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mentary obligations. But with reduction in openings at the bottom of the burner, was the standard of illumination the London so, adjusted as to give just the necessary argand, which is the standard burner for the amount of air for this quality. As any fal) consumption of 16 candle power gas, must, in in candle power means a reduction in the order to develop the proper illumination from quantity of air necessary for the development the lower value of gas, be used under the con- | of the maximum amount of light, a fall in ditions for which it was constructed, as other candle power to 15.5 candles causes an overwise a grave injustice is done to the gas, and aeration, and so accentuates the loss of illufriction is sure to arise.
minating value. This was recognised by the The following Table gives a good idea of Gas Referees, who, in introducing the Table the general run of values :
Photometer, altered the rate at which the gas
was burnt at the standard burner from 5 cubic RELATION OF ILLUMINATING VALUE AND
feet per hour to such a rate as will give a CALORIFIC VALUE.
light of 16 candles. The recorded illuminating
value is.then calculated from the rate of comIlluminating
Calorific Value.' . Value obtained
bustior:, so that if a gas of less than 16 candle by burning to a 16 candle flame Calories per cubic
value were burnt, the increased quantity of gas
B ..U.'s and correcting
consumed should balance the excess of air to 5 cubic feet consumption.
supplied to the burner. Gross. | Nett. Gross.' | Nett.
. I have made many experiments to determine 11.8
the influence of the various ways in which the 129:6 11507 518.4 1 462:8 12'o 129: 1 11007 5164
standard London argand could be used in 120 136.8 123.2
testing illuminating value. For all practical 134'2 12004 536.8
purposes these are four in number. 12.8 1356 122.8 5424.
(1). To burn the gas as in the old methods 140 136.1 121.8 544-4
487.2 of photometry at a fixed rate of 5 cubic feet per 14:6 150*9 135-3 603-6
hour. 149.9 .1346 599-6 538.4 (2). To supply gas to the burner until the 1544 138.9 617.6 5756 flame has a value of 16 candles, and then to 158.0 1420 632.0 568.0 take the rate of flow necessary to produce this
158.0 142 6 6320 570-4 light, and calculate back what the illuminating 160 159-9 143.8
value of 5 cubic feet would be. 16:1 158-3 142'1 633-2 568-4
(3). To burn the flame at a fixed height of 168 160:6 1447 6424
three inches, which was the size of flame given 16.8 1510
by a 16 candle coal gas burning at the rate of 17.0 163.6 147.0 654:4 588.0
5 cubic feet per hour, and arrive at the true 174 162.6 146°1 650-4 584-4
illuminating value of the gas from the con1516
672-8 | 616-4 176 172.0
sumption, as in the second method.
(4). To burn the gas at a 16 candle rate, but
to fix the burner in a position which would It is clearly recognised by every one who make the light on the photoped equal to 14 has had practical experience in the testing of candles, or to any other number of candles that burners, that the chief factor in developing the may be prescribed. true illuminating power of the gas is that the air I used to be strongly of opinion that the supply, whilst sufficient to prevent the escape right way to utilise the London argand was of any unburnt gas, or products, should not be always to burn the gas at such a rate as would fed to the flame in too large a proportion, as give a flame of three inches in height, as under otherwise combustion is completed before the those conditions you have the air supplied to separation and incandescence of some of the the burner exactly fulfilling its normal functions, carbon particles has had time to add its iota the height of the flame being an indication of of luminosity to the flame, and the illuminating the distance which the combustible gases have power is in consequence reduced.
to travel before they can obtain the volume of Now the London argand was devised by air needed for combustion. Many experiMr. William Sugg to develop the maximum ments made during the last twenty years have luminosity supposed to be possible from a gas all indicated that by using the burner in this way of between 16 and 17 candle power, and the the candle power of gases, varying from 25 to air supply to the flame, as regulated by the 12 candles, can be satisfactorily determined.
