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sick-room without sharing his fees. Never- to come. But even with the door thus actheless so it was; whether derived from cidentally left open before her, it was only long experience, or natural gift, or from through trials which would have baffled a both of these, woman has manifested a less persevering person that she was able special inclination and ability for the study to enter it. She had limited and uncerand practice of medicine. At various times tain pecuniary resources, though the rewithin the past two centuries there had ap- verse was generally supposed to be the peared women who gained eminence in case — and yet, in order to obtain medical special departments of medical knowledge; instruction, she was compelled virtually to and when seen in the lecture-rooms of Ger- establish a college of which she was to be many, Italy, or France, through the mists the only pupil. That she was enabled to of intervening generations, they seemed not do this reflects great credit on her instrucformidable, but somewhat imposing figures, tors, Drs. Aldis and Fraser. Since obtaineven to the eye of medical conservatism. ing her diploma, she has been engaged in Even Mr. Hosea Biglow, though a defender establishing a Dispensary for Women and of slavery in America, had a strong sympa- Children, which we hear has a fair prospect thy with liberty in other lands.
of success. “I du believe in Freedum's cause,
Another step towards opening the medi-
cal profession in England to women was the
establishment in 1864 of the “ Female Ved-
ical Society," of which the Marquis of
Townshend was President, and to which He concludes, however, that Liberty's “a Drs. Edmunds, Aldis, Murphy, and Dryskind o’thing that don't agree with niggers.” dale, have devoted their ability and energy. There are also many eyes which can recog- Immediately upon the opening of the instinise the heroes and heroines of the sixteenth tution established by this society; fourteen century, but cannot perceive those of the women presented themselves for instruction, nineteenth, though they meet them daily. J and the number has steadily increased. Nothing can be more certain than that Hy- The institution has, however, no charter, patia and Olympia Morata are to-day strug- and its students can only work on in the gling against every discouragement and hope that their cause will prevail, and with prejudice to give their contribution to the the certainty that the knowledge they gain welfare of mankind, and that some who find cannot be taken away from them. It is the them romantic in the past sneer at thein unanimous testimony of the medical gentlenow as “ strong-ininded.”
men connected with this institution that the In this country Miss Elizabeth Garrett ladies in it are studious, earnest, and enwas the first to obtain a diploma from one tirely capable of comprehending the subof our recognised institutions Apothe-jects comprised in the departments of medcaries' IIall. As we had no medical college icine to which they devote themselves, viz., for women, and the medical colleges for obstetrics, and the diseases of children. men did not favour the idea of being in- France and Germany have this far giyen strumental in qualifying women to compete us only schools for midwives proper, who, with them in scholarship and practice, Miss though acting independently as accouebeurs Garrett's privileges were of a very limited in all normal cases of continement, are not character, and she could only obtain in- allowed to write any prescription or to instruction in a very arduous and unsatisfac- terfere surgically. They are really adjuncts tory way. Hospital advantages were ham- of the physicians, who gladly avail thempered with so many annoyances, that she selves of the services of the sage-femme sought the London Dispensary, Spitalfields, when the work is heavy and the pay light, as a dernier ressort for obtaining practical but set them aside when the hardship is instruction. She was particularly fortunate nearly passed and the happy consummation in securing for this end the aid of two phy- of a fee near at hand. And yet the trainsicians connected with the establishment. ing at the Maternity Hospital in Paris proAfter many unsuccessful efforts, she was at duces such excellent physicians as Mesdames last permitted to come before the examining Boivin and Lachapelle! Last year a French board of Apothecaries' Hall, and passed woman having passed the Baccalaureate, creditably. Her success in coming before requested permission to study medicine as the board was due to some technical infor- a whole in France. The faculty at Montmality in its constitution, which has been pellier refused. She then forwarded her since®“ doctored,” so that she is the only request to the Minister of the Interior at female licensed apothecary likely to be Paris. He acceded on condition that she made by that institution for some time i would only practise in Algeria, whence she
came! But this year he has ennobled him- | New York city many of the large hospitals self by acting the part of a Minister of have since allowed women to attend the • Justice'as well as of the Interior.' By physicians on their rounds through them. virtue of his decision, and “ in spite of the For the last five years the Bellevue Hospital opinion expressed by the professors, the had been compelled to admit female students American lady who last year applied for a who have matriculated in New York, bedegree has been empowered to pass her cause their charter does not refer to the sex first examination, which she achieved suc- of students. It does not seem so easy to cessfully; and as a natural consequence, a take a backward step there as in ApotheFrench lady has now entered her name caries' Hall, London. The women who inupon the books, and may even now be seen sisted upon having their rights in the Belledissecting with the other students at the vue Hospital were at first unhandsomely Ecole Practique." * In 1865 about twelve treated by both professors and students; ladies applied for admission into a medical but annoyance from this source has now college for males at St. Petersburgh, and ceased. However, there are many priviwere refused. Last year two Russian ladies leges — such, for instance, as the reception were admitted into the medical university in advance of information as to the operafor men at Zurich, Switzerland, - an excel- tions for the day – which the women have lent institution, whose conversion to the found themselves unable to obtain in instifaith in the admissibility of women to the tutions which have long been arranged for profession has been a fruitful topic of dis- the use of men alone. There were some cussion in the old world and the new. women also who shrank from prosecuting
America is likely to furnish the largest all the studies incidental to a medical eduquota of medical women for some time to cation in the same room with young men.
