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Spaniards, French, and Dutch took none. that sex had been secured beyond any seEven now the number of female emigrants rious reaction. to America is far beneath that of the male ; The people who settled New England but in the time when America was thought were very peculiarly trained: they were of only as a wilderness full of savages, people of refinement and education reduced every woman who went voluntarily was a to poverty, and compelled to do hard work. heroine. With the exception of those of That work was an important part of their the Spaniards in the south-west of America, tuition, and the idea was handed down as a the Indian squaws were not inclined to fa- law that the thinker must work and the vour the advances of the European adven- worker must think. It was thus from the turers. So great inducements were offered earliest days held that women should unite to European women to go to Virginia and the highest intellectual culture with domesNew England, and a system of importation tic duties — which, in a land of few scrsomething like that by which Miss Rye is vants, are generally arduous. The Yankee supplying Australia was devised. Many girls have thus had real powers and practiof the women who followed the pilgrims to cal qualities trained in them; and they were New England were moved to do so by their much more ready to march westward by the religious sympathies with them, and thus side of man, than their sisters of the old that region began with a somewhat superior world had ever been. Nevertheless, destiny class of women. Nevertheless, in all the was not to be swerved from its old method early settlements of America, women were of elevating woman. The discovery of for several generations rare enough to be gold in California, and other regions of of great importance, and obtained a con- the Pacific coast, and the wars attending sideration in society far beyond that which the settlement of Texas and Kansas, led to they enjoyed in Europe. The reader of another vast male emigration beyond the the early histories of the American colonies Mississippi. At one time a woman could will find that women were mixed up with hardly walk through the streets of San some of their most important public affairs. Francisco without having every one pause Indeed, it is almost certain that women would to gaze on her; and a child was so rare that have been enfranchised in New England -as once at a theatre in the same city, where a they were for a time in New Jersey — but woman had taken her infant, when it began for something in Paul's writings about their to cry, just as the orchestra began to play, keeping silence in the churches, – and the a man in the pit cried out
Stop those Puritan State was a kind of church. How- fiddles and let the baby cry. I haven't ever, fortunately for women in America, heard such a sound for ten years !” The the high value which the people of New audience applauded this sentiment; the orEngland placed upon their mothers took a chestra stopped; and the baby continued better form even than enfranchisement. It its performance amid unbounded enthutook the form of giving the girls a good and siasm. Into such communities as these sound education. The Puritans placed women are now following; and in them reading the Bible above all other things; they are finding a position and intluence, the school thus was to tbem a part of the enhanced by their scarcity, which is still plan of salvation; and since the hard soil very remarkable. In America men exceed and the Indians demanded all the energies women in number by a million; and in the of the men, it was necessary that the wo- West the disproportion is extreme. In men should be trained as educators of the California there is one woman to three men; young. And to this day two-thirds of the in Nevada one to eight; in Colorado one to school-teachers throughout America are twenty.* And if the women there had not women. Under education women shown to have as various and as valuable
The Daily Neurs has recently shown, by the
corresponding statistics of the Eastern States, the endowments as men. And thus it was that error of the theory that the lowness of the birthwhen the young men of the Eastern States ing aversion of their people for large families. It began to settle in the far West — leaving shows that the result is due to the vast disproportion the women behind them — the elevation of many thousands of women for whom no husbands
rate in some of those states is attributable to a growwhere.
gained in moral and intellectual power, we | other lands and ages, have “builded better should see them again having their heads than they knew." A great republic and turned and hearts corrupted by the poor the abolition of slavery were their unforeambition of outshining each other in soci- seen results. The Puritans established ety. But the various important movements free schools to teach people to read the in the West for securing equal educational Bible, and so save them from hell; the reand political privileges, show that they sult is a grand system of universal secular have the ability and virtue to seize this education. fresh opportunity for securing the emanci- Similarly, to return to the theme of Miss pation of their sex from the thraldom of Becker's memoir, the plan of educating ages.
men and women in the same universities We cannot pause to particularize all the and colleges is not at all eccentric — is not changes which have resulted from the in- due to the whim of some visonary — but fluences described. We may sum them up originated in the economy of some Western in one direction by saying that, in 1829, the farmers. They wished to have their daughWestern State of Illinois began the work ters thoroughly educated, so that, in regions of reforming the provisions of the common as yet too thinly settled to have many law which America inherited from England schools, the daughter might be qualified to as it affects women that work wbich Mr. teach the rest of the family. And of course Lefevre has recently begun in the House of they wished to have their sons educated, for Commons; - and since that young State in America particularly — an uneducated took this step, the laws which give up a man is hardly a man at all. These fariners married woman, body, soul, and property were generally well-to-do but not wealtby, to the absolute ownership of her husband, and they put to themselves the question, have been modified in nineteen of the Why should we build two colleges — one for American States, and in many of them en- men, another for women — when one will tirely stricken out of the statute book. No answer? These boys and girls grow up toone dreams that in any of the new States gether in their homes, in neighbourhoods, that are forming in the distant West any in children's schools, Sunday schools, law will reappear that affects the equality churches; and when educated they will of woman as regards property.