There is one trouble, however, in using this would have been given by a burner specially method in practice, and that is that it is very constructed for its combustion. difficult to get an exact determination of the The wide divergence in the illuminating height of the flame. But I have found by a long value ascribed to the flame of gaseous mixtures and very carefully carried out series of experi. of varying quality is shown in the following ments that between 17 and 12 candles the Tableresults given by burning the gas to give a flame equal to 16 candles are in such close
Illuminating Power 16-Candle Flame Volume of Gas reagreement with those given by burning it with
5 c. ft. rate
corrected to quired to yield Corrected.
c. ft. rate. 16-Candle Flame. a three-inch flame that for experimental purposes they are identical, and in as much as Candles.
Candles. Cubic Feet. burning it at the 16 candle rate enables one to
7.03 use the Table Photometer, as constructed for
123 16 candle gas testing, it is manifestly better to
6.66 adopt a system which requires no alteration in
6:45 methods prescribed by the Referees. This being so, we can now discuss the rela
12.8 tive merits or demerits of testing the gas by
5.92 consuming it at a five cubic feet rate and at
5071 the 16 candle rate with correction back for
12:3 differences in consumption. The fact that
15'1 these two methods give very divergent results
5-23 directly the illuminating power falls to 158 is
5*23 well known, and I think the following experi
15-2 ments show the reason of this divergence.
16 0 Taking analyses of a 16 and 14 candle gas 156
4.97 made during these experiments the figures 15.6
5'09 are :
5.03 16 candle gas. 14 candle gas.
16.8 Hydrogen ............ 52.62 ..
56.95 Methane ............ 36:10 .. 29.05
4.70 Ethylene 3.07 . 4:00
174 Benzene..... 1.00 0:50
4:54 Carbon monoxide...... 5.52 .. 7:50 Nitrogen ............ 1.69 .. 2.00
It is seen from this Table that for values Air needed for complete
between 17 and 15.9 candles it is immaterial combustion of 5 c. ft.. 29:49 c. ft. 26.5 c. ft. as regards results whether the gas be tested
at the 5 cubic feet rate, at a 16 candle flame, and as the air ways of the London argand are
or a 3-inch flame, the value recorded being constructed on the basis that 5 cubic feet of
the same in each case, but directly the illu16 candle gas require for their combustion 30
: for their combustion 30 minating value falls below the lower limit, the cubic feet of air, it is manifest that with a
5 cubic feet rate of consumption at once begins 14 candle gas of such composition burnt at the
to record an ever increasing falling off in rate of 5 cubic feet per hour, 13 per cent. more
value as compared with that shown by the 16 air than is needed will be supplied to the flame.
candle flame standard, this being due to imThe result is at once apparent when the
proper regulation of the air supply to the gas is tested for illuminating value at the
burner, when the lower qualities of gas come 5 cubic feet rate
to be burnt at a 5 cubic feet rate. Gas tested at 16 candle rate ........ 14.0
The only objection to burning the gas at a Gas tested at 5 cubic feet rate ...... 11:5
16 candle rate and fixing the burner so much a difference of about 18 per cent.
further from the photoped as to throw a light In this case the rate of flow had to be in- | on it of 14 candles is that it seems unnecessary creased from 5 cubic feet to 5.7 cubic feet to when the one correction will do all that is obtain the 16 candle power flame, an increase required. in gas of 14 per cent., which, by utilising the The one point which is essential in using excess of air to the best advantage, brings the i the London argand is that it should be used illuminating value up to the standard which under the conditions for which it was made, and
that is with a 16 candle power flame or a flame It was in view of this that when the 1868 3 inches in height.
Act was passed, and the Gas Referees were The duty of prescribing what shall be the created, and their powers defined, their clear standard burner rests with the Gas Referees, and duty with regard to the burner to be used for they being gentlemen ofthe highest scientific | testing was laid down in Paragraph 43. attainments and capability, the matter can be « The Gas Referees shall prescribe the burner for left entirely in (their) hands. But I should testing the illuminating power of the gas, and it shall imagine that, in view of the divided opinion be such as shall be the most suitable for obtaining from. which exists as to the fitness of the London the gas the greatest amount of light, and be practicable argand as a standard burner for qualities of 1 for use by the consumer.” gas below 16 candles, and the question that It is abundantly clear from this that the arises as to the way in which that gas should be London argand was made the testing burner burnt, they will in all probability prescribe because it was the burner which did fullest. another form of burner better adapted for the justice to the gas at that period, and was at quality of the gas that is to be tested.
