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save to merit the favor of Almighty God.' Therefore Mr. Churchill's Note repThe spirit of such words, seldom heard resents a step toward fruitful negotiafrom such a quarter since Lincoln gave to tions. He does not tell France and Great the English-speaking peoples some of their

Britain's other war-debtors that they noblest models of devotional eloquence, is

must pay his Government the full sum the spirit in which Mr. Coolidge deals with the principal subject of his address

it is paying to the United States. The

doctrine that we must in all circumnamely, the position of the United States in regard to international affairs.

stances get as much from Europe as we

pay to America, and that if Germany Such progress as has been made dur- does not produce it France and Italy ing March toward a solution of Europe's must do so, is quietly abandoned. In two major problems, the settlement of other words, Great Britain proposes debts incurred during the last war and that her debtors pay her on an elastic insurance against a future war, appears basis such as has been granted Germany on the surface to be negative. The under her Dawes receivership. question of indebtedness to the United France received the Note tolerantly States is in abeyance, and a silence too rather than joyfully. An important secsudden to be spontaneous has settled tion of French opinion clings tenaover that subject. Mr. Churchill's ciously to the idea that all the war Note to France remains the final signif- debts will be eventually canceled. icant declaration in diplomatic finance. Gradually, however, the necessity of The Economist considers it the second making a settlement with creditors, milestone in Britain's international naturally on the best basis possible, is credit policy since the war, and thinks gaining acceptance. Italy has not it appreciably modifies the stand she reached this point. The Saturday Retook in the Balfour Note. The latter view says: 'There is, perhaps, only one tried 'to create the impression that our topic upon which the whole of intellipayment to America is not part of the gent Italian opinion is united, and that war costs chargeable against Great is the question of Interallied debts. Britain at all, and does so by making It writes down France's capacity two false suggestions. The first is that to make external payments to almost our borrowings in America were not for nothing and Italy's to a point indisour own use, when, in fact, they were tinguishable from zero, and finally largely spent upon feeding our own asks, with some relevance, what can people; the second is that America, un- Britain and America do if Italy and willing to lend to our Allies, handed the France refuse to pay?' money to us to pass on to them, An unexpected twist in international whereas, in fact, the United States was debt-relations has embroiled Germany lending the European Allies 1315 million and Rumania. Rumania has claims pounds sterling, while she was lending against Germany under the Versailles Great Britain 940 million pounds ster- Treaty for the restoration of cattle, ling.' Removing this false presentment railway rolling stock, and other propof the case, 'there is no special charac- erty seized by the German army when teristic of our American debt that dif- in occupation of her territory; for comferentiates it from other war-costs or pensation for property surrendered to creates a claim in equity that this Germany under the Bukarest Treaty precise amount ought to be repaid to forced upon her by that country during us rather than any other sum which the war; and for indemnity for more Europe can afford to pay.'

than two billion lei of paper currency issued by the German authorities in and a more comprehensive security occupation and paid to Rumanian sub- pact including Germany. A defensive jects for supplies. Berlin argues that alliance confined to Great Britain, these are reparations claims to be paid France, and Belgium would offend the out of the Dawes collections, and as- smaller Allied nations of Central and serts that since she is in a receiver's Eastern Europe, especially if it were hands she cannot pay money to credi- limited to repelling aggression against tors except through her receiver. France and Belgium alone. Count Count Bernstorff's Deutsche Einheit, Skrzynski, the Polish Foreign Minister, while sympathizing with Rumania, promptly voiced this feeling in a sensaputs the case as follows: 'Germany is tional speech in the Warsaw Parliatied hand and foot by the Dawes ment. But Britain will have nothing to agreement. She made a settlement with do with a more comprehensive pact if her creditors at London. All her cred- it does not include Germany. To put itors signed that settlement. Then the the situation in a nutshell, England will creditors got together at a meeting of not actually fight to preserve the prestheir own in Paris on January 7. There ent Polish boundary. Meanwhile, a the Great Powers kicked out of the large group in France insists, with room the Little Powers who clamored Jules Sauerwein in Le Matin, upon (a) for the payment of their claims. What permanent control of German armahave we to do with that? We were not ments, (b) a military alliance of the Aleven present.'

