This address was delivered before the Second PanAmerican Scientific Congress, held at Washington D.C., from December 27, 1915, to January 8, 1916. This Congress considered 'a multitude of subjects in pursuance of its “high aims and purposes : namely, to increase the knowledge of things American; to disseminate and to make the culture of each American country the heritage of all American republics; to further the advancement of science by disinterested coöperation; to promote industry, inter-American trade and commerce; and to devise ways and means of mutual helpfulness."

The first Pan-American Scientific Congress was held at Santiago in 1908.


(Page 132) The address on Individual Liberty and the Responsibility of the Bar, from which the paragraphs here given were taken, was delivered by Mr. Root at the annual dinner of the New York State Bar Association, January 15, 1916. It is fortunate that the addresses are collected in several volumes, covering the period of his services as Secretary of War, as Secretary of State, and as Senator of the United States, during which time, as he himself once said, his only client was his country. The Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, has published this edition. This address by Mr. Root is from the volume entitled Addresses on Government and Citizenship. The dinner at which this address was given was arranged specially to commemorate Mr. Root's reëntry into the legal profession, after many years of absence from it “because of the engrossing character of duties in the Departments and in the Senate in Washington.” He said : “I have come back to my old friends and my old haunts and taken up the old course of going up and down town daily, as I used to forty or fifty years ago.

PATRIOTISM (Page 137) Lyman Abbott (1835– ) is a noted editor, author, and preacher. His birthplace is Roxbury, Massachusetts. He graduated from New York University in 1853, was admitted to the New York bar in 1856, and is still a member of it. In 1860 he was ordained to the Congregational ministry, and since then has served as pastor of a number of churches, the most noted of which was the Plymouth Congregational Church, Brooklyn (1869– 1899), where he succeeded the distinguished preacher, Henry Ward Beecher. He was associate editor with Henry Ward Beecher of The Christian Union, and since 1893 he has been editor-in-chief of The Outlook. He has served as political and religious guide to hosts of Americans.

WHAT THE FLAG MEANS (Page 138) In June, 1916, Mr. Hughes, then a Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, delivered this address to a graduating class in Washington, D. C.

THE CHALLENGE (Page 142) Why did the United States enter the Great War? The answer is simple and sufficient. America believes in two kinds, and only two kinds, of wars. She believes in a war of self-defense, and in a war of rescue, liberation, emancipation, and freedom. America entered the Great War on the basis of self-defense and of rescue and freedom.

THE GREAT STRUGGLE (Page 155) This is another illustration of Doctor Butler's epigrammatic statements which say so much in so small compass. There are several sentences in this short characterization that are worthy of serious discussion.

THE MENACE (Page 156) This address by President Wilson states in a masterly way the real nature of German intrigue and aggression in this country, both before America entered the war and after she entered it.

THE DELIVERERS (Page 163) The Outlook began its existence in 1869 as The Christian Union, succeeding a small paper known as The Church Union. Its first editor-in-chief was Henry Ward Beecher. Dr. Lyman Abbott became associate editor with Mr. Beecher in 1876 and editor-in-chief in 1881 when Mr. Beecher retired, which position he still holds.

The name of the paper was changed from The Christian Union to The Outlook in 1893.

WHY WE ARE FIGHTING GERMANY (Page 165) Franklin K. Lane (1864 ) was born in Prince Edward Island, Canada. He was appointed Secretary of the Interior by President Wilson, March 5, 1913. In early childhood he moved to California, and graduated from the University of California in 1886. He engaged in newspaper work early in life, and later acted as New York correspondent for western papers. He at one time was part owner and editor of the Tacoma Daily News. In 1889 he was admitted to the California bar and began the practice of law in San Francisco. In 1902 he ran for the governorship of California. From December, 1905, to March 4, 1913, he was a member of the Interstate Commerce Commission. The degree of LL.D. was conferred upon him in 1915 by New York University.

A JUST AND GENEROUS PEACE (Page 172) This address of President Wilson should be remembered and studied, if for nothing else, for his laconic description of the present German Government as “a Thing without

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conscience or honor or capacity for covenanted peace.” But there are other things for which it should be remembered. It makes clear as crystal the issue that confronted the Allies (the United States included) in the Great War. In it he speaks the very thought of the American people. He and they would countenance no compromise to secure peace. Justice and equality of rights must be secured, whatever the cost, for all nations. It shows the necessity of a complete and lasting defeat of a nation whose God is Might, and which knows no law except the law of necessity.

This address was delivered before a joint session of Congress, December 4, 1917, at Washington, D.C.


ING FOR NATIONAL SERVICE (Page 186) The Commercial Club of St. Louis, Missouri, was addressed by Dr. Butler on February 16, 1918.

His topic was “A Program of Constructive Progress. These two selections are from that address.

THE NEWSPAPER (Page 189) Fred Newton Scott (1877– ) is professor of rhetoric in the University of Michigan. From that university he holds the degrees of A.B., A.M., and Ph.D.

He is a well-known writer of books and contributor to magazines.

“The Newspaper" constitutes inscriptions of ideals adopted by the well-known daily, The Detroit News, Detroit, Michigan. The author of the ideals of “The Newspaper” is Professor Fred Newton Scott of the University of Michigan. Of course The Detroit News does not claim to live up completely to these ideals, but the courage to set them forth as its ideals, and the attempt to live up to them, are highly commendable, and indicate the spirit and the function of the American daily. These ideals should be learned by heart by every American citizen and transmuted into character.

FORCE TO THE UTMOST (Page 190) This address by President Wilson, familiarly known as his “Force to the Utmost” speech, was delivered at Baltimore, Maryland, April 6, 1918. He went to Baltimore to discuss the third Liberty Loan. When this address was given, Americans were no longer under an illusion about the Prussian menace. They knew that if Germany should win in Europe, her next attack in her design to dominate the world would be against the United States and South America Americans had come to feel by this time more than ever that they were fighting to make their own homes safe for their children, as well as to make the world safe for democracy.

THE AMERICAN'S CREED (Page 194) William Tyler Page (1868– ), who is now minority clerk of the House of Representatives, Washington, D.C., was born at Frederick, Maryland, October 19, 1868. He attended the Frederick Academy, and the public schools of Baltimore, and on December 19, 1881, he entered the service of the House of Representatives as a page. Since then he has served in the House continuously, holding the following positions : file clerk, journal clerk, tally, clerk, clerk to the Committee on Accounts, minority clerk of the House. In the 65th Congress he was the Republican nominee for Clerk of the House, and was Republican nominee for Congress from the second district of Maryland in 1902. He is the author of Page's Congressional Handbook, and collaborated in the preparation of the House Manual of Rules and Parliamentary Practice.

“GASSING” THE WORLD'S MIND (Page 195) William Thomas Ellis (1873– ) is one of America's well-known writers. He has traveled extensively throughout the world. He was born in Alleghany, Pennsylvania. He has been editorially connected with a number of Philadelphia dailies; was editor of the International

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