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Annuus,) belong to Rafflesia Arnoldi, Aristolo- entirely wanting in the new continent, where it is chia, Datura, Barringtonia, Gustavia, Carolinea, replaced, as it were, by the guadua, about 60 feet Lecythis, Nymphæa, Nelumbium, Victoria Regina, high, discovered by Humboldt and Bonpland. The Magnolia, Cactus, and the Orchideous and Lilia- Bambusa flowers so abundantly, that in Mysore ceous plants.

and Orissa the seeds are mixed with honey, and The Lianes, or tropical twining rope plant, cor- eaten like rice. Dr. Joseph Hooker mentions it respond with the twining hops and grape-vines in as a rare property of one of the gramineæmthe the temperate latitudes. In the tropical region of trisetum subspicatum—that it is the only Arctic the south these climbers render the forests so im- species he knows which is equally an inhabitant penetrable to man, accessible to and habitable by of the opposite Polar regions. the monkey tribe, and by the cercoleptes and small The form of Ferns, like that of grasses, is tiger-cats, who mount them and descend by them" ennobled in the northern parts of the globe.” with wonderful agility, and pass by their help from The number of species amounts to 3250. tree to tree. In this manner whole herds of gre

Arborescent ferns, when they reach a height of garious monkeys often cross streams which would above forty feet, have something of a palm-like apotherwise be impassable. On the Orinoco, the pearance, but their steins are less slender, shorter, leafless branches of the Bauhinias, often 40 or 50 and more rough and scaly, than those of palms. feet long, hang down perpendicularly from the Their foliage is more delicale, of a thinner and more lofty top of the Swietenia, and they sometimes translucent texture, and the minutely indented marstretch themselves in oblique directions, like the gins of the fronds are finely and sharply cut. Tree cordage of a ship. Among the twining plants we but in that zone they seek hy preference the more

ferns belong almost entirely to the tropical zone, may mention the Passifloras, with their beautiful tempered heat of a moderate elevation above the and many colored blossoms, and the aristolochia level of the sea, and mountains two or three thoucordata, which has a crimson-colored flower seven- sand feet high may be regarded as their principal teen inches in diameter. In South America, on seat. In South America the arborescent ferns are the banks of the river Magdalena, there is found usually found associated with the tree which has a climbing aristolochia, with flowers four feet in conferred such benefits on mankind by its fevercircumference, which the young Indians draw over healing bark. Both indicate by their presence the their heads in sport, and wear as hats or helmets. – Vol. ii., p. 28.

happy regions where reigns a soft perpetual spring. Many of the twining plants have a very peculiar aspect, occasioned by the square shape of their The Liliaceous plants, which have their prinstems, by fattenings not produced by external cipal seat in Africa, are distinguished by their pressure, and by ribband-like wavings. Adrian Nag-like leaves, and superb blossoms. They are Jussieu has exhibited, in very beautiful drawings, represented by the genera Amaryllis, Ixia, Gladithe cruciform and Mosaic figures seen in cross olus, and Pancratium. In Africa they are assemsections of the Bignonias and Banisterias, arising bled into masses, and determine the aspect and from the mutual pressure and penetration of the character of the country; whereas, in the new circumtwining stems.

world, the superb alstromeriæ and species of panRegarding the form of Gramineæ as an ex- cratium, Hæmanthus and crinum are dispersed, pression of cheerfulness and of airy grace, and and are less social than the Irideæ of Europe. tremulous lightness, combined with lofty stature,” The plants of the Willow form, represented our author considers the Aloe form“.

as charac- generally by the willow itself, and on the elevated terized by an almost mournful repose and immo- plains of Quito, and in so far only as the shape bility.” The groves of bamboo, both in the East of the leaves, and the ramifications are concerned, and West Indies, form avenues and walks, shaded by the Schinus molle. There are 150 different and overarching “ The smooth polished, and species spread over the northern hemisphere, from often lightly waving and bending stems of these the Equator to Lapland. There is a greater simsingular grasses, are frequenily taller than our ilarity in the physiognomy of this tribe in different alders and oaks. Their glassy polish is owing to climates than even in the Coniferæ. From the the quantity of silex in their bark, which, by a catkins of the male flower of some Egyptian species of extravasation, as in the gouty secretions species, a medicine called willow water (aqua of the human frame, form that singular substance salicis) is distilled, and much used. On the banks called tabasheer, which may be heard rattling of the Orange river in Africa, the leaves and within the joints of the bamboo, when the plant young shoots of the S. hirsuta and mucronata form has been cut down.” We have ourselves frequently the food of the hippopotamus. opened these joints, and taken out this beautiful The Myrtacee, with their elegant forms, and opalescent and dichroitic mineral, which is blue by their stiff, shining, small leaves, studded with reflected, and yellow by transmitted light. We transparent spots, give a peculiar character to the have been informed, on high authority, that in Mediterranean islands, the continent of New Holsevere storms, forests of bamboo in India have land, and the intertropical region of the Andes, been set on fire, by the mutual friction or collision partly low, and partly about 10,000 feet high. of their flinty stemns. * The genus Bambusa is