the same time one which the gas consumer It is always of interest in a case of this could utilise if he thought fit. kind to note the causes that led to the adop The conditions under which gas is contion of the existing standard, and the inten- sumed in developing the illuminating power tions of Parliament in forming the statutes are now better understood, and the Gas Rewhich refer to it. 9. The holding of the scales of ferees would manifestly be quite within their justice betwixt the gas consumer and the gas powers, in the case of new Acts lowering the companies had its origin, like many other candle power of the gas below 16 candles, good works, with the Corporation of the City / in prescribing a different standard burner. of London, as it was their special Act (the City It is perfectly well known that the poorer of London Gas Act of 1868), that created Gas the quality of the gas the lower must be the Referees and a Chief Gas Examiner for the pressure at which it is supplied to the flame, metropolis, and in procuring that Act their and the thicker must be the layer of gas prewhole desire was to obtain absolute fairness sented to the air, the air at the same time supboth to the manufacturer and the public. plied to the flame being in the case of the argand
In the various (discussions taking place in burner reduced in quantity so as not to overthe committees of the Corporation on the sub burn the hydrocarbons. The form of argand ject of gas supply prior to the passing of this burner made by Mr. Sugg, for 14 candle gas, Act is to be found the history of the introduc- | is one which undoubtedly fulfils these requiretion of the London argand as the standard | ments. It is a 15 hole argand, in which trapeburner. It was in December, 1864, that my | zoidal instead of circular holes are employed predecessor. Dr. Letheby, made a report on for the admission of the gas, and in which the the gas supply in the City of London to the pressure is reduced from about three-tenths, as special committee appointed to consider the used with the London argand, to a little over question, and from that report I take the one-tenth, whilst the air supplied to the centre following paragraph :
of the flame is reduced to the required amount
by the introduction of a rod which contracts “ Since the month of February of this year, the the area of the central passage. gas of all the companies has been tested with a burner I have made a long series of experiments which raises the illuminating power about 12 per with various qualities of gas with the 14 cent. over that of the old burner. The construction candle argand and the London argand, and of the burner is strictly in accordance with the pro- find that when the London argand, supplied visions of the Act of Parliament, and your officer bas
with gas at a rate to yield a 16 candle flame, adopted it, after much consideration, because he bas
shows on correction for flow of gas that the felt that, although the change from the old burner to the new is seemingly against the interest of the
illuminating value is between 13.5 and public, yet, if any question were to arise, in a court of
14'5, the 14 candle argand gives the same law, concerning the desective power of the gas, it
results with gas consumed at the 5 cubic feet would, undoubtedly, be said by the companies that
rate : but directly the gas becomes poorer than justice had not been done to them in the manner of | 135, the 14 candle argand, at the 5 cubic testing; for, as no burner can produce lighi, but feet rate, begins to show the same deterioration merely educe it, they are entitled to all the light that of illuminating value that the London argand can be evoked from the gas by any burner which used at the 5 cubic feet rate, does below 15:5. fulfils the requirements of the Act of Parliament.” If the supply of a low grade gas of the
character demanded by the needs of the future seurs, some coming from our own Indian museums, is to bear its proper economical value to the some from the unrivalled collection of the South consumer, it is clear that in defining the quality |
Kensington Museum. Many of these objects are of the gas, a new burner of this description
beautiful in themselves, but we hope the Indian must be adopted for each quality of gas if
workmen here, and also the patrons who employ the 5 cubic feet rate is to be retained; and if
them, will study them, not merely as objects of anti
| quarian or artistic interest, but as supplying them it is desired to keep the London argand as a
with fresh, or rather resuscitated, ideas which may be monument of the past, it must be used in
useful as inspiring their own work in the future. such a way as to do the fullest justice that it
This may be laid down as a truism, that Indian art can to the gas. But I also think that the time I can never be revived by borrowing foreign ideas, but has now arrived when in devising the Parlia- ! only by fidelity to its own. mentary requirements, a standard of calorific. “I may be asked what is the object of this value should also be introduced.
