sick-room without sharing his fees. Never- to come. But even with the door thus actheless so it was; whether derived from cidentally left open before her, it was only long experience, or natural gift, or from through trials which would have batlled a both of these, woman has manifested a less persevering person that she was able special inclination and ability for the study to enter it. She had limited and uncerand practice of medicine. At various times tain pecuniary resources, though the rewithin the past two centuries there had ap- verse was generally supposed to be the peared women who gained eminence in - and yet, in order to obtain medical special departments of medical knowledge; instruction, she was compelled virtually to and when seen in the lecture-rooms of Ger- establish a college of which she was to be many, Italy, or France, through the mists the only pupil. That she was enabled to of intervening generations, they seemed not do this reflects great credit on her instrucformidable, but somewhat imposing figures, tors, Drs. Aldis and Fraser. Since obtaineven to the eye of medical conservatism. ing her diploma, she has been engaged in Even Mr. Hosea Biglow, though a defender establishing a Dispensary for Women and of slavery in America, had a strong sympa- Children, which we hear has a fair prospect thy with liberty in other lands.

of success. “I du believe in Freedum's cause,

Another step towards opening the medi

cal profession in England to women was the Ez fur away ez Paris is ; I love tu see her stick her claws

establishment in 1861 of the Female VedIn them infarnal Pharisees."

ical Society," of which the Marquis of

Townshend was President, and to which He concludes, however, that Liberty's “a Drs. Edmunds, Aldis, Murphy, and Dryskind o' thing that don't agree with niggers.” dale, have devoted their ability and energy: There are also many eyes which can recog- Immediately upon the opening of the instinise the heroes and heroines of the sixteenth tution established by this society; fourteen century, but cannot perceive those of the women presented themselves for instruction, nineteenth, though they meet them daily. and the number has steadily increased. Nothing can be more certain than that Hy- The institution has, however, no churter, patia and Olympia Morata are to-day strug- and its students can only work on in the gling against every discouragement and hope that their cause will prevail, and with prejudice to give their contribution to the the certainty that the knowledge they gain welfare of mankind, and that some who find cannot be taken away from them. It is the them romantic in the past sneer at them unanimous testimony of the medical gentle strong-ininded."

men connected with this institution that the In this country Miss Elizabeth Garrett ladies in it are studious, earnest, and enwas the first to obtain a diploma from one tirely capable of comprehending the subof our recognised institutions Apothe-jects comprised in the departinents of medcaries' Ilall. As we had no medical college icine to which they devote themselves, viz., for women, and the medical colleges for obstetrics, and the diseases of children. men did not favour the idea of being in- France and Germany have thus far given strumental in qualifying women to compete us only schools for midwives proper, who, with them in scholarship and practice, Iliss though acting independently as accoucheurs Garrett's privileges were of a very limited in all normal cases of continement, are not character, and she could only obtain in- allowed to write any prescription or to instruction in a very ardcous and unsatisfac- terfere surgically. They are really adjuncts tory way. Hospital advantages were ham- of the physicians, whogladly avail thempered with so many annoyances, that she selves of the services of the sage-femme sought the London Dispensary, Spitalfields, when the work is heavy and the pay light, as a dernier ressort for obtaining practical but set them aside when the hardship is instruction. She was particularly fortunate nearly passed and the happy consummation in securing for this end the aid of two phy- of a fee pear at hand. And yet the trailsicians connected with the establishment. ing at the Maternity Hospital' in Paris proAfter many unsuccessful efforts, she was at duces such excellent physicians as Mestiames last permitted to come before the examining Boivin and Lachapelle! Last year a French board of Apothecaries' Hall, and passed woman having passed the Baccalaureate'