Tabasheer, and the silicious character of the bamboo.

Our readers will find ample details respecting the optical * Our author bas forgotten, for he is well acquainted and physical properties of 'Talasheer, in a paper, liy ihe with the subject, to notice these singular facts concerning author of this article, in the Phil. Trans. for 1819, p. 283.

trees.

*

Trees belonging to the group of Myrtaceæ, “ pro- | vegetation displays its most majestic forms. In the duce partially, either where the leaves are replaced cold north the bark of trees is covered with lichens by leaf-stalk leaves, or by the peculiar disposition and mosses, whilst between the tropics the Cymor direction of the leaves relatively to the unswollen the Anacardias, and of the gigantic fig-trees. The

bidium and fragrant vanilla enliven the trunks of Jeaf-stalk, a distribution of stripes of light and fresh verdure of the Pothos leaves, and of the Drashade, unknown in our forests of round-leaved contias, contrasts with the many colored flowers of

This optical effect surprised the earlier the Orchideæ. Climbing Bauhinias, Passifloras, botanical travellers, but our distinguished country- and yellow flowering Banisterias, twine round the man, Mr. Robert Brown, showed that it was owing trunks of the forest trees. Delicate blossoms spring to the leaf-stalks of the Acacia longifolia, and A. from the roots of the Theobroma, and form the suaveolens, being expanded in a vertical direction thick and rough bark of the Crescentias and the

Gustavia. and from the circumstance that the light, instead

In the tropics vegetation is generally of a fresher of falling on horizontal surfaces, falls on, and verdure, more luxuriant and succulent, and adorned passes between vertical ones.

with larger and more shining leaves than in our The other forms to which our author attaches northern climates. The “social” plants, which importance, in reference to the physiognomic study often impart so uniform and monotonous a charof plants, are the Melastomarce, comprising “ the acter to European countries, are almost entirely genera melastoma (Fothergilla and Tococca A ubl.) lofty as our oaks are adorned with flowers as large

Trees almost as

absent in the equatorial regions. and Rhexia, (Meriana and osbeckia)," which have and as beautiful as our lilies. been superbly illustrated by Bonpland ; and the The great elevation attained in several tropical Laurel form group, embracing “ the genera of Lau- countries, not only by single mountains, but even rus and Persea, the ocoteæ, so numerous in South by extensive districts, enables the inhabitants of America, and (on account of physiognomic resem- the torrid_zone-surrounded by palms, bananas, blance) Calophyllum, and the superb aspiring and the other beautiful forms proper w these latiMammea from among the Guttiferæ."

tudes—to behold also those vegetable forms which,

demanding a cooler temperature, would seem to This interesting chapter of “ The Aspects of

belong to other zones. Elevation above the level Nature” is closed with some of those general of the sea gives this cooler temperature, even in views which our author never fails to clothe with the hottest parts of the earth ; and Cypresses, the richest drapery of language and sentiment. Pines, Oaks, Berberries and Alders, (nearly allied After suggesting as an enterprise, worthy of a to our own,) cover the mountainous districts, and great artist, to study the aspect and character of all elevated plains of Southern Mexico, and the chain these vegetable forms, not only in hot-houses,* and of the Andes at the equator. Thus it is given to in botanical descriptions, but in their native gran- his native land, all the forms of vegetation dispersed

man in those regions to behold, without quitting deur in the tropics, and pointing out the value to the over the globe, and all the shining worlds which landscape painter, of " a work which should pre- stud the heavenly vault from pole to pole. sent to the eye, first separately, and then in combi- These, and many other of the enjoyments which nation and contrast, the leading forms which have nature affords, are wanting to the nations of the here been enumerated,” he concludes the subject forms--and of the latter those which are most

