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ly, we think, allowed enough for the influ- jure the nation more than it would benefit ences which will restrain this inordinate the working man. waste of new land. He indicates, indeed, Still, a term even of fifty years is little the new regions into which emigration may in the lifetiine of a nation, and Mr. Pearson be diverted, but he passes over without has done a great service in calling attention mention several economic principles which to the fact that free emigration for ever is will act as an ever increasing attraction to- not a wise hypothesis on which to found any wards, instead of from, the centres of popu- social system; that one day, for example, lation. One of these, perhaps the strongest we shall be face to face with a walled-in İreof all, is the increase of local demand for land, and shall have to deal with the probagricultural produce, an increase which lem of pauperism unaided by its most efficient tends to make the lands round great cities palliative. One day, a day which most of mines of wealth, and to compel a minute us will live to see, the vast movement of and scientific cultivation of those lands such Europe towards America, a movement beas can be accomplished only by a very thick fore which every other fades into nothing, population. When an acre near Philadel- must cease, and Europe may have to face phia yields-a £100 a year, the desire to pos- the grand problem of a population incessess acres near Philadelphia will be stronger santly increasing its numbers without inthan the desire for the freer and rougher life creasing the area of its soil. We do not of the Western farmer. Wages will be paid believe, as the Malthusians do, that the there which will enrich the labourer more problem is a dangerous one, – though we quickly than his own independent toil, and at have had one sickening example that it is least half mankind would rather have high possible for a modern race to produce too wages than face the risks involved in indepen- little food to keep itself alive, for we have dence. Another and strong palliative will be lost confidence neither in the protection of the improvement of cultivation. At present, God nor the energy of man; but of all as Mr. Pearson admits, it pays a man to speculative propositions in politics, this is "work out” his land and buy another block, or one of the nearest and most serious and the to cultivate very badly a large area of soil ; least considered. The American people but the instant land has a real value, or acts as if its soil were elastic; we act as if is even going to have a real value, the spec- emigration would for ever carry off the enulator will step in, and the farmer will find ergetic and the discontented. We may as that nomad farming has altogether ceased practical politicians be right, for it is useto pay. He must make his land yield more, less to arrange a national policy upon the as we do, by manure and care. The effect contingencies of even thirty years; but it is of this change will be enormous in restrict- useful now and then to be reminded of those ing the demand for more distant lands; and contingencies, to be called occasionally to so will the sure development of manufac- consider questions larger and more complitures in a country where the coal-beds cover cated than those to which partizans are dekingdoms, extend, as Mr. Pearson says, voting all their thoughts. The fate of the over an area six-fold that of the European Irish Church is a great subject; but what if beds. With all these powerful causes at Mr. Pearson is right, and Ireland within ten work, with Canada still unoccupied and the years may be walled in ? Southern States unpeopled, with Mexico to conquer and the West to fill with manufac

From The Spectator. tures, we can hardly accept Mr. Pearson's conjecture as to the time when emigration

ANIMAL REVERENCE. to the United States will cease to be a habit. The Victoria Institute, which is a London It is certain, however, that he is in accord theological debating society, not a little with many of the inost eminent thinkers of frequented by the clergy, has been attemptthe Union, and with a popular instinct which ing to define the distinction between the in several States, notably in Massachusetts, lower animals and man, without, as far as has manifested itself once or twice already we can see, being very successful. with extreme violence, and which may be course, the old attempt to distinguish before long create a party firmly opposed to tween instinct and reason was tried, and immigration. Unless we misread American defeated by the ingenious arguments of politics, such a party already exists in the more than one gentleman.. The orthodox Eastern States, is kept down mainly by the view of instinct is that it is a wholly irranecessity of conciliating the West, and com- tional sort of impulse, which accomplishes pels the Protectionist leaders every now its great results quite blindly under the and then to argue most seriously and in guidance of a higher power, and in defence public that a check to imınigration would in- 1 of this view the old story of a tame beaver

