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the congress left Paris by special train, at 7 the first bill-broker in the land, and a man of his o'clock, and arrived in London at 12 the same word, who saysnight. There were special manifestations of good will

In respect of my own country, I more holdly asbetween the English and American deputations. alters her course in these respects, bankruptcy will

sert that it is my judgment, that unless she wholly At the breakfast, Richard Cobden, Esq., M. P., ultimately be the result. We have spent from fifwas called to the chair, and delivered an address teen to twenty millions sterling per annum for warhighly complimentary to the Americans present. like purposes since the peace of 1815. Had that A resolution was then passed to the same purport. money been applied to the discharge of the national The chairman presented to each member of the debt, by this time it would have been nearly anniAmerican delegation a copy of the New Testa-hilated ; but if our military expenditure be persist

ed in, and no reduction of our national debt take ment in French, with an appropriate inscription, place, at a period of our history certainly characsigned by himself in behalf of the meeting. terized by very fair prosperity and general political

To these remarks and proceedings Mr. Elihu calm, how is it to be expected that the amount of Burritt responded with his usual eloquence. Rev. revenue will be maintained in a time of adversity, Dr. Allen, of Northampton, also made an address, which we must from time to time anticipate in our from which we give one or two extracts :

future history? Should such adversity come upon

I venture to predict that our revenue will not We are the descendants of the Puritans who, be maintained, nor the dividends paid, unless more from Leyden, in Holland, and from the chalky cliffs efficient means be taken to prevent such a catastroof England, crossed the wide ocean to find an phe in these days of prosperity and peace. asylum for freedom-freedom as to civil rightsfreedom to read the Bible-freedom to worship This is a very grave prophecy, and it is no God. We have crossed the ocean and assisted in inconsiderable oracle which has pronounced it. this congress in order to give the world freedom Lombard street is the Delphi of commerce. Mr. from war.

We have come from the states of New S. Gurney has had to do with indebted men and England, from the snows of Canada, from the i

He knows the history of many incumsunny region of South Carolina, from the rich land of Ohio, and from the broad prairies of Wisconsin, brances. He has seen the vast mortgage lying to meet with men of the same heart in Europe. like an incubus on the resources of nature and the *** The New Testament, which had just been energy of man. He has traced the slow but sure presented to them, they received as the Word of drain of a fixed interest paid out of a fluctuating God, the light of the world, to teach the principles and perhaps a falling revenue. He has watched of universal peace.

the debtor struggling for many years, and just Dr. Allen spoke in warm terms of France, but added : What France wants, as it appears to me, keeping afloat, till there comes some extraordiis not intellect, is not science, is not literature, nary aggravation of his burdens, and then down taste, refinement; but the familiar knowledge of he goes. He has noticed that the chapter of acthe great truths of the Bible. One of the kings cidents is more fertile in disaster than relief, and of France expressed the wish that every peasant in in the long run tells against the debtor. From his dominions might have a chicken in his pot. what has come under his own observation in the We will express a different wish--that every exercise of his private profession, he draws a poFrench peasant may have a Bible in his cottage. litical inference: Unless the nation pays off its

debt while it can, the day will come when it can

not, and when it will find even the interest of that NATIONAL BANKRUPTCY APPROACHING IN ENGLAND. debt too much for its revenue. The prediction is

