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American educational institutions, as well as by the University of Buenos Aires, McGill University, the University of Leyden, and Oxford University. He was admitted to the bar in 1867, and practiced law in New York. From 1883 to 1885 he was United States district attorney, Southern District of New York, was Secretary of War in the Cabinet of President McKinley, and Secretary of State in the Cabinet of President Roosevelt. He served as United States Senator from New York from 1909 to 1915; was president of the New York Constitutional Convention in 1915. He was a member of the Alaskan Boundary Tribunal in 1903, and consul for the United States in the North Atlantic Fisheries Arbitration, 1910. In 1910 he became a member of the Permanent Court of Arbitration at The Hague, and in the same year was president of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. He was president of The Hague Tribunal of Arbitration between Great Britain, France, Spain, and Portugal concerning church property in 1913. In 1912 he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. In 1917 President Wilson appointed him head of a special diplomatic mission to Russia.
“The Spirit of Self-Government" is the title of an address delivered by Elihu Root at the one hundred and forty-fourth anniversary banquet of the Chamber of Commerce of the State of New York, November 21, 1912.
THE RIGHT OF THE PEOPLE TO RULE (Page 101) Theodore Roosevelt (1858–1919) from 1901 to 1914 filled the stage of American public life perhaps more completely and conspicuously than did any other American. Honors too numerous to be mentioned in full have been showered upon him. A long list of colleges and universities have bestowed degrees upon him, among them Cambridge University, Oxford University, and the University of Berlin. He was a member of the New York Legislature from 1882 to 1884 at the early age of twentyfour, and was a delegate to the Republican National Con
vention in 1884, where he opposed the nomination of James G. Blaine for the presidency. The next two years he spent on a ranch, roughing it in North Dakota, strengthening his feeble health. He was appointed to the Civil Service Commission by President Harrison in 1889, and served on it until 1895. Then for two years he was president of the New York Police Board, and became assistant secretary of the navy in 1897, resigning (1898) to organize the First United States Cavalry commonly spoken of as the Roosevelt Rough Riders) for the SpanishAmerican War. In that year he was made a colonel for bravery in battle in the Spanish War, and, returning to New York as a military hero, was elected governor of the Empire State in the autumn of the same year (1898). He was elected Vice-President of the United States, November 4, 1900, and succeeded to the presidency upon the death of William McKinley, September 14, 1901. On November 8, 1904, he was elected President of the United States by the largest majority, both in the electoral vote (336 to 140) and in the popular vote (7,624,489 to 5,082,754), ever recorded in our history to that time, and by the largest plurality vote (2,545,515), ever given to any President of the United States. In 1912 he was the Progressive Party's candidate for the presidency. The Nobel Peace Prize, consisting of $40,000 and a medal, was awarded to him in 1906.
These paragraphs on “The Right of the People to Rule" are the concluding ones of a speech delivered by Mr. Roosevelt at Carnegie Hall, New York City, under the auspices of the Civic Forum, Wednesday evening, March 20, 1912. In granting permission to reprint these paragraphs, Colonel Roosevelt wrote to the editor the following words: “That contains the sum of the principles for which I was fighting in 1912, for which I am fighting now, and for which I have always fought and always shall fight.” They are well worth very serious study and thought.
POLITICAL ROUTINEER AND INVENTOR (Page 104) Walter Lippmann (1889 ) was born in New York City, September 23, 1889, and took his A.B. degree from Harvard in 1909. He did graduate work in philosophy at Harvard during 1909–1910. Mr. Lippmann is the author of A Preface to Politics, Drift and Mastery, and The Stakes of Diplomacy. He is the editor of The Poems of Paul Mariett.