And in pass their lives in each other's society. none of these nineteen States has any man Why should there be an interval of four arisen to suggest that the home is less se- years, when the boys and girls shall be sepcure, or the domestic relations of men and arated into two educational monasteries? women less happy, than before the house- They saw a double expense in it and no hold tyranny was overthrown; in not one common sense. And to this primarily we has there been any reactionary movement owe it that there are now twenty-nine flourtowards its restoration.
ishing colleges in America where the youts The equality of women has been idly of both sexes study together, recite togethcalled " an American idea ; " but that is er, and are in every respect upon an equalreally to say it is the product of the ages ity. These are
not small institutions. of experience which have passed into man Some of them have as many as a thousand since first from the rocks of Asia he turned pupils, and they are generally well-endowed. his face Westward. Every genuine Amer- Again, it is important to consider that ican idea is a fruit in which has garnered no American colleges or universities are the light and flush of every dawn that has conducted upon the principle of the Eng. arisen on mankind. We sometimes meet lish institutions. The students do not with people in Europe who fancy that be- merely listen to lectures, and cram for anyond the Atlantic men are engaged in nual examinations; they are examined from evolving reforms out of their inner con- day to day. Consequently, in nearly all sciousness, and carrying them out for the of the colleges mentioned, the students of sake of experiment; but humanity is the both sexes are resident, the dormitories for same there as in all lands and ages, and the two being in separate buildings. In all what it does is rooted in the need of the other respects they mingle as freely as in the hour. America took up arins against drawing-room. The professors are both mra George III. not for democracy, but against and women. American experience in this heavy taxes; she took up arms lately not co-education of men and women stretcher for humanity, but to save the Union. In over forty years, so that we know 20!* these things Americans, like the people of thing of what the general effects are. And
what the public estimate of those efforts is are possible As compared with the marriage-rate, in America may be gathered from the fart the birthi-rate of New England is as high as it is else.
that the great State of Kansas has passa a law that no school or college connected ber of the United States Congress and the with its government shall refuse women on founder of the public school system of New the same terms with men, or in any respect England in its modern shape, is final. Mr. educate them differently. Indeed this ex- Mann was for many years by far the most perience of the Western colleges has so re- eminent educator in America, and he had, acted upon the Eastern States, where the in pursuance of his duties as superintendent separate plan — inherited from England of the schools of Massachusetts, travelled prevailed, that some of the finest of its through Europe and made himself personinstitutions have pulled down the ancient ally acquainted with all of its systems and barriers. It is even reported that the Vas- seats of learning. In 1853 this able and sar Institute – the largest, wealthiest, and accomplished man was induced to accept even most aristocratic female college of the position of president of Antioch ColNew York — has decided to admit young lege, which had just been established in men hereafter; and the founder of the new Central Ohio on the co-educational plan. State University of New York, the " Cor- He was a severe moralist, and his wide acnell University;" has declared it to be his quaintance with schools and colleges indesire to bave it opened to women equally spired him with very serious misgivings as with men.
This then is the verdict on the to the prudence of this new plan. But subject after forty years of experience, after he had been there about five years, marked by the critical vigilance of people devoting himself to a personal supervision who have as much anxiety for the purity over the college, President Mann wrote to and welfare of their sons and daughters as his friend Mr. Combe of Edinburgh in these any in the world. Indeed, so rapidly are terms: transatlantic institutions falling into this line that co-education may already be called
“ We really have the most orderly, sober, dilthe American system.