Among the various speeches and documents so serious and so unambiguously expressed, that elicited by the late Peace Convention, was one if it were found in the lucubrations of a mere which possesses peculiar claims to attention, and pamphleteer, it would be thought an exaggerated happens also to contain some expressions of a very alarm, or a mischievous suggestion. There are startling import. Mr. Samuel Gurney, as a mem- those who think the mere mention of national ber of the Society of Friends, holds the doctrine bankruptcy treason and rebellion, and who feel a of peace, and his opinions on this subject neces- patriotic shudder at the word “ sponge." We sarily assume a dogmatic and controversial char- own to a degree of this antipathy ourselves, and acter. His objection to armaments is referred to candidly confess that had we read the passage we his creed. But Mr. Samuel Gurney has another have quoted without knowing its author, we should capacity, in which he is supposed to act and talk have conceived an unfavorable opinion not so much more by calculation than theological bias. He is of his judgment as of his delicacy and tact. But a banker and bill-broker, and is believed to be the name at the foot of the letter is a sufficient singularly prudent and successful in that business. reply to any such suspicions. It is Samuel GurThat he has had extensive experience is evident ney who tells us that if we persist in our present enough, nor is there the least doubt that he has course, and do not avail ourselves of our comparaturned it to the proper account. As to the only tive prosperity to pay off our debt, a time of adremaining point, whether he can be trusted when versity will come, when we shall be bankrupt. he offers to others the benefit of his judgment, It is a hard saying, but nevertheless a true one; probably there is no one in this metropolis who and, however we may dislike the obtrusion of such would venture to moot that question. It is, then, unpleasant thoughts, we cannot dispel them. In

From the Times

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deed, our readers will remember that we have re- our time that Pennsylvania shall be enabled to peatedly said the same in substance ourselves. retort the charge of repudiation! But we cannot Not to reduce debt, we have said, is to increase conceal from ourselves that it is a species of repuit. Debt is ultimate insolvency. Bankruptcy is diation to suffer our debt to outgrow our power revolution. These are topics we have often urged, of repayment, and to bequeath to our posterity a and we applied them to France and her desperate task which we thereby confess to be impossible. finances long before the starving inhabitants of the faubourgs set Europe in a flame. The French

From the Spectator, of 1 Sept. Revolution is a very near event. Proximus ardet.

NEWS OF THE WEEK. It is evident that France has hitherto only aggra- Elihu Burritt's explanation of the objects vated her financial difficulties by revolution. She and plans contemplated by the Peace Congress at has only widened the gap between her income and Paris came somewhat out of time on the closing her expenditure. She has “put on the screw," day. Mr. Burritt is the true missionary of the but in vain. A large military force, we read to- movement. His force of character, his zeal, and day, is employed in collecting the 45 centimes his want of mistrust in himself or others, induce additional added last March twelve-month to the him to impart a completeness and absoluteness 10 direct taxation ; while government is endeavoring his plan, vastly more respectable than the trimto borrow at high rate of interest. But France ning position of some adherents, but perhaps 100 is only before us on the same path. Within three absolute and unqualified for the spirit of the day. years we have added twelve millions to our debt, He proposes, and the congress adopis his proposal, and have barely attained, if we have attained, an a convention of all nations, represented on the equilibrium between our incomings and our out- basis of universal suffrage, to revise the so-called goings. At the present moment, therefore, we international laws, and to elaborate a consolidated are at a standstill, with a debt the interest of and amended code, subject to revisal and adoption which is about 28,000,0001. per annum. But is by the several states severally; then the construcit reasonable, is it possible, to suppose that we tion of a tribunal to carry out that code. He can maintain this equilibrium? Any one of many does not supply the desideratum in this schemevery probable casualties may compel a sudden in- the standing-place of Archimedes-a power to encrease of expenditure, and hurł the state another force the behests of the central tribunal. But step in the downward course to bankruptcy. War something may come out of a movement is not the only danger ; nor is increased expendi- zealously and widely promoted : if not a formal ture. There are other less violent changes which guarantee of peace, if not the absolute disuse of might render the present taxation intolerable. war, perhaps an enlargement and improvement of