They have there fully chartered And so they resolved to have hospitals and colleges for their instruction, one at least operating-rooms of their own. in each of the principal cities of the East- About twenty years ago, at Boston, ern States - New York, Philadelphia, and Massachusetts, the first American Female Boston. Prior to their establishment, one Medical College was established. Like the or two of the medical colleges for men ad- English college, they began in a small way, mitted a limited number of women to their with but two professors, and a course of lecture-rooms. The first to do this, and instruction limited to the object of “ qualicall upon itself the ire of the whole medical fying women to become midwives, and treat profession, was the college located at Ge- the diseases of women and children." In neva, New York. Elizabeth Blackwell, an 1847, Mr. Samuel Gregory, of Boston, bad Englishwoman, was received there for in- lectured in Boston and its vicinity on the struction in 1847, after having applied in importance of educating women to practise vain to many other institutions. Various medicine; and at the close of one of his eminent physicians tried to persuade her lectures a petition was signed praying the that her idea was eccentric, utopian, and Legislature to license a college for that purimpracticable. The ladies of Geneva at pose. In November, 1848, twelve ladies first declared she must be crazy, and that met and formed a medical class. Drs. they never would employ a female physician. Cornell and Ralfs were engaged to give the After her graduation, in 1852, she had the lectures. About the same time a number utmost difficulty in finding in New York, of gentlemen formed a society to assist the where she had resolved to locate, a board- movement. In 1850 an Act passed the ing-house willing to have her name and title Legislature of Massachusetts incorporating displayed. She was refused a position in the “ Female Education Society,” for “ the the department for women and children of purpose of providing for the education of a dispensary, although she presented high midwives, nurses, and female physicians,” certificates of qualification. Her applica- empowering it to hold property and to grant tion to visit merely the female wards of a degrees. The society grew rapidly in numhospital was laid on the table as unworthy bers, and outgrew its former limitations of of notice. This was the attitude toward study, so that it has for many years had a women-physicians in America so late as full corps of professors teaching every 1852. Since then, twelve medical schools branch of medicine and surgery. A few established for men have admitted women years ago the Legislature granted it ten and granted them degrees. These were thousand dollars for the erection of a buildchiefly in Cincinnati and Cleveland, large ing, and it has received about forty thoucities in the Western State of Ohio. În sand dollars from bequests and donations.
It has thus become self-supporting, and has * Medical Times and Gazette, August 29, 1863.
supported a dispensary for several years,
in which the ladies see practice daily under have not yet received such contributions to supervision of the female professors. the medical world as we desire from the in
The Philadelphian institution was estab- stitutions we have named. This may be to lished about two years later than that of a considerable extent due to outward oppoBoston, having received its charter in 1850. sition, and to internal divisions between Dr. Joseph Langshore' was its projector. schools" of medicine; but we cannot afThe opposition to this college has been ex- fect a doubt that it is in a yet larger meastremely bitter, the Pennsylvanian Medical ure due to the separation of women from Society having passed a resolution declaring the colleges and studies of men.
The pubtheir hostility to medical women, and their lic will naturally apprehend that this sepadetermination not to consult with them un-ration implies some expurgation of the der any circumstances, or retain as mem- usual studies; and where life and death are bers those who should do so. Since this, involved, while appreciating the modesty however, the American Medical Association of the women, it will continue to employ has passed resolutions recognising “ well- the men. The condition of medical knowleducated female physicians by the same edge is not so satisfactory that any of it can laws that govern its own members ;” and be spared; and even if it were possible to it is very doubtful if the State Society will build up a new set of schools, equal in arbe able to maintain its resolution in the face rangements for study to those already exof that of the National Association.* The isting, it must be a slow work, and it must Philadelphian college has educated many be a long time before such institutions or women, and, although not quite so flourish- their graduates can receive the same amount ing as some others, is steadily growing in of confidence as the old ones. the public confidence.