, creditably. Her success in coming before requested permission to study medicine so the board was due to some technical infor- a whole in France. The faculty at Montmality in its constitution, which has been pellier refused. She then forwanied bei since“ doctored,” so that she is the only request to the Minister of the Interior i female licensed apothecary likely to be Paris. He acceded on condition that she made by that institution for some time I would only practise in Algeria, wbence sbe

now as


came! But this year he has ennobled him- New York city many of the large hospitals self by acting the part of a Minister of have since allowed women to attend the * Justice' as well as of the Interior.' By physicians on their rounds through them, virtue of his decision, and “ in spite of the For the last five years the Bellevue Hospital opinion expressed by the professors, the had been compelled to admit fenrale students American lady who last year applied for a who have matriculated in New York, bedegree has been empowered to pass her cause their charter does not refer to the sex first examination, which she achieved suc- of students. It does not seem so easy to cessfully; and as a natural consequence, a take a backward step there as in ApotheFrench lady has now entered her name caries' Hall, London. The women who inupon the books, and may even now be seen sisted upon having their rights in the Belledissecting with the other students at the vue Hospital were at first unhandsomely Ecole Practique." In 1865 about twelve treated by both professors and students; ladies applied for admission into a medical but annoyance from this source has now college for males at St. Petersburgh, and ceased. However, there are many priviwere refused. Last year two Russian ladies leges — such, for instance, as the reception were admitted into the medical university in advance of information as to the operafor men at Zurich, Switzerland, - an excel- tions for the day — which the women have lent institution, whose conversion to the found themselves unable to obtain in instifaith in the admissibility of women to the tutions which have long been arranged for profession has been a fruitful topic of dis- the use of men alone. There were some cussion in the old world and the new. women also who shrank from prosecuting

America is likely to furnish the largest all the studies incidental to a medical eduquota of medical women for some time to cation in the same room with young men.

They have there fully chartered And so they resolved to have hospitals and colleges for their instruction, one at least operating-rooms of their own. in each of the principal cities of the East- About twenty years ago, at Boston, ern States New York, Philadelphia, and Massachusetts, the first American Female Boston. Prior to their establishment, one Medical College was established. Like the or two of the medical colleges for men ad- English college, they began in a small way, mitted a limited number of women to their with but two professors, and a course of lecture-rooms. The first to do this, and instruction limited to the object of “ qualicall upon itself the ire of the whole medical fying women to become midwives, and treat profession, was the college located at Ge- the diseases of women and children." In neva, New York. Elizabeth Blackwell, an 1847, Mr. Samuel Gregory, of Boston, bad Englishwoman, was received there for in- lectured in Boston and its vicinity on the struction in 1847, after having applied in importance of educating women to practise vain to many other institutions. Various medicine; and at the close of one of his eminent physicians tried to persuade her lectures a petition was signed praying the that her idea was eccentric, utopian, and Legislature to license a college for that purimpracticable. The ladies of Geneva at pose. In November, 1818, twelve ladies first declared she must be crazy, and that met and formed a medical class. Drs. they never would employ a female physician. Cornell and Ralfs were engaged to give the After her graduation, in 1852, she had the lectures. About the same time a number utmost difficulty in finding in New York, of gentlemen formed a society to assist the where she had resolved to locate, a board movement. In 1850 an Act passed the iny-house willing to have her name and title Legislature of Massachusetts incorporating displayed. She was refused a position in the " Female Education Society,” for “the the department for women and children of purpose of providing for the education of a dispensary, althongh she presented high midwives, nurses, and female physicians," certiticates of qualitication. Her applica- empowering it to hold property and to grant tion to visit merely the female wards of a degrees. The society grew rapidly in nunho-pital was laid on the table as unworthy bers, and outgrew its former limitations of of notice. This was the attitude toward study, so that it has for many years had a women-physicians in America so late as full corps of professors teaching every 1852. Since then, twelve medical schools branch of medicine and surgery. A few established for men have admitted women years ago the Legislature granted it ten and granted them degrees. These were thousand dollars for the erection of a buildchietly in Cincinnati and Cleveland, large ing, and it has received about forty thoucities in the Western State of Ohio. In sand dollars from bequests and donations.