lies, and (c) a guaranty pact embracing Mr. Chamberlain's rejection of the France, England, Belgium, Germany, Protocol puts the security question, to and Italy. quote one French publicist, “exactly This leaves as the third possible where it was when the United States solution the so-called German plan for refused to ratify the Treaty of Versailles, a Security Pact, which is said to have thereby destroying the guaranty treaty been inspired by the British Foreign in exchange for which France renounced Office, and apparently conforms with the neutralization of the Rhine.' Some British policy and interests. It proBritish writers dispute this. The Spec- vides for a mutual guaranty treaty beator thinks the present insecurity of tween France, Belgium, Germany, and Europe is due in no small degree to er- Great Britain, to be supplemented by rors committed since the Treaty was a special arbitration-treaty between made-naturally not by Great Britain. Germany and her Eastern neighbors. It says: ‘To be frank, France seems to The fly in the ointment, so far as France have become extraordinarily reckless in is concerned, is the last provision. the use of the tremendous position of Germany will bind herself not to atpower which she acquired in Europe tack Poland in order to secure terriunder the Treaty of Versailles - a torial readjustments that she believes power which no one in this country to be her right and that she refuses to would have grudged her if she had perpetuate over her signature, but she used it wisely toward Germany and will not recognize the existing frontiers with fairness and consideration toward as final, and reserves the privilege of ourselves.'

securing their modification by any nonTwo alternatives for the Protocol are military means in her power, either under discussion:a new guaranty treaty now or hereafter. Accompanying this is resembling the one that failed at Ver- probably the further claim to unite outsailles, and confined only to the Allies, side territories having a preponderant German population, like Austria, with business representative having limited Germany proper by a plebiscite. Local discretionary authority. In both Gerpolitics aside, — for M. Millerand and

for M. Millerand and many and France there are two groups his followers, like the German Nation in the iron and steel industry: proalists, seem ready to play the bel- ducers of unmanufactured and semi"ligerency card to win their game at manufactured materials, and the interhome, – the French probably welcome mediate consumers who convert these this overture. Quotidien, an Herriot materials into finished, ultimate proddaily, reflects: ‘Most assuredly it will ucts. In France these groups, the be just and right to force peace upon Schneider-Creusot and the De Wendel Germany if she shows herself recalci- interests respectively, are still rivals, trant. But most assuredly, too, it will and the difficulties of the one have not be still better not to have to impose always been unwelcome to the other. such a peace.'

The Germans, on the other hand, are Within this larger diplomatic orbit solidly united. They have established are smaller orbits that cause mutations such a complete community of interests in its path. One of these is the unsettled between producers and consumers of status of Germany's armaments. We raw materials that the whole industry shall print next week a notable contri- is scientifically rationed with supplies bution to this theme by a French writer, produced by its own members, as if it and

pass it over here except to call at- were controlled by a single company. tention to the fact that the report of the Whatever raw iron is imported is Interallied Control Commission has not brought into Germany by a single been made public. The second wheel controlling body, in carefully regulated within a wheel is the negotiation for a contingents, and through the hands commercial treaty between France and of the iron-producing industry, which Germany, in which world-important exercises much the same control over economic interests are involved. A pro- allotments, priorities, ultimate prices, visional agreement has been signed for and the like that our War Industries a period of nine months, pending the Board exercised in the United States conclusion of a formal commercial during hostilities with Germany. treaty between the two countries. It With the opening of Parliament provides for the exchange of raw mate- Ramsay MacDonald returned from his rials and manufactured products on a

West Indian cruise with recuperated most-favored-nation basis, mostly at health, and has resumed his not unminimum tariff-rates lower than those contested position at the head of his applied to the goods of any third nation. Party. He and Lloyd George are comThe treaty is said to be postponed on petitors for the leadership of the Oppoaccount of the failure of big capital in sition; and the Laborists, whose followthe two countries to get together. That ing is normally more discordant than is, trust versus trust have proved more that of other Parties, can hardly tolerate intractable negotiators than govern- internal dissensions with the possibility ment versus government.

of a Liberal revival facing them. Part of the difficulty springs from the The Conservative Cabinet has withfact that the German tariff is more held its endorsement from a proposal flexible than the rigid French tariff, so to restrict the right of trade-unions to the situation resembles one where a use their funds for Party purposes. business representative with wide dis- This and other appearances of flinchcretionary authority tries to deal with a ing prompt the Tory National Review, which dismisses Laborists and Liberals which would have insured her not only alike as incompetently led, — 'political peace but prosperity; Germany's Repopponents whom an unkind fate has arations payments and France's Inplaced at the disposal of Back Num- terallied debt payments should have bers,' — to remark that it is unfortu- been linked together from the outset; nate that Mr. Baldwin chose to sur- a capital levy at the present moment round himself with a Cabinet of 'con- would be difficult, and it would be firmed wobblers — that is, men who preferable instead to consolidate the have wobbled so long that wobbling internal debt — though how was not has become their second nature.' stated; whatever is done must be done