Of

building a dam in a room with tables and man civilization. The setter who bribed brushes, and so forth, was related. To this the sheep-dog by the voluntary sacrifice argument no one seems to have given the of some of his dinner bones, to assist in answer that the most intellectual man is catching the game that the setter indicated, often found to do equally useless and inap- must have divined something of the power plicable things, from inherited habit, without of co-operation, and division of labour, its being inferred that the inherited habit and deliberately applied capital (the “ saved has never had any sort of intellectual origin. wages of labour ") to this very remuneraWhen a posthumous child imitates, as it tive investment in the sheep-dog's labour. often does, the mannerisms of a parent it Whatever be the definition of instinct, bas never seen, we do not argue that those and the certainty that many of the most apmannerisms cannot have had, in that parent, parently sagacious animals do things quite a rational origin. Nor do we argue the over the head of not only their rational same thing in the case of any habit pro- powers, but ours, it seems to us certain that longed after its use bas disappeared. When very many of the lower animals do adapt an orator in the decline of life cannot re- means consciously to ends, though not after frain from addressing eloquent speeches to a very elaborate fashion, and are, therefore, bis turnips, or an architect from making rationally as well as instinctively, constructmodels of buildings that can never be ex- ive. The attempt to divide man sharply ecuted, and are not even intended for other from the lower animals by his possession of persons to study, or a scholar in prison an intelligence different in kind from theirs turns nursery rhymes into Greek or Latin seems to us certainly a failure. No one hexameters, without the slightest intention can pretend for an instant that the famous of either amusing or teaching any one but Fire Brigade dog which used to give the himself, an external intelligence watching alarm of fire, to run up the ladder into a these men without seeing into their minds, burning house, to bark so as to guide his might very plausibly say that they were doing master through the thickest of the smoke just what the tame beaver does when he to the place of egress, to give notice when builds his dam of tables and brushes in a there were living people shut up in a state dry room, — doing from “blind instinct” of suffocation, whom the firemen would what he had no rational pretence for doing; have missed, by barking violently at the and such an observer might fairly enough door of their rooms, and, in short, to coadd that this demonstrates the fact that the operate most effectually, not only in the original speeches, architectural efforts, and general, but the special measures for bringLatin and Greek verses, were composed by ing individual relief in the case of dangerinstinct, without any mastery of the ration- ous fires, — no one, we say, can pretend al laws involved. And such an inference for an instant that this dog did not bring as would, as we know, be certainly mistaken. clear a reason to work (in aid of the acute We do not see that the tame beaver really instinctive smell, for instance, which he posproves anything except that in his case he sessed), as the firemen themselves. Unwas building from hereditary habit, display- questionably, the attempt to make the dising an inherited trick of manner, as we tinction between instinct and intelligence might say ; but how far the origin of that the main distinction between the lower hereditary habit, of that inherited trick of animals and man is a mistake. manner, might have been rational or other- The gentlemen of the Victoria Institute wise, - i.e., a conscious adaptation of appeared more or less sensible of this diffimeans to ends, or a mere blind instrumen- culty, and some of them proposed, in the tality, the story does not in any degree tend place of this distinction, to make the charto show. On the other hand, the cases ad-acteristic distinction between the lower aniduced of animals adapting themselves to mal and man the want in the former, and new emergencies, the capacity to deal with the presence in the latter, of a faculty of which could not possibly have been inher- reverence. Here, we imagine, the theoloited, do seem to show a real element of gians of the Institute got nearer to a charreason in the matter. The bees which acteristic distinction. But even here they found gut an uninhabited hive and gave in- failed to express it in the most characteristic formation to the Queen Bee, who never form. The great leading fact of domestileaves the hive but twice in her life, in cation is the unquestionable reverence of carly infancy, and on occasion of her head- the higher domesticated animals for the ing a swarm, — which caused her to lead human beings whom they accept as their them into possession of that hive, must masters. The dog at Edinburgh which has have exercised many of the faculties sup- for eight years slept on the grave of its posed to be peculiar to the pioneers of bu-I master, and has refused to sleep anywhere

