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at once because she expected that President Jackson, elected in November, 1828, would come to her aid.
In the first Congress under Jackson an inquiry was proposed (1830) respecting the sale of public lands. The resolution on this matter led to the great debate between Webster and Hayne on the floor of the Senate (January 19–29, 1830), and to the greatest speech ever delivered by a member in the halls of Congress Webster's reply to Hayne, from which the paragraphs on.“The American Union" are taken.
Hayne supported the doctrine of Calhoun in his exposition. Daniel Webster replied showing the unreasonableness of the doctrine of nullification and the soundness of the doctrine of the indissolubility of the American Union. The question under discussion went to the very foundations of the American system of government. The question was : Did the Constitution create an indestructible nation, or did it simply establish a league of states, each of which was sovereign and possessed of authority to break up the Union ? President Jackson, to the great disappointment of the Democrats, supported Webster's position because he saw that the doctrine that a state had the right to decide for itself when it would obey Congress and when it would not was destructive of all true national government. Henry Clay secured a compromise tariff, March, 1833, and the crisis of civil strife was thereby averted. The effect of this speech was that patriotism had
a new birth and thousands were made to feel that the Republic rested upon unshakable foundations.
DEMOCRACY (Page 76) James Russell Lowell (1819–1891), an American poet of distinction, was born at Cambridge, Massachusetts, February 22, 1819, the son of a preacher. He graduated from Harvard in 1838, and secured the degree of A.M. from that college in 1841. Soon after graduation he devoted almost all of his time to literature, founding a magazine called the Pioneer in 1842. He contributed many political articles to various publications, in this way wielding considerable influence in the politics of his
time. He published many volumes of verse and prose essays which have gained a permanent place among the classics of modern times. He succeeded Longfellow as professor of the French and Spanish languages in Harvard. He was editor of the Atlantic Monthly from 1857 to 1862, and with Charles Eliot Norton edited the North American Review from 1863 to 1872. He became a member of the Republican party in 1856; was elected presidential elector in 1876; and was appointed, in 1877, minister to Spain by President Hayes. President Garfield appointed him minister to the court of St. James, London, in 1880. He delivered many public lectures, and was prized as an after-dinner speaker. The last years of his life were spent in the old Lowell homestead, “Elmwood," on the Charles River, Cambridge.
These paragraphs, with the exception of the last, are taken from an address delivered by Lowell on assuming the presidency of the Birmingham and Midland Institute, Birmingham, England, October 6, 1884.
The last paragraph is from another address by the same author.
Two poems (pages 215 and 216) give evidence of the ardent patriotism of Mr. Lowell.
WORKING OF THE AMERICAN DEMOCRACY (Page 77)
Charles William Eliot (1834 ) was born at Boston, Massachusetts, and is a noteworthy educator. He graduated from Harvard in 1853, was president of Harvard from 1869 to 1909, and since has been president emeritus. He has been specially honored by France, Japan, and Italy, and is a member of various distinguished foreign societies. He is a trustee of the Rockefeller Foundation. He has delivered a great many noteworthy addresses on educational and scientific subjects, and is the author of more than a dozen books and pamphlets. An evidence of his being considered one of the foremost citizens of the American Republic is found in his having been offered the appointment of American Ambassador to the Court of St. James (London) by both President Taft and President Wilson. He declined both offers.
This selection on American democracy from Doctor Eliot is taken from an address entitled “The Working of the American Democracy,” which was delivered before the fraternity Phi Beta Kappa, at Harvard University, June 28, 1888. The address should be read in full, and likewise the address from which is taken “Five American Contributions to Civilization.” (See page 79.) The latter was delivered at Chautauqua, August 19, 1896, These two addresses and sixteen other addresses and magazine articles constitute a volume by Dr. Eliot, which is entitled “American Contributions to Civilization." It is published by The Century Company, New York.