South Ireland has just endorsed the with decision and firmness. Caillaux Free State Government at several by- avoided mentioning the religious queselections. During the campaign the tion. Some imagined they discovered Republicans denounced the Catholic subtle disparagement of Herriot in cerbishops for dragging politics into reli- tain turns of the speech. M. Caillaux gion. Father O'Flanagan, a prominent toured the North during March, where, Republican orator as well as a popular according to Radical journals, he was priest, criticized Irishmen at a De received with great enthusiasm. Valera meeting in Dublin for 'tolerat- Italy has been having more 'suppresing too much ecclesiastical influence in sions.' Early in March Mussolini sudsecular affairs,' and told his hearers to denly suspended the president and get back to the policy of O'Connell, administrative council of the Associawho said, 'We take our religion from tion of Ex-Service Men, and replaced Rome and our politics from home. At them by three Fascist commissioners. the same time, however, the Republi- He gave several reasons for this action, cans accused their Free State oppo- the principal being an alleged attempt nents of retaining Free Masons in offi- to use the Society against his Governcial posts and electing members of that ment. These ex-Combattenti are said society to the Senate; but apparently to have six hundred thousand members. these charges had little influence with Behind Giolitti, Salandra, and Orlando, the voters.

the elderly ex-Premiers, aged between French politicians have been pre sixty-four and eighty-two, who are now occupied with the return of Caillaux, opposing Mussolini, stands a group of who seems to have eclipsed M. Briand younger men, like Senator Luigi Alberas heir apparent to the Premier's chair. tini, director of the great Milan daily Perhaps the two men will neutralize Corriere della Sera, Giovanni Amendola, each other and give Herriot an added editor of Il Mondo, the paper that publease of power. Columns of feverish lished the Rossi Confession, and Vittopolitical polemics filled the French rio Vettori, the youngest of them all, press on Caillaux's 'comeback,' and it who is now, head of the Giornale d'Italia. received wide attention in the press of Vettori is described by a British corneighboring countries. Part of this respondent in Italy as 'a dangerous fame, or notoriety, is due to his man, a will and courage as strong as sensational career, and part unques- anything in the country, no more contionably to his reputation as a financier. science than a Fascist under-secretary, The highlights of his Magic City and a very exact knowledge of the unspeech last February were: France dergrowth of the situation. Let Musshould have inaugurated a policy of solini yield a step and these enemies reconciliation with Germany in 1919, will turn his retreat into a rout.

Africa has had a momentary respite ference at Washington. Tokyo Nichi from sensations. Morocco has been Nichi thinks such a meeting may have quiet; Egypt has concluded the election been suggested to our Government by of her new Parliament without unto- Great Britain in order to slip out of the ward incidents. Zaglul Pasha, who first Protocol snare at Geneva. 'It is not stirred the passive fellahin that form the duty of the United States to pull ninety per cent of the population to chestnuts out of the fire for Great interest in independence and religio- Britain. We would never oppose an insocialist reforms, has won; it is said to ternational disarmament conference, the disappointment of King Fuad, who but if universal disarmament comes it is jealous of his Grand Vizier's popular- must aim at true peace' — it must not ity. South Africa has voted to return have a disguised military purpose, such to the gold standard, chiefly for business as eliminating Japanese influence from reasons, but partly perhaps because

China. this gesture of financial independence Primo de Rivera, President of the flatters the Afrikanders. Urgent racial Spanish Directory, recently stated in a and labor issues face both Central and political speech: 'The future of Spain South Africa, of which we shall have lies in South America.' This did not more to say in an early issue.

please the French, who would like to It becomes increasingly evident that

see Latin

that is, Gallic influence the Geneva conferences have stirred up dominant in that continent. Le Temps the opium question without settling it. reviews Spain's courtship of her former The fact that white colonial adminis- colonies during the past few years, and trators discouraged a radical programme declares that the Spanish cause is not of suppression has made restriction making progress in the Americas, bepolicies popular with Asiatic leaders, cause it meets the opposing current of who might otherwise have been luke- Washington Pan-Americanism - nothwarm. A native member of the Council ing is said of the antagonistic agitation of State at Delhi attacked in that body from Paris - and because resurgent the growing abuse of opium in India. 'Indianism' has become a widespread He declared that in Bombay the infant cultural and economic movement death rate had reached 652 per thou- among the laboring masses of Mexico, , sand, and eminent doctors had certified Central America, and the southern conthat over ninety per cent of the babies tinent. The latter was present in the of mothers working in the mills were recent political agitation in Chile, it daily doped with opium. Another exists all along the western seaboard native member deplored India's export of South America, it runs parallel with of opium to China. Nationalist leaders the agrarian victories won during the in China this does not include the last Mexican revolution, and it exmilitary commanders, who despotically presses itself in Central America in such exploit that country - are lifting proposals as that to rechristen the revoices in favor of energetic suppres- public of San Salvador by its aboriginal sion.

name, Cuscatlan, and to rename the Japanese newspapers received up to capital city Atlacat), after the cacique the date of writing are politely skeptical who defended the country against the regarding a second disarmament con- Spanish conquistadores.

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