North. Many constellations, and many vegetable in the following manner :

beautiful, (palm-tree ferns, plantains, arborescent It is the artist's privilege, having studied these grasses, and the finely divided feathery foliage of groups, to analyze them, and thus in his hands, the the mimosas,) remain forever unknown to them. grand and beautiful form of nature which he would Individual plants, languishing in our hot-houses, portray, resolves itself, (if I may venture on the can give but a very faint idea of the majestic vegeexpression,) like the other works of men, into a tation of the tropical zone. But the high cultivafew simple elements.

tion of our languages, the glowing fancy of the It is under the burning rays of a tropical sun that poet, and the imitative art of the painter, open to

us sources whence flow abundant compensations, * Would it not be an enterprise worthy of the wealth and from whence our imagination can derive the and liberality of our public-spirited nobility and country living images of that more vigorous nature which gentlemen, to fill their hot-houses and green-houses, not other climes display. In the frigid north, in the with groups of plants from particular zones, or regions of midst of the barren heath, the solitary student can the globe, or belonging to different natural fainilies or appreciate mentally, all that has been discovered in classes. Forest trees, and arborescent plants, which have the most distant regions, and can create within been accliinated in our island, might in like manner be himself a world, free and imperishable, as the gathered into local groups, and in the private collections of a single county, botanists, landscape painters

, artists

, spirit by which it is conceived. Pp. 29–31. gardeners, and amateurs, might study the whole fora of the globe. A subdivision of labor has now become neces

The chapter which closes with the preceding sary in every department of intellectual culture. Omni- passage is followed by a dissertation of much interscience in philosophy or science is knowledge in a state est, on the structure and mode of action of Volof extreme dilution, useless to the world, and gratifying only to the vanity of its possessor. The piles upon which canoes in different parts of the globe.” Although rest the temple of science could never have been driven the multiplication of voyages and travels has exerhad they been endowed with many heads; he that has cised a greater influence on the study of organic driven one to the rock beneath, may rest from his labor, and be sure that his works will follow him. A subdivisnature, viz., of botany and zoology, than upon the ion of toil in the collection of objects of natural history, study of the inorganic bodies which compose the of antiquities, and of art, would do much to promote the crust of the earth, yet each zone of the earth deadvancement of these important branches of secular knowledge.

rives a peculiar physiognomy from the living

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forms, which are either fixed or movable upon its of Pasto emitted a lofty column of smoke for surface. But we find on either hemisphere, from three months continuously, and that it disappeared the equator to the poles, the same kind of rocks at the very instant, when, at the distance of 240 associated in groups, and the traveller “ often rec- miles, “ the great earthquake of Riobarnba, and the ognizes with joy the argillaceous schists of his immense eruption of mud called “Moya' took birthplace, and the rocks which were familiar to place, causing the death of between thirty and his eye in his native land.” Geological science, forty thousand persons.” In proof of the same however, has derived great advantages from its fact, he adduces the sudden emergence from the sea study under different climates. Although in any near the Azores of the island of Sabrina, on the single and extensive system of mountains we find, 30th of January, 1811, which was followed by more or less distinctly represented, all the inor- those terrible internal commotions which, from ganic materials which form the solid carpentry of May, 1811, to June, 1813, shook almost incessantly the globe, yet observations in distant regions are the West India islands, the plains of the Ohio and necessary in studying the composition, the relative Mississippi, and the opposite coast of Venezuela age, and the origin of rocks. Our knowledge of or Caraccas. In the course of a month after this, the structure and form of volcanoes was, till the the principal city of that province was destroyed. end of the last century, drawn principally from On the 30th April, 1811, the slumbering volcano Vesuvius and Ætna, though the basin of the Med- of the island of St. Vincent broke forth, and at iterranean afforded better means of studying the the very moment the explosion took place, a loud nature and action of these fiery cones. Among subterranean noise, like that of great pieces of the Sporades trachytic rocks have been upraised, ordnance, which spread terror over an area of at three different times, in three centuries. Near 35,000 square miles, was heard at the distance Methone, in the Peloponnesus, a monte nuovo," of 628 miles from St. Vincent. The phenomena seen by Strabo and by Dodwell, is higher than the which accompanied the celebrated earthquake at new volcano of Jorullo in Mexico, and Humboldt Lisbon, on the 1st November, 1755, lead to the found it “ surrounded with several thousand small same conclusion. At the very time it took place, basaltic cones, protruded from the earth, and still the lakes of Switzerland, and the sea upon the smoking.” Volcanic fires also break out at Ischia, Swedish coast, were violently agitated ; and at on the Monte Epomeo ; and, according to ancient Martinique, Antigua, and Barbadoes, where the relations, lavas have flowed from fissures, suddenly tide never exceeds thirty inches, the sea suddenly opened, in the Lelantine plain, near Chalcis. On rose upwards of twenty feet. the shores of the Mediterranean, too, on several In the remaining portion of this interesting chapparts of the mainland of Greece, in Asia Minor, ter, our author directs our attention chiefly to the and in Auvergne, and round the plain of Lom- phenomena which accompanied the last great erupbardy, there are numerous examples of volcanic tion of Vesuvius, on the night of the 22d October, action. From these facts our author has drawn 1822. It had been supposed by several writers the conclusion, " that the basin of the Mediterra- that the crater of Vesuvius had undergone an ennean, with its series of islands, might have offered tire change from preceding eruptions ; but our to an attentive observer much that has been recently author has shown that this is not the case, and discovered, under various forms, in South Amer- that the error had arisen from the observers havica, Teneriffe, and the Aleutian Islands, near the ing confounded “ the outlines of the margin of the polar circle."