Nor can we regard the feeling which reAn energetic woman, Dr. Lozin, under- quires these separate medical colleges as took to promote a Female Medical College otherwise than mistaken. Truth knows no in New York, and in 1861 the Legislature sex. There may for some time be in the granted the charter for a Medical College, medical as in other professions, persons unHospital, and Dispensary for Women and worthy of them, who can annoy women in Children. This college has been much in their efforts to obtain the knowledge and jured by a struggle between Allopathy and training necessary to combat disease and Homeopathy for its control, and has not death; but among all whose opinion is of yet perhaps fulfilled the expectations of importance, the solemn importance of the its friends, but its students have great ad- work will be enough to suppress all petty vantages in the New York hospitals, and conventionalities. What would have been its ultimate success is unquestionable. thought of one who had suggested any im
Drs. Elizabeth and Emily Blackwell are, propriety in the labours of Florence Nightinhowever, not satisfied with the standard of gale, or of the women who devoted themeducation in these colleges, and have pro- selves to the American hospitals during the cured a charter for another college, in which late civil war? But the physician, male or four years of preparation and actual resi- female, is similarly devoted to the work of dence in a hospital will be required. From saving and lealing sufferers in the perpetthe three institutions we have mentioned ual conflict of man with disease and death; more than three hundred graduates have and they who in the presence of pain and issued, and nearly as many women practi- anxiety can obtrude such considerations as tioners perhaps have been graduated from those to which we have adverted, are not the colleges that admit both men and likely to be of a class whom women need
of the colleges which do this the consider in adjusting their standards of edgreat majority are those representing the ucation or duty. various Reformed and Eclectic Schools of For similar reasons we must condemn the Medicine in America.
principle which has led the female colleges Among the graduates and instructors of to impose limitation upon their range of the regular medical schools for women, a study, and that of the practice of their few - as the sisters Blackwell, Drs. Dens- graduates. With the utmost respect for more, Zakrewska, Lozin, Langshore, Scar- the able physicians connected with those inlett, Preston, Cooke,' Sewall, Morton- stitutions both here and in America, and have gained some practice and more repu- while rejoicing in their merited degree of tation as instructors, even among the seep- success, we cannot believe that the want tical; and yet it must be admitted that we which has created those schools is to be sat
isfied by narrowing women to one class of The American Institute of Homeopathy has de. cided to admit well-educated medical women to its studies, however important, or by continmembership
ing their practice to patients of their own
sex, and to children. If a woman has gifts in this country since the recent action of which justly lead her to study medicine, Apothecaries Hall. The principle," it there is no sex or age that should have the justly maintains, “ which we conceive no exclusive benefit of those gifts. The pa- arguments either of benevolence or conventient has a right to the best treatment that ience should induce the leaders of the party can be obtained. We must more to abandon, is that of professional equality strongly condemn the grounds on which - a common standing-ground, be it high some of these institutions have sought to or low, for men and women." We must, bring to their aid some of the lowest con- however, join issue with the practical methventional prejudices. Whatever may be od suggested in the same article, that wothe temporary advantages of disseminating men desiring to become physicians should the idea that there is indelicacy in the be content to go to the universities in employment of male physicians by women, America or to that of Zurich, where women its general acceptance would more than are admitted. The only advantage offered counterbalance any good that the female by this course, that of obtaining registration colleges can hope to achieve. Women in England, is not, in our judgment, of have peculiar need of every aid that sufficient importance to compensate for the science or intelligence can furnish, and inconvenience and expense which must in though the time may come when many fe- many cases attend such exile into foreign male physicians may be as able to serve lands, or the suspicions that would be them as men, it can never be expected that urged, however unjustly, as to the thoroughevery community will have its finest medi- ness of the studies and examinations in uncal skill represented by a woman. Is the known institutions. Registration is in itfemale sufferer, then, to'be encouraged to self but a relic of that State interference think that modesty requires her to forego with the natural development of medical the belp she requires ?" The suggestion is science, the evil effects of which have been not only intrinsically base, but it is unwar- fully exposed in this Review.* If because ranted by anything in the long history of of the non-registration of a diploma, the the relation of the physician to his female certificate or evidence of a physician may patient. It is, we believe, far more likely, be objected to in a court of justice, it may in an advanced state of social enlighten- be so much the worse for the State ; but if ment, to be proved that each sex is peculi- the diploma itself were signed by duly qualarly adapted to heal the other, than that ified and eminent examiners, the profeseach is to attend its own; but however sional competency of the person holding it that may be, po permanent interest such as could not be thereby lessened. Moreover, that which the female physicians have at it is not in the rear but in the van of the heart can be served by appeals to false sen- medical profession that women who desire timent, nor can genuine progress worthily to enter it as equals must look for their alenlist prejudices which true refinement and lies. The medical reform in which women culture must continually remove further in- are now interesting themselves is, in princito the past. It is well known that the sis- ple, essentially the same as that for which ters Blackwell in New York, and Miss nearly tive thousand English medical men Garrett in London, owe much of their ac- laboured together under the name of “The knowledged advantages over their sisters National Institute of Medicine, Surgery, of the same profession to the fact that their and Midwifery," more than twenty years studies were not contined to any one branch, ago. They wanted to abolish the baneful and that they were educated by the regu- monopolies and exclusive privileges of the lar instructors of men. The fact is signifi- London College of Surgeons, and to obtain cant, and plainly means that women who for each of its members a voice in its govwould successfully claim the right they feel ernment. But regarding the reform of that to any profession hitherto monopolised by college as hopeless, they entertained the men, inust fullil the conditions which men idea of organizing a board of Examiners have fulfilled, and not ask to have the for themselves, and sought legal power to standard lowered in order that they may confer diplomas on candidates for memberreach it.