exhibition, what good I expect to result from it? I will answer in a very few words. So far as the de. cline of Indian arts represents the ascendency of
commercialism, the superiority of steam power to Miscellaneous.
hand power, the triumph of the test of utility over that of taste, then I have not much hope. We are witnessing in India only one aspect of a process
which is going on throughout the world, that long LORD CURZON OV INDIAN ART.
ago extinguished the old manual industries of England, The following report of the Viceroy's speech on and is rapidly extinguishing those of China and Japan. opening the Exhibition of Art at Delbi on Tuesday Nothing can stop it. The power-loom will drive out last, December 30, is taken from The Times :
the hand-loom, and the factory will get the better of The V Piceroy this morning opened the Exhibition the workshop, just as surely as the steam-car is superof Indian Art in the presence of a brilliant gathering ! seding the horsed carriage, and the hand-pulled of native Princes and a large assemblage of the punka is being replaced by the electric fan. All general public. Lord Curzon, who was accompanied that is inevitable, and in an age which wants things by the Duke and Duchess of Connaught and the Grand cheap and does not mind their being ugly, which Duke of Hesse, delivered an address, in which he said : cares a good deal for comfort and not much for
" Since I bave been in India I have made a beauty, which is never happy unless when asserting careful study of the arts, industries, and handicrafts its own models and traditions, and running about in of the country, and have lamented their progressive quest of something foreign or strange, we may be deterioration and decline. When it was settled to certain that a great many old arts and handicrafts hold the present gathering at Delhi, it struck me are doomed. There is another symptom that, to that here was the long-sought chance to do some my mind, is even more ominous. I am one of thing to resuscitate the threatened handicrafts, to those, as I said, who believe that no natianal art show the world what India was capable of, and pos. is capable of continued existence unless it satisfies sibly to arrest the process of decay. I appointed Dr. the ideals and expresses the wants of the nation Watt, who is now on my right hand, and he, with that produced it. No art can be kept alive by globe Mr. Percy Brown, his assistant, travelled thousands trotters or curio hunters alone. If it has got to that of miles seeing artisans and selecting specimens. | point it becomes a mere mechanical reproduction of a Three conditions were rigidly laid down-first, that certain fashionable pattern, and wben the fashion the exhibition should be purely one of arts ; second, changes and it ceases to be popular it dies. that it should contain nothing European, but only “If Indian art, therefore, is to continue to flourish work showing the ideas, the traditions, and the 1 or is to be revived, that can only be if the Indian beliefs of the people of India; third, that it should chiefs and aristocracy and people of culture and high contain only the best--namely, everything rare and degree undertake to patronise it. So long as they beautiful in Indian art. My object has been to prefer to fill their palaces with faming Brussels encourage and revive good work, not to satisfy the carpets, Tottenham-court-road furniture, cheap Italian wants of a thinly-lined purse. This is not a bazaar, mosaics, French oleographs, Austrian lustres, German but an exhibition ; but we have added something tissues, and cheap brocades, I fear there is not much much more important. Being conscious that taste hope. I speak in no terms of reproach, because I was declining and that many of the modern models think in England we are just as bad in the pursuit of were debased and bad, we have endeavoured to set up | anything that takes our fancy in foreign lands; but I alongside the products of the present standards and do say that if Indian arts and handicrafts are to be samples of the past. This is the meaning of the loan kept alive, it can never be by outside patronage alone. collection, which has a special ball, where you will It can only be because they find a market within the see many beautiful specimens of old Indian art-warecountry and express the ideas and culture of the lent by the generosity of Indian chiess and connois. people. I should like to see a movement spring