Of course there is a bright side as well as a those international councils which usually bear the dark side to the prospect before us. The embar- name of “congress ;'' and such an improvement rassed trader hopes for a god-send, and perhaps it might make itself felt soon and forcibly. comes. We may have our windfalls. It has even been suggested that a great depreciation of The victories of Austria and Italy are no doubt the valuable metals would proportionally reduce watched from Geneva with some hope. Venice the pressure of our debt, which is a metallic on- has been compelled to submit, and is in possession dertaking. After borrowing in a dear market we of Radetzky; whose iron rule is still heavy on may pay in a cheap one. But such a result is Milan, and is mocked by the “ amnesty” for politmuch too problematic, not to say romantic, to be ical prisoners—with exceptions not stated. The allowed a place in our financial speculations. The revolution of 1848 has nowhere passed away in most rational supposition is, that the currency will vain : by it peoples have learned the feebleness of remain in all our time much as it is now, and that governments and the outspoken mind of Europe ; there will be no change of any kind in our favor.“ public opinion” will no longer countenance AbIn other respects, experience teaches us to expect solutism. Radetzky conquers in the field, but to a change for the worse. Changes generally are keep his conquests will need an influence more perfor the worse. Should the year 1850 produce manent and tractable than military occupation ; any great event, it will most probably be an ex- and the Council at Geneva is sitting to watch for pensive one. Even in private life, unexpected the mistakes of the victors. bequests, lucky windfalls, profitable discoveries, Again : Hungary yields, but is not fully conand sudden promotions, are very rare compared quered. The new accounts confirm an early imwith the generally adverse tendency of events. pression that Görgey's surrender was preärranged; States are still less in the way of luck. Theirs and the part assigned to Russia in the arrangeis an almost uniform pull against difficulties. It ment is remarkable. Although it was known to would, therefore, be as imprudent as it would cer- the Russian and Austrian commanders that the tainly be impious, to expect some extraordinary Hungarians must soon be exhausted, the Russian relief from our national burdens. For this relief ally accepts the submission of the insurgent chief. 'we must look to ourselves; and unless we begin It is usual, we believe, for an ally who merely sends betimes to help ourselves, and pay our debt like succors, to refer the negotiations of surrender 10 men, we shall be bankrupt. So says Samuel the principal in the quarrel : the Russian comGurney, and so say we also. May it not be in mander has overridden that rule, and in so doing

appears to have accepted the office of mediator | early Massachusetts. Whoever reads Bancroft or between the ally and the insurgent force.

The Grahame does not feel constantly that the begingeneral unsettlement of Europe, followed by a de- nings here were very small, and that the seulers cided reaction, cannot but give Russia hopes of hardly had a definite idea of the rapid increase and securing something for herself; and she is evident- prosperity which was to follow. Rather would it

seem as if they came with faith more clear than any ly keeping her own game in her own hands.

prophets', and founded institutions more with refWhile victory is secured in Hungary, the signs erence to the future than their own time. Mr. Hilof disturbance in various parts of Germany have dreth's reader, on the other hand, looks on them, not ceased. One trait is the mutinous and disaf- as a few scattered men, fighting hard with the presfected state of the army at Baden. Indeed, al- ent and conscientiously meeting it—but quite igno though“ peace” of a certain kind is established rant of the future-quite thoughtless of their own by force of arms from the Danube to the Seine, were created for the wants of the time—adapted

after greatness. He sees their institutions as they from the Danube to the Seine the sure evidences to emigrants to the forest—to the virtual indepenof social disturbance are universal.

dence of a community neglected at home :-and An important consideration for those who desire suited to after times not so much by the forethought to effect a real settlement of Europe, is the vast of those who framed them, as by the eternal worth number of persons, belonging to defeated insur- of the principles of Christian liberty which they

embodied. gent forces, who are wandering about the world in

A critic in some southern journal, who seems to search of new adventures. These people form a

us at least ill-natured, has amused himself with huge army, available for revolution in any country heaping up. several instances of careless writing of the continent—a huge polyglot Garde Mobile. collected from these volumes. There are few books True policy would suggest some method of receiv- of the size in which such could not be found. But ing them peaceably into their native populations, in general, the style of the book, without being so that the army shall be absorbed and the spirit Horid, is very agreeable and clear.' It is entertainof hostility neutralized. A congress would do ing general reading. It ought to seduce to the good service in this matter, by supplying govern-| tend to understand it.