igent, and exemplary institution in the country. But its advocates are not content that the than half through the present; and I have not
We passed through the last term, and are more matter should rest upon the mere suppo- had occasion to make a single entry of any missition that the plan answers, without any demeanour in our record book not a case for drawback, the simple purpose of educating any serious discipline. There is no rowdyism young men and women for which it was in- in the village, no nocturnal rambles, making stituted. They distinctly declare that it has night hideous. All is quiet, peaceful ; and the resulted in advantages far bigher than any women of the village feel the presence of our contemplated by the economical farmers students, when met in the streets in the evening, who devised it. When it began the pro- to be a protection rather than an exposure It phets of evil did not fail to shriek out their is now almost five years since I came here, and warnings that the system would produce as yet I have had no ' practical joke' or "colhorrible results. The girls would become lege prank,' as they are called, played upon me coarse, the young men coarser, and the
- not in a single instance.” project end in licentiousness. It is remarkable how often things have turned out the woman is of equal importance; and this we
But in such a case the testimony of a exact reverse of what was theorized con- have from Mrs. Mann, a lady of the highest cerning them. Theory said the sun moved culture, who shared her husband's toils and around the earth; the truth shows that the triumphs. This lady was in fact partly earth moves around the sun. It said the President of the College, and gave her time earth is llat; we know it is round. It said and extraordinary talents to promoting its the sky is solid; we know it to be a vapour. social welfare. She writes as follows: This reversal of old beliefs has been too coinmon for wise men to accept at once “No one conversant with the daily life and even obvious theories. The experience of walk of Antioch College can deny that the purthe American plan has not only shown that ity and high tone of its morals and manners, in the apprehensions amid which it began both departments, were unequalled by those of were unfounded, but just the reverse of all any other known institution. There are many that was predicted or apprehended bas colleges at the West, in whose neighbourhool really come to pass. It is the estimate of that the services of teachers and professors in the
schools for young ladlies have sprung up, in order persons who have been intimately associated
former may be made available in the latter; and as patrons and professors with these co-edu- in such cases there have always been regulations cational colleges that in refinement and prohibiting any intercourse whatever between morals they are infinitely higher than others the two. “But it is the universal testimony of in which persons of either sex are exclusively those acquainted with the subject, that loss of educated. On this point the testimony of reputation, and even of character, are not unfrethe llon. Ilorace Mann, some time mem- quent in such places, growing out of clandes
it has gone
tine correspondences and meetings. Mr. Mann | connection with any student in it. And in thought the monkish error of repressing nat- short, through personal observations of that ural sentiments should be swept away with other and other co-educational institutions in the errors of the same nature, and a generous cul- United States, we have become convinced that ture should enlist them in the interests of purity. the purification and elevation of the educaYoung people are thoughtless rather than vi- tional systems of the world are to be wronght cious; and it is cruel to put them into circum- by carrying into them that influence which has stances where they can learn wisdom only from a fatal experience. At Antioch the dining
never failed to civilize and refine wherever
the influence of woman. We hall, which was the commons of both sexes, was a charming scene of social enjoyment and inno- are convinced that young men are never so cent hilarity - a scene which Mr. Mann spec
animated to high endeavours, never so put ially enjoyed for its beneficent influences upon upon their manliness, as when in the presmanners and happiness. . . In American society ence of women; and, equally, that women the freedom of intercourse between the young has are never so inspired by womanly sentiever been found compatible with virtue, in strik- ment, or so raised to noble efforts, as by ing contrast with the system of repression that the presence of true gentlemen. The two exists in the older societies of the world, even of sexes are meant to sustain and encourage modern Europe.”
each other, and their separation during the
period in which principally each is forming This was lately written, some years since its mind and character, is the relic of an President Mann's death, and when his age of monks and nuns — an age which widow had ceased to have any personal branded all relations between the sexes as connection with the Institution.
impure. Antioch College has been visited by Em- În a recent address the Bishop of Oxford, erson, Theodore Parker, Oliver Wendell in maintaining the need of religious instrucHolmes, Dr. Bellows, and other dis- tion in the universities, said: – A college tinguished men. The testimonies as to its life is to be a house in which the family lite superior character have been uniform. A of England is to be exhibited on a larger member of the Massachusetts Legislature scale; where young men are brought to who visited it said that he left it with a bet- gether, exposed necessarily by that very ter opinion of human nature than he had circumstance to a multitude of temptations when he entered it.