DEMOCRACY (Page 80) Henry van Dyke (1852– was born at Germantown, Pennsylvania, November 10, 1852, and is a distinguished man of letters and a man of genuine and liberal culture. He is a graduate of Princeton University, and the recipient of numerous degrees from various American and foreign educational institutions. He was ordained to the Presbyterian ministry in 1879, and made a famous record as preacher, particularly while pastor of the Brick Presbyterian Church, New York City. He was professor of English literature at Princeton from 1900 to 1913, when he was appointed minister to Netherlands and Luxemburg, by President Wilson. The list of books, both prose and poetry, of which he is author is a long one. They are known in many lands, having been translated into various languages. He is popular as college preacher, public lecturer, and after-dinner speaker.
This selection on “Democracy, the one on “The Home as a Nation Builder,” which follows (page 82), the one on “Education in a Republic” (page 84), and the one on page 85 are taken from Dr. van Dyke's book called Essays in Application. The selections are merely portions of the essays in the volume. The entire volume rings true to American ideals. It is published by Charles Scribner's Sons.
THE TYPICAL AMERICAN (Page 89) Nicholas Murray Butler (1862– ) is a noted publicist. He was born in Elizabeth, New Jersey. No less than fifteen educational institutions have bestowed the honorary degree of LL.D. upon him, and in 1905 the University of Oxford conferred upon him the degree of Litt.D. He has been president of Columbia University since January, 1902, and is a member or officer of more than a score of educational, literary, and political organizations, and is the author of a number of volumes dealing with educational, political, and philosophical subjects. He is greatly sought as lecturer and after-dinner speaker. Many of his epigrammatic statements, such as this one and others found in this volume, have been printed and widely circulated in the United States.
Good CITIZENSHIP (Page 90) Grover Cleveland (1837–1908) was born at Caldwell, New Jersey. He was the son of a poor Presbyterian minister, and was of New England descent. He grew up in western New York, and supported himself as best he could by tending a country store. He taught in an asylum for the blind, and acted as clerk in a lawyer's office in Buffalo. He received his academic education in Clinton, New York. He studied law and was admitted to the bar in Buffalo. In 1881, when he was forty-five years old, he was elected mayor of the city of Buffalo on an independent ticket. From this position he was made governor of New York, and while governor was elected to the presidency of the United States, 1884. In 1888 he was renominated, but defeated. But in 1892 he was returned to the presidency with a democratic majority in both houses of Congress. He was a “self-made man. He died at Princeton, New Jersey.
THE ATTITUDE OF THE INDIVIDUAL (Page 91) Charles Evans Hughes (1862 ) is a well-known American jurist, and political leader. He graduated
from Brown University in 1881. He was admitted to the New York bar in 1884; practiced. law in New York, 1884–1891, 1893–1906; became professor of law at Cornell University in 1891, and held that position until 1893 ; was special lecturer, New York Law School, 1893–1900. He became nationally prominent owing to his investigation of the record of some of the largest insurance companies in New York City, 1905–1906. In 1905 he was nominated for office of mayor of New York City by the Republican Convention, but declined. He became governor of New York, January 1, 1907, and served as governor until he resigned, October 6, 1910. President Taft appointed him associate justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, May 2, 1910. This position he held until June, 1916, when he resigned, because he was nominated for the presidency of the United States by the Republican party. He is a statesman of administrative political experience and a lawyer of a highly developed judicial mind.
At Yale University each year is given a course of lectures on “The Responsibilities of Citizenship" by "a lecturer of distinguished attainments and high conception of civic responsibilities.” The fund which makes possible these annual lectures on this most important topic was given to Yale University about 1900 by Mr. William E. Dodge. In 1910 Mr. Hughes was selected as the lecturer possessing the qualifications set forth by the founder of the fund as quoted above. The Yale University Press has now published more than a dozen volumes of these lectures. This selection from Mr. Hughes is from one of the four lectures in the 1910 series given by him at Yale.
THE SPIRIT OF SELF-GOVERNMENT (Page 96) Elihu Root (1845 ) was born in Clinton, New York. He graduated from Hamilton College in 1864, and taught at Rome Academy after his graduation. He studied law at New York University, receiving his LL.B. in 1867. Honorary degrees have been bestowed upon him by many