study of our history the multitudes who only prements with the warrant for a general measure. Mr. Hildreth has brought in many topics which

are not treated at the same length in Bancroft or

Grahame. Thus, his sketches of the progress of NEW BOOKS.

slavery are parts of our history which of course Hilpreth's History Of THE UNITED States.- ought not to be omitted, and which he has been led We are surprised to learn that Mr. Hildreth's to investigate with a peculiar care. book, of which two volumes have now been pub- Another volume will complete the work to the lished, and for several weeks past before the pub- adoption of the Federal Constitution, as far as the lic, has not attracted general attention.

author proposes to go: It is by no means true that Mr. Grahame's or We commend it distinctly to the circle of our Mr. Bancroft's valuable works have so far covered readers, with this assurance :--that whoever will the ground as to deny this new history room or read this book, side by side with Mr. Bancroft's, interest. On the other hand, no one can read it, will be far better able to see the full course of who is familiar with those books, without a feeling American history, than any man can be who has of surprise, which ought to be a gratified surprise, not opportunity to go at length into the original in observing the new aspects in which a familiar documents; just as, in reading English history, no tale appears.

man ought to be satisfied by reading only a CathBoth Bancroft and Grahame are eulogistic, when-olic, or only a liberal author ; so the future reader ever they can possibly be so, in the narrative of our of either of these great works for great they are earlier annals. They look back on the first settlers —will have to remember that, until he has acwith all the glow of what Mr. Choate calls “the quainted himself with the other, he is looking on reflex and peculiar light” created by the results of the national history with only half an eye. their sufferings and labors. Mr. Hildreth, on the The third volume will enter on the history of the other hand, seems proud to show a little spice in revolutionary struggle, into which we are just inhim of the very iconoclasm which made the Puri- troduced in the second. Here fairly begins the histans what they were. He is more willing striptory of the United States, for the most striking off a romantic veil than to hang it on.

characteristic of colonial history is that till the great With this habit of mind, joined with a vigorous struggle they were disunited states. The utter resolution, hard to keep in such work, that he will want of any ihread by which to give unity to the not fall in love with his heroes, he offers a picture thirteen colonial histories, is a difficulty which all of the early settlements here which is new, as we our historical writers feel when they attempt in one have said, while it is very entertaining, and seems work to combine so many thieads. Mr. Hildreth to be very accurate; for it is scarcely ever unkind. has met it certainly as well as any of them. It is no such travesty of Puritanism, for instance, He has declined giving any references to his auas southern oration writers attempt—nor even of thorities. We must hope that he will reconsider Virginians, as northern declaimers indulge in be- and change the resolution which omits them. The fore a partisan audience, but it is very coo)—quite plea in the preface does not meet the case. And, without enthusiasm, and usually compels the reader in a book of this kind, the want a specific auby its sang froid, into something of that confidence, thority goes far to make it, for practical purposes, which, whether willingly or not, we give to the merely a long oration or essay in the guise of his verdict of an intelligent jury, after a well con- tory. A trifle like this ought not debar the voltested trial, although they may have stripped off umes from the place which they deserve in the our prejudices.

library of any intelligent man. To take, as an instance of this, the history of

Boston Daily Advertiser.

a

1. Autobiography-Chateaubriand's Memoirs, Blackwood's Magazine,

49 2. New Light on the Story of Lady Grange,

59 3. The Modern Vassal-Chap I.,

John Wilmer,

69 4. Resignation,

By the Countess D'Arbouville

,

79 5. EUROPE. Russia and Austria ; Switzerland Menaced with the Fate of Hungary; Peace Sundry Papers,

90 Congress; News of the Week, Poetry.— Venice, 58.—Lament of a Roman Patriot; Hungary, 67.-World Weariness, 68. SHORT ARTICLES.—English Taste in Poetry; Hervey's Influence on the Puritans, 58. New Books, 95.