to expense, as to the indulgence of natural About twelve years ago the writer of this appetites, as to intercourse with one anarticle, at that time very little interested in other, where they may make utter shipthe subject of it, went to reside in the wreck of life, if there is not a wholesome neighbourhood of Antioch College under influence brought to bear upon them." circumstances which furnished ample oppor- But how is the college to be the larger tunities for forming an acquaintance with English home, with all the pire influences its plan, professors, and students. And of the family pervading it, it that particular although he is quite familiar with the Uni- influence which has made the English bume versity of Virginia, Harvard, and to some what it is, is carefully excluded from it? extent with English universities, he bas an It was prophesied in America that when entire conviction that in none of those male young men and women were brought toinstitutions can there be found anything gether in colleges, there would be many comparable to the moral elevation, the re- love affairs ; and that these would be often finement, or the intellectual enthusiasm, imprudent, and lead to the neglect of which characterize the students of Antioch. studies. The experience of the American In our estimates, male students were first colleges shows that though there were tewer called gentlemen at Antioch. The young cases of this kind than had been anticimen were none the less chivalrous because pated, they rather incited those concemed they did not drink or smoke; while their to better conduct and more earnest study, personal neatness, courtesy, and delicacy Both man and maid aspire to make the best of behaviour, showed that under the refin- appearance in the eyes of those they love, ing influence around them a certain manli- and not to be surpassed by others. And ness, very rare in college students, had ap- why should such attachments be import peared in their characters. The college dent? Where does society offer the young had the grace of a refined household. On better opportunities for knowing each oth the other hand, the finest and most womanly er's minds and characters, than is implied traits were visible in the young women. in studying side by side for years? The During the seven years of the present chief source of domestic unhappiness is that writer's intimacy with Antioch College, he the young, fresh from their monastie ople at no time knew or heard of any scandal in leges, rush heedlessly into life-long relse
tions with persons of whose minds and the other to long beards. It would be characters they know little or nothing, or strange indeed if by the same mental diet, else enter into heartless marriages of con- the same intellectual sun and atmosphere, venience. There is too much levity associ- women should be made too masculine or ated with this subject; human happiness men too effeminate. The fact is, this is absoand welfare are more deeply involved in it lutely a phantom, It ought to be needless than any other; and to a thoughtful man or at this date to affirm to English people that woman it will be no disparagement of the the broad culture and profound psyrbologico-educational plan that it may lead to at- cal penetration of George Eliot, the severe tachments which, surviving the test of years scholarship of Elizabeth Browning, the politof associated study, may end in marriage. * ical insight of Ilarriet Martineau, and the
In none of these colleges has the standard science of Maria Mitchell, coexist with the of study been in the slightest degree low- utmost womanly feeling and refinement. ered beneath that of those in which young We are not, however, disposed to evade, men alone are taught. The girls have not but rather to rejoice in the fact, upon which asked or received any favour. And they is based much of the opposition to the eduhave shown their entire competency to hold cation of women in directions hitherto retheir own in the same field with the other served for men — namely, that it must tend sex, whether as pupils or professors. Miss to extend their occupations to employments Mitchell is as good an astronomer as any in hitherto monopolized by men.
That there America; and the professor of mathematics are occupations for which men and women at Antioch- woman — taught without are respectively endowed we have book the most abstruse portions of her sci- doubt; as little do we doubt that Nature ence with a clearness which the best male has in such cases set barriers which, though professors acknowledged could not be sur-they may be overleaped by peculiar natures passed. The writer has often been in the in long intervals, neither sex can destroy. recitation-rooms, and can testify that the Fortunately, however, we are not without girls in nowise were inferior in their per- the means of knowing the directions in formances to the young men; and at the which the larger education which some commencement the public essays read by women bave managed to secure has tended the female graduates dealt with subjects of to widen their sphere of employment. The general interest quite as ably as the ora- age in which we live has prevailed against tions of the male graduates. Indeed, the our hereditary theories, and many women uniform testimony of these co-educational have gained strength to contend successfully colleges confirms that of the examiners at with the prejudices and sentimentalisms Cambridge, England, that if there has been which still imprison the majority of their any difference between the examinations of sex. It is remarkable how little of reacthe young men and young women, it has tionary defiance has attended the movements been in favour of the latter.
of those who have thus been liberated. The undeniable facts reported from Cam- They have not only not songht to become bridge have compelled the opponents of all sea captains or military generals, but have such steps to shift their ground. Forced to not even tried to become lawyers or ambasadmit that women can pursue with equal sadors. Politically they have been content success the same studies with men, they to demand the franchise; while the only
say — “Yes, but they are not proper profession before monopolized by men studies for woman; they do not fit her for which they have invaded is that of medicine. her true sphere; and consequently they un- The “ female physician," in our judgsex her.” “Now it must be admitted that it ment, represents so well the healthiness and would be a strange anomaly in Nature if the safety of the “woman's rights" movethis were true. Women daily sit at the ment, that we propose to devote some porsame table with men, and partake of the tion of our present article to reviewing the same food; Nature has not provided one present relation of that sex to the medical kind of beef and mutton for women and profession, and the more recent steps by another kind for men; and yet the same which it has been reached. Before the meat and bread are converted by one sex female physician liad made her appearance, into woman, by the other into man. The it was a conservative platitude that woman's two are not unsexed by breathing the same place was in the sick-room, Conservatism, air, or by the same sunshine; there is not a however, meant that she should be there in female and a male air or sunshine; and yet the capacity of Mrs. Gamp, and had no idea one frame converts these to long tresses, that a Dr. Elizabeth Blackwell was dis
Xone of the colleges to which we are referring guised in the nurse who relieved the physipermit students to marry while in college. cian of the more disagreeable duties of the