THE MEANING OF THE FLAG (Page 105) Woodrow Wilson (1856– ) is the twenty-eighth President of the United States. He was born in Staunton, Va., December 28, 1856. His father was a preacher. He is of Scotch-Irish ancestry. He graduated from Princeton College in 1879; graduated in law from the University of Virginia, 1881; practiced law at Atlanta, Georgia, 1882–1883; and did post-graduate work at Johns Hopkins, 1883–1885. He holds the degree of A.B. and A.M. from Princeton; the degree of LL.D. from no less than nine colleges and universities, and the degree of Litt.D. from Yale. He taught history and political economy at Bryn Mawr College from 1885 to 1888, and was professor of the same subjects at Wesleyan University from 1888 to 1890. From 1890 to 1910 he was a professor in Princeton University, and president of Princeton from August 1, 1902, to October 20, 1910. He became governor of New Jersey, January, 1911, and served in that capacity until he resigned in March, 1913. The Democratic National Convention nominated him for President in 1912, to which office he was elected November 4, 1912. His political opponents in the 1912 election were Theodore Roosevelt, the Progressive candidate, and William Howard Taft, the Republican candidate. In 1916 he was reëlected President. He is the author of numerous books and published addresses. He has become an international figure through his leadership of the United States during the Great War and through his interpretation of the higher purposes of the Allies in this struggle.
"The Meaning of the Flag” is an address given by President Wilson in June, 1915, and hence about two years before America entered the World War. It was delivered on June 14, from the south portico of the Treasury Building, Washington, D.C. The President reminds his hearers that “this is Flag Day," but points out that “there are no days of special patriotism.'
A LEAGUE TO ENFORCE PEACE (Page 108) A. Lawrence Lowell (1856– ) is president of Harvard University, and has held that position since May 19, 1909. He practiced law at Boston from 1880 to 1897, and was professor of the science of government at Harvard from 1900 to 1909. He is the author of several books dealing with politics, government, and public opinion. He has been and is a powerful factor in advancing the cause of international democracy by helping on the movement of a League of Nations to Enforce Peace.
The date of this article from the Atlantic Monthly shows that the World War had been going on for over a year when President Lowell wrote it. The League to Enforce Peace was formed in Independence Hall, Philadelphia, June 17, 1915. Dr. A. Lawrence Lowell is Chairman of the Executive Committee, and Ex-President William Howard Taft is President of the League.
PATRIOTISM (Page 117) This selection on patriotism by Dr. Butler was originally given as part of an address by him before the Newport Historical Society, Newport, R. I., August 15, 1915. In 1917 it was copyrighted by Charles Scribner's Sons, and became part of a volume of addresses by Dr. Butler, which bears the title of A World in Ferment. In 1901 President Wilson, then a professor in Princeton University, wrote the following about modern democracy : “As a matter of fact democracy as we know it is no older than the end of the eighteenth century. The doctrines which sustain it can scarcely be said to derive any support at
all from the practices of the classical states. Modern democracy wears a very different aspect, and rests upon principles separated by the whole heaven from those of the Roman or Grecian democrat."
AMERICANISM (Page 119) This selection on Americanism by Mr. Roosevelt is a portion of an address by him delivered before the Knights of Columbus, Carnegie Hall, New York City, October 12, 1915. The World War had been in progress somewhat over a year. In 1916 George H. Doran Company, New York, copyrighted this address along with other addresses, articles, and public statements by Mr. Roosevelt, and put them together in a volume entitled Fear God and Take Your Own Part. Mr. Roosevelt dedicated this book to Julia Ward Howe, who, he says, was as good a citizen of the Republic as Washington and Lincoln themselves.”. In his introductory note to the book, Colonel Roosevelt says that “the principles set forth in this book are simply the principles of truo Americanism within and without our own borders."
PAN-AMERICANISM (Page 126) Robert Lansing (1864 ) is Secretary of State of the United States. He was born in Watertown, New York, October 17, 1864. He graduated from Amherst College in 1886, and in 1915 was honored by both Amherst and Colgate in being awarded the degree of LL.D. In 1889 he was admitted to the bar, and was a member of the firm of Lansing & Lansing from 1889 to 1907. He was associate counsel for the United States in the Behring Sea Arbitration, 1892–1893; was solicitor for the United States in the Alaskan Boundary Tribunal in 1903; and served the Federal Government in various legal capacities up to June 23, 1915, when he was made Secretary of State by President Wilson. He is associate editor of the American Journal of International Law.