“ The objects to be observed,” he crater with those of the cones of eruption, accidencontinues, were assembled within a moderate tally formed in the middle of the crater, on its distance; yet distant voyages, and the comparison floor or bottom, which has been upheaved by vaof extensive regions, in and out of Europe, have pors.” During the period from 1816–1818, such been required for the clear perception and recog- a cone had gradually risen above the south-eastern nition of the resemblance between volcanic phe- margin of the crater, and the eruption of February, nomena and their dependence on each other." 1822, had raised it about 112 feet above the porth

In different parts of the globe we find assem-west margin. This singular cone, which from Nablages of volcanoes in various rounded groups, or ples appeared to be a true summit of the mounin double lines, and we have thus the most conclu- tain, fell in with a dreadful noise on the eruption sive evidence that their cause is deeply seated in of the 22d October, 1822, so that the floor 28 the earth. All the American volcanoes are on the the crater, which had been constantly accessible western coast opposite to Asia, nearly in a merid- since 1811, is now almost 800 feet lower than the ional direction, and extending 7200 geographical northern, and 218 lower than the southern edge miles. Humboldt regards the whole plateau of of the volcano." Quito, whose summits are the volcanoes of Pin- In the last eruption, on the night of the 23d to chincha, Cotapaxi, and Tunguragua, as a single to the 24th October, 1822, twenty-four hours after volcanic furnace. The internal fire rushes out the falling in of the great cone of scoriæ, which sometimes by one and sometimes by another vent; has been mentioned, and when the small but nuand in proof of the fact that there are subterra- fiery eruption of ashes and rapilli commenced ; it

merous currents of lava had already flowed off, the nean communications between “fire emitting open- continued without intermission for twelve days, but ings," at great distances from each other, he men

was greatest in the first four days. During this tions the circumstance, that in 1797, the volcano period the detonations in the interior of the volcano

66

were so violent, that the mere concussion of the air gases, and acids." There is, however, another (for no earthquake movement was perceived) rent and a rarer class, which are closely connected with the ceilings of the rooms in the palace of Portici. the earliest revolutions of our planet. Trachytic In the neighboring villages of Resina, Torre del Greco, Torre del Annunziata, and Bosche tre Case, mountains open suddenly, emit lava and ashes, and a remarkable phenomenon was witnessed. Through- close again perhaps forever. The gigantic mounout the whole of that part of the country the air was tain of Antisana on the Andes, and Monte Eposo filled with ashes as to cause in the middle of the meo in Ischia, in 1302, are examples of that pheday profound darkness, lasting for several hours ; nomenon. Eruptions of this kind sometimes take lanterns were carried in the streets, as had often place in the plains, as happened in Quito, in Icebeen done in Quito during the eruptions of Pinchin- land, at a distance from Hecla, and in Eubæa in cha. The flight of the inhabitants had never been more general.

the Lelantine fields. Many of the islands upLava currents are regarded, by those who dwell near Vesuvius, with less dread heaved from the sea belong to the same class. than an eruption of ashes, a phenomenon which had The communication of the external opening with never been known to such a degree in modern times; the interior of the earth is not permanent, and as and the obscure tradition of the manner in which soon as the clefi or opening closes, the volcanic the destruction of Herculaneum, Pompeii, and Sta. action wholly ceases. Humboldt is of opinion biæ, took place, filled the imaginations of men with that “veins or dykes of basalt, dolerite, and porappalling images. The hot aqueous vapors which rose from the crater during the eruption, and spread phyry, which traverse almost all formations, and themselves in the atmosphere, formed, in cooling, a that masses of syenite, augitic porphyry, and dense cloud, surrounding the column of fire and amygdaloid, which characterize the recent transiashes which rose to a height of between nine and tion and oldest sedimentary rocks—have probably ten thousand feet.