It has thus become self-supporting, and has Jedical Times and Gazette, August 29, 1868. I supported a dispensary for several years,

in which the ladies see practice daily under have not yet received such contributions to supervision of the female professors. the medical world as we desire from the in

The Philadelphian institution was estab- stitutions we have named. This may be to lished about two years later than that of a considerable extent due to outward oppoBoston, having received its charter in 1850. sition, and to internal divisions between Dr. Joseph Langshore was its projector. “schools” of medicine; but we cannot afThe opposition to this college has been ex- fect a doubt that it is in a yet larger meastremely bitter, the Pennsylvanian Medical ure due to the separation of women from Society having passed a resolution declaring the colleges and studies of men.

The pub their hostility to medical women, and their lic will naturally apprebend that this sepadetermination not to consult with thein un- ration implies some expurgation of the der any circumstances, or retain as mem- usual studies; and where life and death are bers those who should do so. Since this, involved, while appreciating the modesty however, the American Medical Association of the women, it will continue to employ has passed resolutions recognising “well- the men. The condition of medical knowleducated female physicians by the same edge is not so satisfactory that any of it can laws that govern its own members ;” and be spared; and even if it were possible to it is very doubtful if the State Society will build up a new set of schools, equal in arbe able to maintain its resolution in the face rangements for study to those already exof that of the National Association.* The isting, it must be a slow work, and it must Philadelphian college has educated many be a long time before such institutions or women, and, although not quite so flourish- their graduates can receive the same amount ing as some others, is steadily growing in of confidence as the old ones. the public confidence.

Nor can we regard the feeling which reAn energetic woman, Dr. Lozin, under- quires these separate medical colleges as took to promote a Female Medical College otherwise than mistaken. Truth knows no in New York, and in 1861 the Legislature sex. There may for some time be in the granted the charter for a Medical College, medical as in other professions, persons unHospital, and Dispensary for Women and worthy of them, who can annoy women in Children. This college has been much in their efforts to obtain the knowledge and jured by a struggle between Allopathy and training necessary to combat disease and Homeopathy for its control, and has not death; but among all whose opinion is of yet perhaps fulfilled the expectations of importance, the solemn importance of the its friends ; but its students have great ad- work will be enough to suppress all petty vantages in the New York hospitals, and conventionalities. What would have been its ultimate success is unquestionable. thought of one who had suggested any im

Drs. Elizabeth and Emily Blackwell are, propriety in the labours of Florence Nightinhowever, not satisfied with the standard of gale, or of the women who devoted themeducation in these colleges, and have pro- selves to the American hospitals during the cured a charter for another college, in which late civil war? But the physician, male or four years of preparation and actual resi- female, is similarly devoted to the work of dence in a hospital will be required. From saving and healing sufferers in the perpetthe three institutions we have mentioned ual conflict of man with disease and death; more than three hundred graduates have and they who in the presence of pain and issued, and nearly as many women practi-anxiety can obtrude such considerations as tioners perhaps have been graduated from those to which we have adverted, are not the colleges that admit both men and likely to be of a class whom women need

Of the colleges which do this the consider in adjusting their standards of edgreat majority are those representing the ucation or duty. various Reformed and Eclectic Schools of For similar reasons we must condemn the Medicine in America.

principle which has led the female colleges Among the graduates and instructors of to impose limitation upon their range of the regular medical schools for women, a study, and that of the practice of their few - - as the sisters Blackwell, Drs. Dens- graduates. With the utmost respect for more, Zakrewska, Lozin, Langshore, Scar- the able physicians connected with those inlett, Preston, Cooke, Sewall, Morton stitutions both bere and in America, and have gained some practice and more repu- while rejoicing in their merited degree of tation as instructors, even among the scep- success, we cannot believe that the want tical; and yet it must be admitted that we which has created those schools is to be sat* The American Institute of Homeopathy has de studies, however important, or by confin

isfied by narrowing women to one class of cided to admit well-educated medical women to its membership