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else, can scarcely be denied a kind of fidel- | him, indeed, of his still greater power to ity to that master's memory which deserves determine generally the whole destiny of to be termed reverence, The instinct- his own life. Hence the reverence of the ive” school would, we suppose, make this lower animal for man is like the reverence of at first a mere matter of physical instinct, the savage for the civilized man when first leading the dog to the place where it found he beholds his great resource in the arts of inost trace of its inaster's body, and after war and peace not so much moral reverwards a result of habit. But as a matter ence, as that sense of physical inferiority of fact, no creatures are less victims of and dependence which, when met with genhabit than dogs. They go from place to erous treatment, often results in the deepplace with their masters with nothing but est affection. As far as we know, the delight in the change, and the difficulty lower animals, though they show plenty of would have been, had the master been living, trace of reverence in this vaguer sense, to get the dog to sleep for eight years in show none of that reverence which we yield any one place unless his master bad slept to those who are better than ourselves simthere too. We can only properly account ply because they are better. Lord Bacon for this extraordinary case of a truly spirit- long ago remarked that dogs have a religion, ual attachment to the memory of a master, and that their gods are their masters. But by supposing that the dog can really recall, then this is the sort of religious reverence or, rather, has never forgotten its own in- paid by a savage to a man with a gun, or a tense love, and respect, and regret for him, voltaic battery, or an electric telegraph, or and feels the grave more closely associated anything he cannot understand, when comwith these feelings of love, and respect, and bined with the feeling of gratitude and love regret than any other place within its reach. which the latter's kindness may inspire. That dogs really reverence their masters, But the dog shows no sign of self-reproach, and do so even in the absence of their bod- of looking for a higher moral ideal than itily presence, and after very long absence, self, of probing the purity of its own moseems to us absolutely certain. And the tives, and shrinking before the spirit which same thing is more or less true of other teaches the higher grades of nobility it has domesticated animals, especially the horse never reached. In short, moral reverence and the elephant. Nay, it seems certain is, no doubt, beyond the reach of the lower that all the higher gregarious animals rever- animals, simply because this rests upon a ence their own leaders, – the herds of ele-conscious comparison of the conticting phants especially showing implicit conti- principles by which life can be regulated, a dence in the directions of their leaders. discovery that some of these are higher Any man with several dogs will notice that than others, and a further discovery that a sort of hero-worship grows up amongst there are beings whose lives show far more them, the small dogs usually fixing their of the higher and less of the lower than our admiration on the larger dogs, and bestow- own. We should say that this is beyond ing a good deal of the most disinterested the range of the highest animal life, because respect and reverence upon them. A ter- a conscious reflection on the motives and rier of our acquaintance always rushes to springs of action has never yet been reached meet a large retriever (of her own sex) at all by any mere animal, - not even by when they first meet in the morning, with the lowest tribes of the human species itthe deepest signs of devotion. If the re- self. Here, again, the distinction, though triever is tied up, the terrier will never be complete for the purpose of excluding the easy till she has obtained the release of her lower animals, doubtless does more, large friend, and caresses the latter on her cludes also the lowest tribes of human release with an effusion that makes the re- beings themselves. The kind of reverence triever quite bashful and ashamed. Here which we have claimed even for domestiis a genuine case of reverence as between cated animals passes no doubt very gradudog and dog. The same quality in a far ally and by almost insensible shades into higher degree holds between dog and man. that phase of moral comparison and reflec

But then animal reverence is always tion which is the source of all true worshin. founded, we believe, on the admiration felt But the knowledge of the comparative worth for external qualities, which the lower ani- of different motives, and the sense of shame mals can more or less appreciate, like size, which accompanies the complete predomispeed, courage, resource, and protecting nance of the lowest motives, though peculiar power. The dog defends the man; but to man, is not common, we imagine, to all none the less be feels in a larger sense de- the beings who are capable of becoming pendent on the man, and is aware of the men in this higher sense. We suspe«t it is man's power to control, punish, or reward I true that many domestic animals, tirough

