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No. 1278.- November 28, 1868.
CONTENTS. 1. LAKE DWELLINGS,
Quarterly Review, .
515 2. MADAME THERESE. · Part IV., and last. From the French of Erckmann-Chairian, 628 3. THE COUNTRY-HOUSE ON THE RHINE. Part II. By
Berthold Auerbach. Translated from the German
543 4. A COURT BALL IN MEXICO,
551 5. CONTINENTAL RAILWAYS,
552 6. THE JOHNSON CLUB,
553 7. CAPT. MONCRIEFF'S IMPORTANT ARTILLERY INVENTION,
Times — Morning Star, 556 8. ELDERLY TRAVELLERS,
558 9. BABY TTAVELLERS,
561 10. THE NEW ENGLAND TRAGEDIES,
563 11. PLAYING AT PLEASURE,
566 12. MR. KIRK's CHARLES The Bold. Vol. III.
568 13. DR. NEWMAN'S SERMONS,
570 14. THE CHANCES IN SPAIN,.
572 15. MR. GLADSTONE ON AMERICA,
574 16. CUBA AND THE UNITED STATES,
575 17. LORD BROUGHAM AS A WRITER,
.. 576 POETRY. YESTERDAY AND TO-DAY, 514 | THE UNFINISHED PRAYER,
514 IN THE TEMPLE,
SHORT ARTICLES. QUARLES' EMBLEMS, 527 | THE ADJECTIVE HOMEOPATHIC,
542 BALLADS FROM MMS.,
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From Good Words. The spectral past is with me - - here
Its haunting visions stay; YESTERDAY AND TO-DAY.
And the Future, with its ghastly fear,
Besets me night and day.
The warning ghosts of bygone hours,
Their homage, their renown
The palace home, the summer flowers,
Youth, beauty, and a crown ;
And 0, the love, the loyal love,
Men gave me for my own !.
This was my royalty — above Alas! for down the valley
The sceptre and the throne. Came war- a crush
- a cry And trode to earth the yellow grain,
The love that hid the people's hate, And rent the gazing sky.
That scorned the people's will,
What though it lured me to my fate ! And, lit and struck with bolts of flame
I proudly bless it still. That pierced their sulph’rous fold,
True love, but vain; the sun has set, The wild hills shouted battle shocks,
I trifled with its noon, The valley echoes rollid !
And night is not at darkest yet,
Nor the end coming soon.
Sleep, Louis ! soft the sunbeams fall
On thy calm dreaming face,
Shining, as if on palace hall,
Into this dreary place.
Sleep, Louis ! thine the calmer heart,
Thine the less prescient soul;
They feel the present, smaller part,
While mine forebode the whole.
Hold thine unspoken dread, my heart, And watch'd the dead all night :
Fast bound in lowest deep.
A wakeful courage is my part:
Do thou, my Louis, sleep!
The wonder of the stars.
THE UNFINISHED PRAYER.
“Lay me," lisped the tiny lips
Of my daughter, kneeling, bending, Sweet smiles the waking valley,
O'er her folded finger-tips.
And the curly head dropped low;
"-I gently added,
- the words came faintly, From Belgravia.
Fainter still “My soul to keep;
Then the tired head fairly nodded,
And the child was fast asleep. SLEEP on, and take thy rest awhile; But the dewy eyes half opened, For one untroubled hour
When I clasped her to my breast, Let some fair dream thy soul beguile And the dear voice softly whispered, Beyond the gaoler's power.
“Mamma, God knows all the rest. Sleep on, my royal love ; such rest 0, the trusting, sweet confiding Is not for eyes of mine :
Of the child heart! Would that I A waking woe is in this breast
Thus might trust my Heavenly Father, More turbulent than thine.
He who hears my feeblest cry.
F. CASHEL HOEY.
MARIE ANTOINETTE REVERIE,
From The Quarterly Review. the careful shepherds on little carriages, to 1. The Lake Dwellings of Switzerland and protect them from being wounded by drag
other Parts of Europe. By Dr. Ferdi- ging on the rough ground; yet, allowing nand Keller, President of the Antiqua- for some extravagance in the dimensions rian Association of Zürich. Translated and arranged by John Edward breeds. So his stories of the Scythians kill
of the tails, we all know there are such Lee. London, 1866. 2. L'Homme Fossile en Europe. Par H. ing and eating their sick and aged relatives Le Hon. Brussels, 1867.
has been questioned; but ethnologists are 3. Pre-Historic Times; as illustrated by well aware that modern tribes have been
Ancient Remains, and the Manners and found practising such horrors, though, like
Lubbock, F.R.S. London, 1865.
in cruelty. And among other curious actiquity of Man; with Remarks on
counts recorded by the Father of History, Theories of the Origin of Species by his matter-of-fact description of certain Variation. By Sir Charles Lyell, people of Lake Prasias, in Thrace, in the F.R.S. 3rd Edition, revised. Lon- 6th century B.C., has been treated as imdon, 1863.
