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died to save the Union in the greatest battle of the Civil War (July 1-3, 1863) near Gettysburg. This was the most critical moment of the war, General Lee being in command against General Meade. Doctor Junius B. Remensnyder gives an account in The Outlook of February 13, 1918, of this address. He was not more than thirty feet from President Lincoln on this occasion. The orator of the day was not Lincoln, but the Hon. Edward Everett, a most cultured speaker. At the conclusion of his address, the President of the Cemetery Association asked President Lincoln to dedicate the cemetery.
All Gettysburg was alive with crowds, soldiers, distinguished Americans, banners, and music. President Lincoln, riding on horseback, led the procession to Cemetery Hill. Mr. Everett spoke for about two hours in elegant diction and in a cultured manner. Lincoln seemed to be burdened by the length of the address. He sat in a very tall rocker, swaying restlessly to and fro, assuming all manner of attitudes, our reporter tells us, and when the polished orator was through, he arose, adjusted his glasses, and with no oratorical show began to read his address, written on a large sheet or sheets of paper which fluttered in his hand. Lincoln's simple power and pathos held his hearers spellbound. Says Dr. Remensnyder : "The time, in the midst of the great war for the Union; the scene, the crucial battlefield of the struggle, the hills and the woods about us still echoing with the roar of guns and artillery; and, above all, the thousands of hero graves encircling us, contributed to heighten the moral grandeur of the moment. Then, too, more impressive even than the address, the personality of the man himself, incarnating the great issues, shone forth with a compelling power.
This address is considered one of the two or three most memorable in the political annals of the human race.
Lincoln was elected again in November, 1864, by an electoral vote of 212 to 21. General McClellan, nominated by the Democrats, was Lincoln's opponent. At one time Lincoln himself had slight hopes of being re
elected. Though he was the candidate of the Republican party, there was powerful opposition in it to his renomination. Many thought Lincoln too slow and too conservative in dealing with the rebellion. The opposition platform in substance declared the war a failure, and demanded that "immediate effort be made for the cessation of hostilities.” President Davis of the Confederacy had declared that he would listen to no offers of peace except on the ground that the North recognize the independence of the Confederacy. Grant's Wilderness campaign (May-June, 1864) had brought no comfort to the Administration. The people had become weary of the long war, which seemed less hopeful than a few months before. But the military situation from August to well into October had aroused new hopes. Farragut, Sherman, and Sheridan had won victories for the Union, which were the most powerful arguments for the Republican cause.
When Lincoln drove to the Capitol to be inaugurated for the second time, a rain was falling, and the day was gloomy. As Lincoln was about to take the oath, however, the sun burst through the clouds, which Lincoln said made his “heart jump.' “The people listened to his inaugural, awed by solemn and stately beauty, gazing upon him as if he were a prophet speaking by inspiration.” Lincoln himself seemed to prefer this Inaugural to any of his other papers. Of it he said in writing to a friend : “I expect the latter to wear as well as perhaps better than anything I have produced.' Few state papers have expressed in such effective language the deep emotion and the feeling of religious aspiration and hope.
THE MONROE DOCTRINE (Page 48) James Monroe (1758–1831) was the fifth President of the United States. When still in his teens he fought for the cause of freedom in the New World in the American Revolution. He held many prominent public positions. He was governor of Virginia, Senator of the United States, minister to both England and France, President
Madison's Secretary of State, and twice President of the United States. He died in New York City, July 4, 1831.
