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to Philadelphia, where he worked at manufacturing cigars. In 1837 he went to Cincinnati, Ohio, where he became a sign-painter. He did not attend school regularly. He was employed in a theater in Dayton, Ohio, for a year, and then returned to Cincinnati as a portrait painter. He made little money, and was forced to make a living by sign-painting, cigar-making, readings, and dramatic performances. He lived in New York in 1841, and in Boston, where he contributed poems to the Courier, 1843– 1844. He traveled abroad in 1850 and in 1853, taking up art-study in Florence and Rome until 1858. During the Civil War he recited many of his National war-songs in the camps, and gave the proceeds of his readings to the aid and comfort of the wounded soldiers. He died in New York City, May 11, 1872.

“The Revolutionary Rising” as given in this volume is taken from “The Wagoner of the Alleghanies," a poem of the days of 1776. The scenes of this poem are mostly laid on the banks of the Schuylkill, between Philadelphia and Valley Forge. The complete poem covers a period of time extending from some years before to nearly the end of the Revolutionary War.

Paul REVERE'S RIDE (Page 229) Paul Revere was one of the most patriotic citizens of Boston in the time of the American Revolution. He was a goldsmith and engraver, and did a great deal to further the cause of American liberty. Paul Revere was captured by the British Regulars while performing his patriotic duty on this noted ride. Later he was set free.

Boston HYMN (Page 233) The day that the Emancipation Proclamation went into effect, January 1, 1863, this hymn was read in Musio Hall, Boston, Massachusetts. The student should remember that Lincoln's proclamation did not free a single slave in the loyal slaveholding states of Kentucky, Missouri, Maryland, and Delaware. It was only a war measure,

and the President had the right to confiscate property only where the states were in rebellion against the United States. Slavery was legally established in the Southern states, and the only way in which it could be abolished there, except in the case mentioned, was by amending the Federal Constitution, or by action of the states themselves.

LIBERTY FOR ALL (Page 237) William Lloyd Garrison (1805–1879) was among the most noted of the 'abolitionists. His parents came from Nova Scotia to Newburyport, Massachusetts, in 1805. William became editor of the Newburyport Free Press in 1826, and was a firm friend of John G. Whittier. He was connected with several different papers before he established The Liberator in Boston, January 1, 1831, which he edited until slavery was abolished and the Civil War ended. The pro-slavery compromises of the Federal Constitution he described as a covenant with death and an agreement with hell.” A public subscription of $30,000 was presented to him after the Civil War for his services.

ABRAHAM LINCOLN (Page 237) At the Harvard Commemoration, July 21, 1865, Lowell's Ode was recited. This selection is a part of that Ode.

THE BLUE AND THE GRAY (Page 239) Francis Miles Finch (1827– ), a jurist, was born in Ithaca, New York, and graduated from Yale in 1849. He was class poet. In 1850 he began the practice of law in Ithaca. He served for many years as judge of the court of appeals of New York State, and was commonly known as Judge Finch. The “Blue and the Gray” gave him a wide reputation.

The Blue and the Gray” was printed in the Atlantic Monthly in 1867. We are told that these stanzas were

inspired by the fact that the women of Columbus, Mississippi, placed flowers with no partiality upon the graves of the dead soldiers of both the Confederacy and the Union.

CENTENNIAL HYMN (Page 241) John Greenleaf Whittier (1807-1892) was born at Haverhill, Massachusetts, of Quaker descent. He was brought up in a simple country home, and his educational advantages were meager. Up to 1820 he had attended only the district schools. We are told that his poetic instinct was awakened by reading the poems of Burns. Whittier and William Lloyd Garrison were life-long friends, and they had mutually active interests in the problems of their day. Whittier earned money to attend Haverhill Academy. He wrote many poems and political contributions to magazines. He edited the American Manufacturer of Boston, but left its editorship to manage his father's farm until his father's death in June, 1830. After 1832, Whittier gave most of his attention to politics and was a strong abolitionist with Garrison. From 1832 to 1877 he did an enormous amount of writing and editing, and at the time of his death, September 7, 1892, was one of the most widely known of American writers.

This hymn was written for the International Exposition held in celebration of the completion of the first hundred years of American independence. The Exposition began May 10, 1876, when the “Centennial Hymn" was sung by a chorus of a thousand voices.

THE FLAG GOES BY (Page 243) Henry Holcomb Bennett (1863– ) is a writer and illustrator of note. He writes chiefly army stories.

He is a water colorist in landscape, birds, and animals. In 1898–1899 he wrote a series of sketches and articles on the National Guard.

ROBERT E. LEE (Page 244) In 1907 the one hundredth anniversary of General Lee's birth was celebrated at Richmond, Virginia. Lee was born at Stratford on the Potomac, in Westmoreland County, Virginia, January 19, 1807. He was the third son of Colonel Henry Lee and Anne Hill Carter, his second wife. General Lee surrendered to General Grant at Appomattox, April 9, 1865. On that morning he said : "There is nothing left but to go to General Grant, and I would rather die a thousand deaths.” This shows his admirable soldier-spirit. “How easily I could get rid of this,” he continued, “and be at rest. I have only to ride along the line and all will be over. But it is our duty to live. What will become of the women and children of the South, if we are not here to protect them?”. This shows the other spirit that resided in this heroic and gallant man. When his soldiers knew that he had surrendered, they gathered around him in groups with tears running down their cheeks, for they themselves had scarcely a thought of surrender, and they loved Lee beyond the power of words to express. With tears streaming down his own cheeks, in a trembling tone, all he could say to them was: “Men, we have fought through the war together. I have done the best I could for you. My heart is too full to say more.” This poem was read at the celebration mentioned above, and all are glad that that other noble and heroic soul, Mrs. Julia Ward Howe, expressed so well the feeling of the North toward this gentleman, “Virginia's son."

THE FLAG OF THE FREE (Page 244) The poem from which these stanzas are taken was given before the Phi Beta Kappa Society of Harvard University, June 30, 1910.

AMERICA FOR ME (Page 247) “America for Me" was published in The_Outlook, September 25, 1909, under the title “Home Thoughts

From Europe.". No loftier sentiment for America can be found than that expressed here by Dr. van Dyke.

THE CHALLENGE (Page 248) Dysart McMullen (1882– ) was born in Howard County, Maryland, November 9, 1882. Long years ago the name was spelled Mac Mullen, for the family are Scotch Highlanders, with Welsh blood in their veins. Dysart McMullen was educated at Rock Hill College, Maryland, under the Christian Brothers. From this college he graduated in 1901. He has written verse since he was a boy, though but little of it was published until just recently. The Scribners have published a number of selections from his pen since the Great War began. Dysart enlisted at the entrance of the United States into the war, and is now (1918) in France serving the Red Cross as a commissioned officer.

An ODE OF DEDICATION (Page 249) Hermann Hagedorn is a young American author of excellent standing. He is of immediate German origin, but is to the tips of his fingers one hundred per cent American. In 1907 he graduated from Harvard, and was instructor in English there from 1909 to 1911. He is the author of several one-act plays, and besides being the author of many poems, he wrote You are The Hope of The World (1917), Where do

An Appeal to Americans of German Origin (1918), Barbara Picks a Husband (1918), A Boy's Life of Theodore Roosevelt (1918). With three other men, he organized the Vigilantes in 1916 an organization every American should know and champion.

America entered the Great War April 6, 1917. These verses were written to be read before the Harvard Chapter, Phi Beta Kappa, June 18, 1917.

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