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they have less of moral capacity in them case the continuous existence of the town than the lowest human animals, — the bush- was not interrupted, and in either case an men, for example, have more of actual ancient Gaulish name, either of the town reverence, more of the humaner qualities itself or of the tribe, remains to this day. of disinterested love and devotion, in short, Next, under the Roman domination a new more civilization, though less capability of element comes in, destined to be as lasting civilization. The highest range reached in as the other. Christianity is preached at the world of the lower animal life overlaps an early time, converts are found, persecuthe lowest reached by man, the difference tion follows, some saintly and martyred being, however, that the former is incapable Bishop connects his name for ever with the of cultivation beyond a certain point, owing city. As Christianity becomes the recogto the absence of any adequate ineans of ac- nised faith of the Empire, the local Church cumulating the results of past experience, emerges from its obscurity and obtains a wbile the latter is capable of cultivation far position which it was never destined to beyond the point at which the former stops. lose. Except when it has been tampered Still, as a matter of actual attainment, as dis- with by recent changes, the episcopal suctinguished from the capacity for future de- cession in a French city has gone on uninvelopment, no doubt the highest class of terruptedly since the third or fourth century; animals surpass the lowest tribes which de- the present cathedral stands on the site of serve the name of man.

a church of those primitive times; the extent of the diocese marks the extent of the Roman civil division of which the city was

the head. Then came the Teutonic inroads, From The Saturday Review.

those of the Franks in the north, those of

the Goths and Burgundians in the south. ENGLISH AND FRENCH CITIES.

The connexion with the seat of Empire, We know not how far any one's national with Rome Old or New, first became nomivanity is at all troubled by the thought, nal and then was wiped out altogether, till which must present itself to any one who the day when the Roman diadem was set goes through any considerable part of Eng- on the brow of a Frankish King. But the land and France with his eyes open, that Gaulish hill-fortress, the Roman city, lived there is hardly any city in England which through the storm. It remained a seat of can trace the same unbroken bistorical ex- habitation and of dominion; it retained its istence which can be traced by nearly every name, its position as the head of a district, French town that can boast of enough of in the south it even retained large traces early importance to have been the seat of ofits Roman municipal organization. Above an ancient Bishopric. The history of a all, it retained its character as a seat of great number of French towns follows a spiritual rule, the seat of a chief church and single type. The site has been a place of its chief pastor. The cities of Gaul have human habitation, and the centre of a more lived on uninterruptedly from the days of or less organized society, as far back as Sextius and Cæsar till now. The episcopal history or trustworthy tradition can take us. churches of Gaul lived on uninterruptedly It was a post, most usually a fortress over- from the days of primitive Christendom looking a river, which formed the strong to the great Revolution. And with most hold, the capital, if we may so call it, of a of them the great Revolution itself was only Gaulish tribe. From those times till now a passing eclipse. The chief towns of it has never ceased to be, in one form or France, in short, are places which have been another, a seat of habitation and of domin- abodes of man, seats of man's industry and ion. The Gaulish bill-fort became the Ro- government such as industry and governman town. It was fenced about with Ro- ment, have been at various times, for man walls, and it received a Roinan mu- eighteen hundred or two thousand years, and nicipal constitution. In the South it re- for as many more prehistoric centuries as any tained, and still retains, its original ante- one chooses to add. Dynasties, governments, Roman name.

Burdigala and Tolosa keep nations, languages, all have changed; but to this day, with but slight changes, the to this day the chief fort of each tribe overnames which they have borne from the be- run by Cæsar commonly remains the catheginning of things. In the North the name dral city of a diocese, and is often also the of the town was most commonly forgotten; capital of an ancient province or a modern it was supplanted by the name of the tribe. department. Lutetia Parisiorum, the town of the tribe Now this is the history, not of one or of the Parisii, retains, as Paris, not its own two cities only, but of a whole class. When name but that of its inhabitants. In either any place of any importance deviates from