Flashes of forked been formed in a similar manner.” lightning, issuing from the columns of ashes, darted

That the earth is a melted mass at no very great in every direction, and the rolling thunders were distinctly heard, and distinguished from the sounds depth below its surface, is placed beyond a doubt, which proceeded from the interior of the volcano. not only by the preceding facts, but by a great In no other eruption had the play of the electric mass of observations collected by Humboldt and forces formed so striking a feature.

Arago, on the increase of temperature as we deOn the morning of the 26th October, a surprising scend into the bowels of the earth.

6. The primrumor prevailed, that a torrent of boiling water was itive cause of this subterranean heat is, as in all gushing from the crater, and pouring down the slope planets, the process of formation itself, the separaof the cone of ashes. Monticelli soon discovered that tion of the spherically condensing mass from a costhis was an optical illusion. It was in reality a flow of dry ashes, which, being loose and movable mical gaseous fluid, and the cooling of the terresas shifting sand, issued in large quantities from a trial strata at different depths by the loss of heat crevice in the upper margin of the crater.—Pp. parted with by radiation.

Elastic 229, 230.

vapors press the molten oxydizing substances upOwing to the thunderstorm noticed in this ex- wards through deep fissures. Volcanoes might tract, an abundant and violent fall of rain took thus be termed intermitting springs or fountains of place, and as the rain is heaviest above the cone earthy substances; that is, of the fluid mixture of of ashes, torrents of mud descend from it in every metals, alkalis, and earths, which solidify into direction ; and when the summit of the volcano is lava currents, and flow softly and tranquilly, when in the region of perpetual snow, the melting of being upheaved they find a passage by which to the snow produces very disastrous inundations. escape.” At the foot of volcanoes, too, and on their flanks,

Our author concludes this instructive section there are frequently vast cavities, which, having a with a speculation which he himself characterizes communication by many channels with mountain as bold; the object of which is to explain, by torrents, become subterranean lakes or reservoirs means of the internal heat of our globe, the existof water. When earthquakes, as happens in the ence, in a fossil state, of the tropical forms of aniAndes, shake the entire mass of the volcano, mals and plants in the cold regions of the globe. these reservoirs are opened, discharging water, This hitherto unexplained fact has been ascribed fishes, and mud. On the 19th June, 1698, when to various causes—to a change in the obliquity the Carguairazo, to the north of Chimborazo, and of the ecliptic by the approach of a comet, and to upwards of 19,000 feet high, fell in, an area of a change in the intensity in the sun's light and nearly thirty square miles was covered with mud heat. We have been led to suppose that, as the and fishes !

two poles of maximum cold are nearly coincident Vesuvius, and other similar volcanoes, have with the magnetic poles, they may partake in their permanent communications, by means of their cra- revolution, and thus make the warm and the cold ters, with the interior of the earth. They alter- meridians, which are now proved to exist, occupy nately break forth and slumber, and often “ end by in succession every position on the earth's surface; becoming solfataras, emitting aqueous vapors, and that variations in the forces or causes by

which that cold is produced, may produce a still * The thickness of the bed of ashes which fell during further variation of temperature.* the twelve days was little above three feet on the slope of the cones, and only about eighteen inches on the planes. This is the greatest fall of ashes since the erup- world shows a distribution of organic forms at vari

Everywhere, (says our author,) the ancient tion of Vesuvius, which occasioned the death of the elder Pliny.

* Edinburgh Transactions, vol. ix., pp. 211, 212.

6. The

Was

ance with our present climate.