ing their practice to patients of their own



sex, and to children. If a woman has gifts in this country since the recent action of which justly lead her to study medicine, Apothecaries IIall. The principle,” it there is no sex or age that should have the justly maintains, “which we conceive no exclusive benefit of those gifts. The pa- arguments either of benevolence or conventient has a right to the best treatment that ience should induce the leaders of the party can be obtained. We must more to abandon, is that of professional equality strongly condemn the grounds on which - a common standing-ground, be it high some of these institutions have sought to or low, for men and women.” We must, bring to their aid some of the lowest con- however, join issue with the practical methventional prejudices. Whatever may be od suggested in the same article, that wothe temporary advantages of disseminating men desiring to become physicians should the idea that there is indelicacy in the be content to go to the universities in employment of male physicians by women, America or to that of Zurich, where women its general acceptance would more than are admitted. The only advantage offered counterbalance any good that the female by this course, that of obtaining registration colleges can hope to achieve. Women in England, is not, in our judgment, of have peculiar need of every aid that sufficient importance to compensate for the science or intelligence can furnish, and inconvenience and expense which must in though the time may come when many fe- many cases attend such exile into foreign male physicians may be as able to serve lands, or the suspicions that would be them as men, it can never be expected that urged, however unjustly, as to the thoroughevery community will have its finest medi- ness of the studies and examinations in uncal skill represented by a woman. Is the known institutions. Registration is in itfemale sufferer, then, to be encouraged to self but a relic of that State interference think that modesty requires her to forego with the natural development of medical the help she requires ?' The suggestion is science, the evil effects of which have been not only intrinsically base, but it is unwar- fully exposed in this Review.* If because ranted by anything in the long history of of the non-registration of a diploma, the the relation of the physician to his female certificate or evidence of a physician may patient. It is, we believe, far more likely, be objected to in a court of justice, it may in an advanced state of social enlighten- be so much the worse for the State ; but if ment, to be proved that each sex is peculi- the diploma itself were signed by duly qualarly adapted to heal the other, than that itied and eminent examiners, the profeseach is to attend its own; but however sional competency of the person holding it that may be, no permanent interest such as could not be thereby lessened. Moreover, that which the female physicians have at it is not in the rear but in the van of the heart can be served by appeals to false sen- medical profession that women who desire timent, nor can genuine progress worthily to enter it as equals must look for their alenlist prejudices which true refinement and lies. The medical reform in which women culture must continually reinove further in- are now interesting themselves is, in princito the past. It is well known that the sis- ple, essentially the same as that for which ters Blackwell in New York, and Miss nearly five thousand English medical men Garrett in London, owe much of their ac- laboured together under the name of “ The knowledged advantages over their sisters National Institute of Medicinė, Surgery, of the same profession to the fact that their and Midwifery,” more than twenty years studies were not confined to any one branch, ago. They wanted to abolish the baneful and that they were educated by the regu- monopolies and exclusive privileges of the lar instructors of men. The fact is signifi- London College of Surgeons, and to obtain cant, and plainly means that women who for each of its members a voice in its govwould successfully claim the right they feel ernment. But regarding the reform of that to any profession hitherto monopolised by college as hopeless, they entertained the men, must fulfil the conditions which men idea of organizing a board of Examiners have fulfilled, and not ask to have the for themselves, and sought legal power to standard lowered in order that they may confer diplomas on candidates for memberreach it.

ship of their body. The judgment which, A temperate and timely article in Mac- ten years ago, we pronounced on their atmillan's Magazine for September, in deal- tempt and failure is, mutatis mutandis, ing with the practical difliculties in the way strictly applicable to the aims and efforts of women in England who desire to become of the different parties who are now enphysicians, wisely animadverts on the partial course of study and practice which

* See Articles .-"Medical Despotism,” April,

"Medical Reform," April, 1858 ; " Medical alone are attainable through any institutions Education,” July, 1858.