else, can scarcely be denied a kind of fidel- hiin, indeed, of his still greater power to ity to that master's memory which deserves determine generally the whole destiny of to be termed reverence. The “instinct- his own life. Hence the reverence of the ive" school would, we suppose, make this lower animal for man is like the reverence of at first a mere matter of physical instinct, the savage for the civilized man when first leading the dog to the place where it found he beholds his great resource in the arts of inost trace of its inaster's body, and after-war and peace not so much moral reverwards a result of habit. But as a matter ence, as that sense of physical inferiority of fact, no creatures are less victims of and dependence which, when met with genbabit than dogs. They go from place to erous treatment, often results in the deepplace with their masters with nothing but est affection. As far as we know, the delight in the change, and the difficulty lower animals, though they show plenty of would have been, had the master been living, trace of reverence in this vaguer sense, to get the dog to sleep. for eight years in show none of that reverence which we yield any one place unless his master bad slept to those who are better than ourselves simthere too. We can only properly account ply because they are better. Lord Bacon for this extraordinary case of a truly, spirit-| long ago remarked that dogs have a religion, ual attachment to the memory of a master, and that their gods are their masters. But by supposing that the dog can really recall, then this is the sort of religious reverence or, rather, has never forgotten its own in- paid by a savage to a man with a gun, or a tense love, and respect, and regret for him, voltaic battery, or an electric telegraph, or and feels the grave more closely associated anything he cannot understand, when comwith these feelings of love, and respect, and bined with the feeling of gratitude and love regret than any other place within its reach. which the latter's kindness may inspire. That dogs really reverence their masters, But the dog shows no sign of self-reproach, and do so even in the absence of their bod- of looking for a higber moral ideal than itily presence, and after very long absence, self, of probing the purity of its own moseems to us absolutely certain. And the tives, and shrinking before the spirit which same thing is more or less true of other teaches the higher grades of nobility it has domesticated animals, especially the horse never reached. In short, morul reverence and the elephant. Nay, it seems certain is, no doubt, beyond the reach of the lower that all the higher gregarious animals rever- animals, simply because this rests upon a ence their own leaders, – the herds of ele-conscious comparison of the condicting phants especially showing implicit conti- principles by which life can be regulated, a dence in the directions of their leaders. discovery that some of these are higher Any man with several dogs will notice that than others, and a further discorery that a sort of hero-worship grows up amongst there are beings whose lives show far more them, the small dogs usually fixing their of the higher and less of the lower than our admiration on the larger dogs, and bestow- own. We should say that this is beyond ing a good deal of the most disinterested the range of the highest animal life, because respect and reverence upon them. A ter- a conscious reflection on the motires and rier of our acquaintance always rushes to springs of action has never yet been reached meet a large retriever (of her own sex) at all by any mere animal, — not even by when they first meet in the morning, with the lowest tribes of the human species itthe deepest signs of devotion. If the re- self. Here, again, the distinction, though triever is tied up, the terrier will never be complete for the purpose of excluding the easy till she has obtained the release of her lower animals, doubtless does more, ex: large friend, and caresses the latter on her cludes also the lowest tribes of human release with an effusion that makes the re- beings themselves. The kind of reverence triever quite bashful and ashamed. Here which we have claimed even for domestiis a genuine case of reverence as between cated animals passes no doubt very gradudog and dog. The same quality in a far ally and by almost insensible shades into higher degree holds between dog and man. that phase of moral comparison and rellen

But then animal reverence is always tion which is the source of all true worshin, founded, we believe, on the admiration felt But the knowledge of the comparative crorth for external qualities, which the lower ani- of different motives, and the sense of lame mals can more or less appreciate, like size, which accompanies the complete precumispeed, courage, resource, and protecting nance of the lowest motives, though peculiar power. The dog defends the man; but to man, is not common, we imagine, to all none the less he feels in a larger sense de- the beings who are capable of becoming pendent on the man, and is aware of the men in this higher sense. We suspat it is man's power to control, punish, or reward I true that many domestic animals, thonyba

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