staple cotton, and with as little these are reliable results for the best types of twist as possible. The wick before use must | lamp, the figures by no means represent the be well dried, and when in position in the lamp duty obtained by the ordinary consumer in must just fill the wick holder without being daily practice from all types of lamp. compressed, and should be of sufficient length The results obtained from a selection of the to reach to the bottom of the oil reservoir and lamps in use to-day are shown in the following leave an inch or two on the bottom.
Table :If the oil reservoir be not too deep, a wick of the above character will feed the oil to the
Grains of oil per
Total candle flame in a uniform manner, but as all the oil Type and candle power per
hour. passes through the wick, it is evident that any
American. Russian. American, Russian. solid impurities in the oil will be filtered out and choke the capillaries upon which the Circular wickaction of the wick depends, so that after a Veritas (60 line), 64'5
1125 time the choked wick must be thrown away and „ (30 line) 42°5
, a new one inserted, this being done when an
(20 line); 4375 5885
Ariel (12 line), inch or two of wick has been burnt away.
70'9 During the first few moments after lighting
Reading (14 the lamp the oil burns with a heavy smoky line)
854 fiame, on account of its being unable to get
Kosmos( 10 line) 63'9 97'2
Wizard (15 line) the necessary oxygen for its complete com
Flat wick, single bustion ; and soot, together with other injurious
Wanzer (no and malodorous products of incomplete com
48.3 bustion, escape into the air. To remedy this Solid slip gauzel an artificial current of air has to be created, and cone .... which shall supply the requisite amount of
Old slip, fixed
gauze ......... oxygen to complete the combustion, at the
Flat wick, dusame time giving rigidity to the flame, and by plex ensuring the combustion taking place in a Feeder wick .. i 56*2 1 557 20 L 22 shorter space of time and so increasing the Ordinary ...... | 512 L 466 20 / 22 calorific intensity, raising the carbon particles
- --- ----to a high degree of incandescence. This can
American oil--Sp. Gr. 0°7904 ; flash point, 110°F. be done in two ways, first by the aid of a
Russian oil-Sp. Gr. 0'823; flash point, 83°F. chimney by means of which the heated pro It will be noticed from this that with the flat ducts of combustion draw in the air at the flame lamps of the type first introduced the base of the flame, and secondly, by creating American and Russian oil give practically the a draught from a small clockwork fan in the same result, whilst with the circular wick base of the lamp. The direct impact of this lamps the American oil appears to have a current of air, however, would cause the flame great advantage over the Russian. After proto be very unsteady, so that its uprush is longed burning, however, this difference is checked by placing in its path perforated considerably lessened, and the same sort of screens of metal and similar contrivances, by results are to be found in the consumption of which an even supply of air is ensured which American and Russian oil in heating stoves. is deflected where required on to the flame by Very little attention has been given to the suitable metal discs and cones.
amount of heat emitted by our illuminants, The economic advantages claimed for the | whereas it places a distinct limit upon the size oil lamp are, of course, based upon the and illuminating power of oil lamps, for