PROSPECTUS.—This work is conducted in the spirit of now becomes every intelligent American to be informed Littell's Museum of Foreign Literature, (which was favor of the condition and changes of foreign countries. And ably received by the public for twenty years,) but as it is this not only because of their nearer connection with ouetwice as large, and appears so often, we not only give selves, but because the nations seem to be hastening, spirit and freshness to it by many things which were through a rapid process of change, to some new state of excluded by a month's delay, but while thus extending our things, which the merely political prophet cannot computer scope and gathering a greater and more attractive variety, or foresee. are alıle so to increase the solid and substantial part of Geographical Discoveries, the progress of Colonization, our literary, historical, and political harvest, as fully to (which is extending over the whole world,) and Voyages satisfy the wants of the American reader.

and Travels, will be favorite matter for our selections ; The elaborate and stately Essays of the Edinburgh, and, in general, we shall systematically and very fully Quarterly, and other Reviews; and Blackrood's noble acquaint our readers with the great department of Foreign criticisms on Poetry, his keen political Commentaries, affairs, without entirely neglecting our own. highly wrought Tales, and vivid descriptions of rural and While we aspire to make the Living Age desirable to mountain Scenery ; and the contributions to Literature, all who wish io keep themselves informed of the rapid History, and Cominon Life, by the sagacious Spectator, progress of the movement—to Statesmen, Divines, Law the sparkling Examiner, the judicious Athenæum, the yers, and Physicians—to men of business and men of busy and industrious Literary Gazette, the sensible and leisure-it is still a stronger object to make it attractive comprehensive Britannia, the sober and respectable Chris- and useful to their wives and Children. We believe that tian Observer; these are intermixed with the Military we can thus do some good in our day and generation; and and Naval reminiscences of the United Service, and with hope to make the work indispensable in every well-in the best articles of the Dublin University, New Monthly, formed family. We say indispensable, because in this Fraser's, Tait's, Ainsworth's, Hood's, and Sporting Mag- day of cheap literature it is not possible to guard against azines, and of Chambers' admirable Journal. We do not the influx of what is bad in taste and vicious in morals, consider it beneath our dignity to borrow wit and wisdom in any other way than by furnishing a sufficient supply from Punch; and, when we ihink it good enough, make of a healthy character. The mental and moral appetite ase of the thunder of The Times. We shall increase our must be gratified. variety by importations from the continent of Europe, and We hope that, by "winnoring the wheat from the from the new growth of the British colonies.

chaff," by providing abundantly for the imagination, and The steamship, has brought Europe, Asia and Africa, by a large collection of Biography, Voyages and Travels, into our neighborhood ; and will greally multiply our con- History, and more solid matter, we may produce a work nections, as Merchants, Travellers, and Politicians, with which shall be popular, while at the same time it will all narts of the world ; so that much more than ever it aspire to raise the standard of public taste.

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WASHINGTON, 27 Dec., 1845. Or all the Periodical Journals devoted to literature and science which abound in Europe and in this country, this has appeared to me to be the mos useful. It contains indeed the exposition only of the current terature of the English language, but this by its immense extent and comprehension includes a portraiture of the human mind in the utmost expansion of the present age.

J. Q. ADAMS.

LITTELL'S LIVING AGE.—No. 283.—20 OCTOBER, 1849.