Napoleon Bonaparte overthrew the Spanish dynasty and placed his brother Joseph upon the Spanish throne, June 6, 1808. This changed existing European conditions at that time. The fact that the Spanish colonies in South America were oppressed by heavy taxation, commercial hardships, and bad governors led them to break away from Spain (1807-1825). They proclaimed themselves republics, and were recognized by President Monroe as independent nations May 4, 1822. The allied powers of Russia, Prussia, Austria, and France (the Holy Alliance) pledged themselves to restore all the “legitimate thrones which the Napoleonic wars had overthrown, and their intention was to restore also to Spain her rebellious colonies in South America. Great Britain invited the United States to join with her in warning the Holy Alliance not to disturb the new South American republics. Although President Monroe, ex-Presidents Madison and Jefferson all heartily approved Great Britain's suggestion, yet Secretary of State J. Q. Adams convinced President Monroe that we ought not to follow England's lead, but rather assume full and sole responsibility ourselves for the protection of the republics on the American continent. In his annual message to Congress of December 2, 1823, the President issued the famous statement which has since been known as the Monroe Doctrine. It is not a part of international law, since no foreign nations have officially accepted it as binding upon them. America's entrance into the World War of 1914 is a fulfillment of this Doctrine, and is not in opposition to it. If the United States should join a League of Nations to Enforce Peace, this act would be a still greater fulfillment of the Monroe Doctrine. The object of that Doctrine is to protect and defend democracy in the New World from the autocracy of the Old World.
THE BUNKER Hill MONUMENT (Page 51) Daniel Webster's (1782–1852) ancestors were Puritans and came from England. His family settled in New Hampshire in 1636. The Websters were numerous in this colony, and Daniel's father, Ebenezer Webster, did noteworthy service in the French and Indian War. He also captained two hundred fellow settlers in the battles of the Revolution. His father became a judge in his own town, Salisbury, New Hampshire, though he never had a day's schooling in his life. Daniel was born in this town, January 18, 1782. When young he was frail, and because of this was kept out of school for a time, yet he learned much from nature, from everything he could find to read, and from committing good literature to memory. He was sent to Phillips Exeter Academy when fourteen years old; but in February, 1797, he was put under a private teacher, and was overjoyed when he learned that his father, poor as he was, intended to send him to college. According to accepted standards Daniel was poorly prepared to enter Dartmouth College in August, 1797. But, once in, he became the foremost student there. proficient in Latin, and in knowledge of history and literature was superior to any other student in Dartmouth. He graduated in 1801, and entered the law office of a neighboring lawyer. In order to keep his older brother in college at Dartmouth, Daniel gave up his law studies and began to teach school in Maine. He was a successful teacher. Later, after his brother graduated, he went to Boston and was admitted to the practice of law in 1805. He was opposed to the War of 1812. This opposition led him to make public addresses, and as a result he was sent to Congress twice. He was Secretary of State under Harrison and Tyler (1841), and when Fillmore became President, in 1850, became for the second time Secretary of State. He was twice an unsuccessful candidate for the presidency, 1844 and 1848. Webster died October 23, 1852. He is considered one of the most remarkable men in American history.
The monument on Bunker Hill was erected to Dr. Joseph Warren, who was shot down by the British forces in the battle of Bunker Hill, June 16, 1775. Warren
a major-general in the Continental Army. This monument was dedicated to the cause of democracy and liberty, June 17, 1825, half a century after the battle. Daniel Webster was president of the Bunker Hill Monument Association at the time of the laying of the corner stone. General Lafayette assisted Webster in the ceremony. It is said that fully twenty thousand people were present, among them two hundred veterans of the Revolution. The celebration of the completion of the monument was held June 17, 1843, at which time Webster, then Secretary of State, was again the orator. The monument itself is a noteworthy achievement, being built of granite, and rising to the height of one hundred and twenty-one feet. This oration is unquestionably a work of art and a masterpiece of literature. It offers the student an excellent opportunity to study good style in oratory. The unity of the oration is pronouncedly noticeable. Among other things the reader should note Webster's deep feeling of the great changes during fifty years of our history, and the great influence of our country on human freedom and human happiness.
THE AMERICAN UNION (Page 74) In 1828 Congress passed a tariff bill known as the “Tariff of Abominations," which met bitter opposition, especially in the southern states. John C. Calhoun, the Vice-President, drew up an Exposition and Protest" in which he denounced the tariff “as an act of tyranny on the part of the majority, and as directly contrary to the evident spirit of the Constitution.” He also claimed that a protective tariff was unconstitutional, and that any state, in case it considered an Act of Congress injurious and unconstitutional, had a constitutional right peacefully to nullify the law within her borders until such time as an amendment to the Constitution made the law constitutional. South Carolina did not press this matter