ship of their body. The judgment which, A temperate and timely article in Mac- ten years ago, we pronouriced on their atmillan's Magazine for September, in deal- tempt and failure is, mutatis mutandis, ing with the practical dilliculties in the way strictly applicable to the aims and efforts of women in England who desire to become of the different parties who are now enphysicians, wisely animadverts on the partial course of study and practice which
* See Articles --" Medical Despotism,” April,
Medical Reform," April, 1858 ; " Medical alone are attainable through any institutions i Education," July, 1855.
the women behind when starting on his un- | When men had migrated to more fruitful tried way. And this, together with the de- lands their struggle for existence was not cimation of men by constant wars, enor so hard; and as Nature became less cruel mously increased the number of women, man became less so. Warlike he was, but who consequently became cheap; a man not so warlike. When the cultivation of could have as many wives as he pleased; the earth began, it was discovered that and there was a competition which should soldiering was not the only important occubecome his favourite by being most his pation; animal courage was no longer the slave.
only kind of courage; and it was found that But it is certain that, with every step of woman might have her uses. man's migration westward, the position of There are some indications (derived from woman was improved. For this there were Tacitus and other writers) that, in the early two causes. The chief was that the emi- planting of Europe, woman
rose under grants, having left their women behind these influences to a higher relative position them, found few in the countries to which than she now occupies. If so, she sank they went to take their places. Women from it through a repetition in Europe of were not cheap in Europe, but rare and some of those conditions by which she had valuable. Many men wished to marry each been degraded in Asia. That is, Europe
The ancient chronicle of the Picts also became crowded; men emigrated and relates that they were originally six broth- left a superfluity of women; warlike ages ers who left Thrace with their adherents, came to the West, and the comparative unbecause the king insisted on marrying their importance and bodily weakness of woman sister. They came to France, bringing the told against her. She was not reduced to lady with them, and built the city of Poic- be a domestic slave, but she was a domestic tiers. But the king of France also pressed drudge. It must, however, be said that the his suit for the sister, which led them to put decline of the influence of woman in Westto sea again. But before they landed on ern Europe was in great part due to ber this island she died. When they came to own inadequacy to turn to good account Cornwall, or thereabout, they had reason the position to which circumstances had to appreciate the feelings of the kings to raised her. Ages of degradation had left whom they had refused their sister's hand; her without education, and the re-action for the people they found here, whoever from a servile condition turned her besd. they were, absolutely refused to allow these Her ambition was directed toward merely Picts to take any wives among them. They glittering in society. To be the idols of then petitioned the king of Ireland for wives, knights, to be the toys of the Court, was and he consented, on certain conditions. enough for those who had been held in cofThe chronicle says –
tempt. Instead of being able to secure “ Three hundred women were given
such educational and other permanent adTo them, they were agreeable,
vantages as would have enabled her to But they were most cunning,
maintain for ever the position gained, she Each woman with her brother.
frittered away in frivolity the opportunity There were oaths imposed on them
that must close with the growth of Europe. By the stars and by the Earth,
The door was finally shut, and these fontesà That from the nobility of the mother
virgins left out. From that time she has Should always be the right of sovereignty.” been, not, as Blackstone says, “the l* So they left Ireland with their wives and vourite of the English law," but its favourte established their kingdom in Scotland. This victim. tradition, whether mythical or not, is sig- But with the early settlement of America nificant. The scarcity of women in these those influences which had led to the im western lands bad certainly raised their proved position of women in Europe were position, and affected the primitive govern- again set to work. Those who tirst tatmental arrangements of this country. But grated to America took but few women there was a second cause why, in the west, The Puritan pilgrims took twenty title: the estimation of woman should be higher. Other English colonists took fewer; ve