From Fraser's Magazine. of discovering the rare qualities of a woman destined to be the centre of a group of so many

other MADAME RÉCAMIER.

celebrated persons of her time. Notwithstanding The position occupied by Madame Récamier in Mme. Récamier's extreme youth, Mme. de Staël French society, and the influence which she exer- was strongly attracted by her. Without doubt cised over it, entitle her to be considered as one there was in that perfect and poetical harmony of of the most remarkable persons of our age. At the soul with the whole person, something which, the same time, to those who did not enjoy the while it captivated Mme. de Staël's brilliant imaghappiness of her acquaintance, the secret of the ination, offered her a sort of repose from the agiinfluence of which we speak, and to which there tations of a stormy life, and the restless cravings has been nothing equal in recent times, must, un- of a spirit which the actual world could never less the cause of it be explained, remain in mys- satisfy. It is generally believed that Lucien Botery. I have so frequently been asked by her naparte was not insensible to the magic of her countrymen and my own, in what the fascination beauty ; and that even his brother, armed as he of Madame Récamier consisted-how it was that was with power and glory, was made to feel that after the loss of fortune, youth, and beauty, she the purity and dignity of a gentle and lovely wostill retained an unquestioned and unequalled em- man were enemies too powerful for him. pire over men's minds—that I venture to attempt Mme. Recamier, who set great value on her some explanation of the problem. For society, independence, had refused to adorn the court which and above all the female part of it, has no slight Bonaparte was then forming. The false repreinterest in the matter.

sentations of her conduct contained in the MémoThe life of Mme. Récamier was not in itself rial de St. Hélène, furnish fresh and striking proof eventful; her history is mainly to be found in that of that unscrupulous and vindictive tenacity with of her friends. She kept aloof from party inter- which the emperor pursued all those who offered ests and party passions. The current of her pure any resistance to his will. and gentle existence flowed like the waters of the Scarcely was he first consul when he found fabled brook, which glided through a stormy sea himself engaged in a struggle with the celebrated without ever mingling its tranquil and pellucid Mme. Récamier. Soon after he got possession waters with the turbid waves.

of the government, Napoleon discovered that a Married at a very early age to a man who then correspondence with the Chouans had been carried possessed a large fortune, her house gradually be on with the connivance of M. Bernard, father of came the rendezvous of all that was most distin- Mme. Récamier, who was administrateur des postes. guished in Europe. France had but just emerged He was instantly dismissed and thrown into prison, from the horrors of the revolution. Under the and was in danger of being brought to trial and Directory and the Empire there were two distinct condemned to death. His daughter hastened to societies, the old and the new, which it was de- the first consul, who, at her solicitation, put a stop sirable to amalgamate. The sudden appearance to the trial. He was, however, inflexible as to of a woman surrounded with all the prestiges of the rest ; and Mme. Récamier, accustomed to ask youth, grace, and beauty, marvellously contributed for everything and to obtain everything, aspired to to bring about this result. French society offers nothing short of the restoration of her father to his willing homage and obedience to the empire of a office. Such was the state of morality at the

time ; and Bonaparte's severity excited the most In the midsi of her triumphs at home, Mme. violent outcries. Mme. Récamier and her party, Récamier made a short visit to England, where which was very numerous, never forgave him. she was the object of a homage she was far from Would not anybody believe from this statement expecting. In London, as in Paris, crowds fol- that, after obtaining remission of the sentence, lowed her, and murmurs of admiration were heard Mme. Récamier had asked that her father should wherever she showed herself. The Prince of be restored to his post ? Nothing of the kind took Wales, then the object of general admiration, and place. Mme. Récamier knew too well what she the lovely and brilliant Duchess of Devonshire, owed to herself, to incur a heavier debt of obligapaid her peculiar attentions. Her portrait was tion than she could contract with safety and dig. engraved by Bartolozzi, and made its way from nity. Seconded by very powerful friends—among England to the Ionian Islands, India, and China. others by General Bernadotte—she succeeded in

But whilst this growing celebrity, already so obtaining M. Bernard's liberty ; beyond that, neiwidely spread, seemed to attach solely to her ex- ther her efforts nor her wishes went. It was not, ternal charms, La Harpe, who at that moment therefore, by any such abuse of her own influence, wielded the sceptre of literature, had the merit or that of her friends, that she had offended Bona

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woman.

CCLXXXIII.

LIVING AGE.

VOL. XXIII.

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