1856 ;

deavouring to obtain for women facilities | necessary to qualify candidates for such a for medical education, and legal recognition diploma, we maintain that women have alas physicians — either in the form of a char- ready within their reach in this country adeter for a new medical college where they quate means of acquiring the theoretical may study, and from which they may ob- knowledge of medicine, and that it is quite tain diplomas, or in the form of admission within their power to create, if they cannot for examination by the several medical bod- find, the necessary opportunities for both ies now established. We therefore quote practical anatomy" and "hospital prachere the words we made use of in 1858:- tice.” Miss Garrett may have exhausted

the resources of Apothecaries' Hall so far “ The problem of medical reform would have as her sex is concerned, but women have been completely solved in 1845 by the large asso- not exhausted the independence and the ciation of general practitioners afterwards called ability of those physicians who are already the National Institute of Medicine, Surgery, willing to come forward to instruct them. and Midwifery,' if it had but freed itself of the It is, on the contrary, well known that algeneral superstition regarding the necessity of most in proportion to the advance of modern securing the aid of the State in the form of a scientific research has been the disposition charter or Act of Parliament This Institute proposed that such of its members as should

of its leaders to encourage the studies of pursue their studies after its incorporation, women and their efforts to fulfil nobler should be admitted only after giving evidence to

tasks. They may certainly claim several examiners of their fitness to practise as physi- eminent physicians in this country as friends cians, surgeons, or accoucheurs, and thus woult in their new undertaking. The efforts that have abolished the old and absurd system which have been made to open the hospitals of involves the necessity that a candidate should be London to the observation of female stuexamined by two or three different bodies before dents have indeed failed, but not without he is competent to act as ' general practitioner.' revealing an amount of liberality on the It proposed to give its members a voice in its part of the physicians connected with them constitution and government, and to take care which may prove of much value in the futhat its standard of professional education should ture. And though after an attendance for be as high as possible, consistently with provid- some time on the practice of Drs. Chapman ing a suficient number of medical men to supply and Drysdale in the Farringdon Dispensary, the wants of the community. The one thing ladies were excluded from it, several of the wanting to give efficiency and permanency to the • National Institute' was a belief in its own

members, including, if we understand rightself-sufficingness. Had it had this, it would also ly, the chairman of the committee, declared have had the courage to ignore the State, to ex- that they were personally in favour of the ercise its own inherent power of judging of the admission of women to the dispensary, and fitness of candidates for admission into its body, that they only voted for their exclusion beto admit them accordingly, to give them a cer- cause their presence might, by being an tificate of their admission, which in the estimate offence to many subscribers, lessen the funds of the public, would be an adequate testimonial of the institation. But there is ample room of professional qualifications, and to honour in London for new hospitals and dispensathem by the title learned, or teacher, in the ries, where men and women shall be adshape of the Latin word doctor. The State is mitted on equal terms. We therefore subpowerless to determine whether a man be learned, mit that it were well for English women unless by a commission of learned men; what desiring to become physicians, to try thoneed, then, is there, when a body of learned roughly the resources near at hand before men bas pronounced a favourable judgment concerning the qualifications of any given person,

they conclude to cross the ocean, or even that they should abstain from styling that per

the Channel. son learned until the State has authorized them

The possibility that women, if adequately to do so? It can neither supervise their exami- educated, may develop powers adapted to nation nor correct their judgment, and it is employments monopolised by men, has led equally powerless to add or to take from the es- to a jealousy for female delicacy and elevasential qualifications of the person in question.” tion above work which is a little suspicious :

men have never made an outcry against Our advice to women desirous of a relia- women's entering upon any occupation howble testimonial of their competency to prac- ever hard or “ degrading," unless that octise medicine is to co-operate in establishing cupation were one in which they would coma Board of trustworthy Examiners, whose pete with men ! certificate of medical efficiency might con- However, mingled with some selfishness, stitute as good a diploma as any now con- there is no doubt more of honest prejudice ferred by authority of Parliament or the in the opposition to all that tends to widen Crown. "And with respect to the studies the sphere of woman's interest and useful

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