aginary. The houses of these people, he 5. Lake Habitations and Pre-Historic Re- tells us, were built on planks on piles out
mains in the Turbaries and Marl-Beds in the lake, with a narrow bridge to conof Northern and Central Italy. By Bartolomeo Gastaldi. Translated and nect them with the shore. The platforms Edited by Charles Harcourt Cham- were at first set up by the citizens working bers, M.A., &c. Published for the in common; but afterwards it became a Anthropological Society of London. rule that every man should drive three new 1865.
piles for each wife he married, they having 6. Habitations Lacustres des Temps Anciens
wives. Each man had his own hut, et Modernes. Par Frédéric Troyon. with its trap-door over the lake; and they Lausanne, 1860.
tied the babies by the foot with a cord, to THERE are few readier means of attack- prevent their rolling into the water. They ing the testimony of an old traveller or his- gave the horses and cattle fish for food, torian than to point out that he tells im- which was so plentiful that a man had only probable stories : things not perhaps phys- to let down his trap-door and lower a basically impossible, but unfamiliar to the ket (probably a wicker fish-trap) into the critic's experience, and therefore not set water, and in a short time he would draw it down by him in the catalogue of likely in-up full of fish.* cidents. This kind of criticism, however, Now, so far from its being impossible has the serious fault of going hand-in-hand that people should choose such a mode of with ignorance. The less the critic knows life as this, they have again and again been of the world, the more things, of course, found living so. There is a record by seem unlikely to him; and in the long run Abulfeda, the Syrian geographer, of Chrishis assault is apt to strengthen the very tian fishermen living in the thirteenth cenevidence it was directed against. It comes tury in wooden huts built on piles in one out that what the old writer asserted does of the Apamean lakes on the Orontes, unquestionably happen somewhere else, and The pile-huts of the Papuans of New his credit at once stands higher than ever; Guinea were described and drawn, some the unbelieving critic is laughed at, and forty years ago, by Dumont d'Urville, and public opinion turns, by a natural reaction, they are still inhabited. Mr. A. R. Waltowards the belief that everything an old lace, the naturalist, lived for days in one book says must be true unless it be proved of their quaint water-villages, with their false. The argument from improbability foors supported on piles carved into rude has in this way been brought to bear against human figures seeming to stand upon the Herodotus, with the effect on the whole of water -- rows of grotesque and somewhat strengthening our confidence in him. Thus disagreeable savage Caryatides. Still later, fault has been found with his account of the Captain Burton mentions a visit to an African broad-tailed sheep, with their tails fixed by
* Herodotus, v. 16.
tribe, the Iso, who, during some forgotten such words will do, some mutilated tradiwar, fled from Dahome and established tion of this earliest local nomenclature. themselves in a lagoon marked in our In lakes of North Italy and Germany simicharts as the Denham waters :
lar discoveries have since been made, and
the • The Dahoman king is sworn never to lead
crannoges of the Irish and Scotch lakes his army where canoes may be required; these bave been not indeed freshly discovered, Iso, therefore, have built their huts upon tall but examined by antiquaries with new care, poles, about a mile distant from the shore. as belonging to the now interesting class of Their villages at once suggest the Prasian lake lacustrine works. Had it not been for a dwellings of Herodotus, and the crannoges of loss lately sustained by ethnological sciIreland and the Swiss waters. The people are ence, we might perhaps at this moment essentially boatmen; they avoid dry land as have been testing the truth of Herodotus's much as possible, and though said to be fero account of the Pæonian lake-dwellers by cious, they are civil enough to strangers. In commenting on actual specimens of their June, 1863, I moored my little canoe under one huts, their weapons, and their fishing imof their huts, and I well remember the gro plements. With the aid of Sir John Lubtesque sensation of hearing children, dogs, pigs, bock, and others interested in such inquiries, and poultry actively engaged aloft.' *
Professor von Morlot, a zealous Swiss arBut the habits of such aquatic tribes, chæologist, was in the midst of arranging an ancient or modern, would have attracted expedition into Roumelia to dredge in Lake little attention, had it not been for a course Prasias, when he died, leaving in his will of discoveries made within the last few a characteristic bequest to science – his years, which have given to the lake-dwellers own skull to be set up as a specimen. If a prominent place in what we may venture the Prasian lake-men ever existed, their to call the pre-historic history of Europe. remains may be reasonably expected to be The Lake of Zürich happened to be un- still lying there in situ ; and it is to be usually low at the end of 1853; the inbab- hoped that some properly qualified traveller itants near by took advantage of the favour-may ere long carry out the curious research able moment, walled in plots of low land, so unhappily interrupted. and set to work to raise this into useful Until lately, the only systematic book ground by bringing mud from the flats devoted to lake dwellings was that of M. now left bare by the Lake. In excavating Troyon, an early and successful investigathis mud, the workmen were astonished to tor, but who wrote with a certain poetic find themselves standing among the piles license suited to a young science, of then of an ancient lake settlement, with the but seven years' growth, rather than with implements and rubbish of the old inhab- the more rigid strictness of argument into itants still lying round them. Before long which the subject has now settled down afthe Swiss antiquaries had explored the ter seven years more. Dr. Keller, of Zümargins of other lakes, and had proved rich, is perhaps the leading authority on that the old description of Herodotus was lacustrine matters; and now that Mr. Lee typical of the life of early Swiss tribes, has collected and edited his papers in an whose hundreds of water villages had once excellent English translation, this volume fringed the shore-line, where the water was must become the main work of reference not too deep nor the ground too hard for for archæologists ; while less special readpile-driving. In fact, the great blank ers, who avoid elaborate details of antispaces that stand for inland waters in the quarian .finds,' will yet read with pleasure Swiss maps would have been encroached and profit the general essays on the manner on in a more ancient survey by a bordering of life and place in history of dwellers in of lake settlements, whose names no ge- the lakes. ographer is now ever likely to restore, The habits of these people are known though perchance the names of adjoining with wonderful accuracy; their houses, villages on the shore may still keep up, as their agricultural and pastoral pursuits,
their manufactures, and even their barter* Memoirs Anthropological Society of London,' vol. i. p. 311.