op among the Indian chiefs and nobility for the December, had been a member of the Society of expurgation, or, at any rate, the purification, of Arts since 1856, at which time he was an Inspector of modern tastes, for a reversion to the old-fashioned Schools. Mr. Temple was one of the original but exquisite styles and patterns of their own country. examiners appointed by the Council of the Society in Some day, I have no doubt, it will come, but it may 1856, his subject being English History. He was then be too late. If these are the omens, what then joint examiner with Professor Brewer, of King's is the aim of the exhibition and what purpose do I College, London. In 1859, Dr. Temple, then Head think it will serve? I can answer in a word. The Master of Rugby, was examiner in Latin and Roman exhibition is intended as an object lesson. It is History, and he so continued until 1869, when he meant to show what India can still imagine and became Bishop of Exeter, and was succeeded by the create. It is meant to show that the artistic sense is Rev. Dr. Montagu Butler, Head Master of Harrow not dead among its workmen, but that all they want now the Master of Trinity). The particulars of is a little stimulus and encouragement. It is meant | Archbishop Temple's distinguished career, and the to show that for the beautification of an Indian house expression of the wide-spread regret at his death or tbe furniture of an Indian home there is no need have been so fully recorded in the daily press that it to rush to European shops in Calcutta or Bombay, is not necessary to repeat here the incidents of his but that in almost every Indian State or province, in life. most Indian towns and many Indian villages, there still survives art, t'iere still exist artificers who can satisfy the artistic as well as the utilitarian tastes of
MEETINGS OF THE SOCIETY. their countrymen, and who are competent to keep
ORDINARY MEETINGS. alive this precious inheritance which we have derived
Wednesday evenings, at Eight o'clock :from the past. With this object Dr. Watt and I have laboured in creating this exhibition, and in now
JANUARY 14.--" Industrial Trusts." By PROF.
W. SMART, LL.D. Sir ROBERT GIFFEN, K.C.B., declaring it open it only remains for me to express
LL.D., F.R.S., will preside. the earnest hope that it may in some measure fulfil
JANUARY 21.-"The Metric System.” By A. tbe strictly patriotic purpose for which it has been
JANUARY 28.—“The Cost of Municipal Trading."
By Dixon H. DAVIES. The LORD CHIEF JUSTICE, NEW COAL FIELDS IN BELGIUM. G.C.M.G., will preside. The discovery of a new soft coal basin in the
FEBRUARY 4.-" Methods of Mosaic Construcprovince of Luxemburg, north of the City of Liège,
tion.” By W. L. H. HAMILTON. has recently been noted, and extensive soundings
FEBRUARY 11.-" The Port of London.” By Dr. have been made over a considerable area. The
B. W. GINSBURG. deposit underlies many square miles of the northern
FEBRUARY 18.-" Three-Colour Printing.” By part of Belgium and the southern part of Holland.
HARVEY DALZIEL. One of the veins, at a depth of from 1,000 to 1,500 Dates to be hereafter announced :feet below the surface, is from 15 to 17 feet thick, and "Existing Laws, By-laws, and Regulations reof a very fine quality of coal, according to Consul lating to Protection from Fire, with Criticisms and Winslow of Liège. It is estimated that this new Suggestions.” By T. BRICE Phillips. (Fotherfield contains more than 500,000,000 tons of a good gill Prize Essay.) description of coal, and extensive preparations are
“Oil Lighting by Incandescence.” By ARTHUR being niade to open up the mines. The Government
Kitson. proposes to enlarge the canals in that part of
“ The Use of Electrical Energy in Workshops and Belgium, dig new ones, and open new lines of
Factories." By ALFRED C. EBORALL, M.I.E.E. railway. The working of these mines will be
“ Modern Bee-Keeping." By WALTER FRANCIS more difficult and expensive than in the case of
REID, F.C.S. other Belgian mines, because of their depth and
“ Tonkin, Yunnan and Burma.” By Fred. W. the presence of more water, but it is thought
CAREY, late H.B.M.'s Acting Consul at Szemao, that this will be more than counter-balanced by
China. the thickness of the veins. The development of
“ Education in Holland.” By J. C. MEDD. this field offers an opening for the introduction of up-to-date coal machinery.
Thursday Afternoons, at 4.30 o'clock :Obituary:
JANUARY 22.—“ Indian Domestic Life." By
John DAVID REES, C.I.E. ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY.-Dr. Frederick FEBRUARY 26. -" Gleanings from the Indian Temple, Archbishop of Canterbury, whose death Census.” By JERVOISE ATHELSTANE BAINES, at Lambeth Palace occurred on Tuesday, 22nd C.S.I.