ing commerce with foreign lands, are
vouched for by good evidence; and yet, in three acres in extent. Not far across the spite of all this, it is utterly unknown what moor we come among places where the manner of men they were in body, what piles are standing by scores in little sheets their language and their laws may have of water. When these piles were driven been like, what they believed, and what they were in the lake itself, a mile or so they worshipped. We are left to judge of from the shore, and only connected with their mental and moral condition as best it by a long pier, also on piles; but since we may, by comparing them with recent then, in the course of ages, the peat has races whose material life stands near the encroached upon the water and pushed same level. For this purpose an excellent back the lake to a sheet of half its former manual is available, scientific in matter and extent, standing in the middle of its earlier popular in expression. In Sir John Lub- basin. In these spots, however, where the bock’s ‘Pre-historic Times,' the lake-dwell- excavators have cut through the thin layer ers are not drawn in an isolated sketch, but of mould which now overlies the moor, and set in their proper niche among tribes of bave then removed a couple of yards or so culture more or less resembling their own of peat, and the water has fowed in and
men of the Stone and Bronze Ages and filled the excavated space to half its depth, the entrance of the Iron Age, the cave- things have been restored to something dwellers * and the men of the Scandinavian like their original condition, and the piles shell-heaps, the mound-builders of Ameri- again stand in water as they used to do beca, and more modern savage tribes taken fore the deserted village was finally left to in a general view.
be embedded in the growing peat. Piles It need hardly be said that descriptions that have lately been drawn out lie about and drawings, and the rows of flint-flakes in heaps. They are posts made of whole and potsherds in museums, cannot give to trunks of young firs, not even barked these old tribes the touch of real human when they were set up, though the bark interest that is gained by exploring the has now often gone; they look fresh and very places where they lived. The Swiss almost new, and though the wood is rotten, lake-dwellers were but savages in wooden the end of each pile, rudely sharpened for huts; but we can stand among stumps of driving deep into the mud, still shows rude posts in a mud-bank or a peat-bog, every scoop of the stone batchet with which and shape to ourselves the liveliest pictures it was painfully hacked to a point. But of their homes and habits. What impres- this can only be seen while the piles are sions these strange old sites leave on the fresh, for when taken away to be put in minds of observers may perhaps be judged collections they have the troublesome habit from the following notes of a recent visit to of shrinking to a sixth of their size while the place of one of the most remarkable drying, and this they do in a curious way: lake-towns in Switzerland.
first there appears
crack lengthwise, On the railway between Zürich and Chur which opens out day by day into a wide split there is a little station called Wetzikon, in down to the centre, till the sides of the a lowland country backed by the Glarus wound at last fold back towards each mountains, but itself only saved from flat- other, like a book opened in the middle ness by the undulating hills of Molasse' and turned back more than wide-open. In near by. A short drive through the vil- this state they are distorted out of all lage of Stegen ends in a wide stretch of knowledge, so that the way to keep the impeat-moor, with the swampy little lake of pression of the tool-marks is to take a Pfäffikon in sight a few hundred yards plaster-cast from the pile while it is still further on. This is Robenhausen, the site wet. of a lake settlement of the Stone Age, some The plates in Dr. Keller's book give an
excellent notion of the appearance of these • We have for the sake of convenience adopted patches of old Robenhausen restored, for a but we have grave doubts whether there is such an while to the appearance of still recent invariable sequence in the Stone, Bronze, and Iron ruins, though only to perish by exposure Ages, especially in the two latter, as is usually supposed
to the air. Among the piles lies every