It | Genius as the personification of Spiritual Love may be that, in the ancient world, exhalations of forbidding the enjoyment of sensual pleasure ; heat issuing forth from the many openings of the others said, that it was the assertion of the Empire deeply-fissured crust of the globe, may have favored, perhaps, for centuries, the growth of palms of Reason over Desire." A collection of pictures and tree-ferns, and the existence of animals requir- having arrived from Rhodes, there was found ing a high temperature, over entire countries among them the companion or pendant of the where now a very different climate prevails. Ac- Rhodian Genius. The Genius was still the cencording to this view of things, the temperature of tral figure ; but his head was now drooping. volcanoes would be that of the interior of the The butterfly was no longer on his shoulder; and earth ; and the same cause, which, operating his torch was inverted and extinguished. through volcanic eruptions, now produces devastating effects, might, in primeval ages, have clothed youths and maidens pressing around him had met the deeply fissured rocks of the newly oxydized and embraced. Their glance, no longer sad and earth, in every zone, with the most luxuriant veg- subdued, announced, on the contrary, emancipaetation.

tion from restraint, and the fulfilment of longIf, in order to explain the distribution of tropical cherished desires." forms whose remains are now buried in northern regions, it should be assumed that the long-haired solution of the problem ; and in this crisis of

The companion picture afforded no clue to the species of elephant now found enclosed in ice, originally indigenous in cold climates, and that baffled ingenuity and disappointed curiosity, Dioforms resembling the same leading type may, as in nysius ordered the picture, along with a faithful the case of lions and lynxes, have been able to live copy of the Rhodian Genius, to be carried to the in wholly different climates; still this solution of house of Epicharmus, a Pythagorean philosopher, the difficulty presented by fossil remains cannot be who fixed his eyes upon the picture, and thus extended so as to apply to vegetable productions. addressed his disciples :From reasons with which the study of vegetable physiology makes us acquainted, palms, musacca, As living beings are compelled by natural deand arborescent monocotyledones, are incapable of sires to salutary and fruitful union, so the raw supporting the deprivation of their appendicular materials of inorganic matter are moved by similar organs, which would be caused by the present impulses.

Thus the fire of heaven foltemperature of our northern regions; and in the lows metal-iron obeys the attraction of the loadgeological problem which we have to examine, it stone-amber rubbed takes up light substances, appears to me difficult to separate vegetable and earth mixes with earth--salt collects together from animal remains from each other. The same mode the water of the sea—and the acid moisture of the of explanation ought to comprehend both.-Vol. Stypteria, as well as the flocculent salt of Trichitis, ii., pp. 239, 241.

love the clay of Melos. In inanimate nature, all

things hasten to unite with each other, according The next chapter of the “ Aspects of Nature"

to their particular laws. Ilence no terrestrial eleis one of seven pages, entitled, “The Vital Force, ment is to be found anywhere in its pure and primor the Rhodian Genius." It was first printed in itive state. Each, as soon as formed, tends to enter Schiller's Horæ for 1795, and contains “ the into new combinations, and the art of man is needed development of a physiological idea in a semi- to disjoin and present in a separated state submythical garb.” In an earlier work, our author stances which you would seek in vain in the inte

rior of the earth, and in the fluid ocean of air and had defined the vital force as “the unknown caus which prevents the elements from following their and repose reign, so long as the bands of affinity

In dead inorganic matter, entire inactivity original affinities ;” and he endeavors to illustrate continue undissolved, so long as no third substance this position by the following story :--A picture, comes to join itself to the others ; but even then called the Rhodian Genius, was brought to Syra- the action and disturbance produced are soon again cuse from Greece, and was supposed to be the succeeded by unfruitful repose. work of the same artist who cast the Colossus of

It is otherwise, however, when the same subRhodes. It was placed in the Gallery of Paint- stances are bronght together in the bodies of plants

and animals. In these the vital force of power ings and Sculpture, and excited much difference reigns supreme, and regardless of the mutual amof opinion, both respecting its author and its ity or enmity of the atoms recognized by Democobject. On the foreground were youths and ritus, commands the union of substances which, in maidens, handsome and graceful, but unclothed, inanimate nature, shun each other, and separates and expressing in their features and movements those which are ever seeking to enter into combionly e desires and sorrows of an earthly habi- nation. tation. Their arms outstretched to each other

Now come nearer to me, iny friends ; look with

me on the first of the pictures before us, and recindicated “their desire of union;" but they ognize in the Rhodian Genius, in the expression turned their troubled looks towards a halo-encir- of youthful energy, in the butterfly on his shoulder, cled Genius who stood in the midst of them. and in the commanding glance of his eye, the symOn his shoulder was a butterfly, and in his hand bol of vital force animating each individual gerin a lighted torch. Though childlike in his form of the organic creation. At the feet are the carthy and aspect, a celestial fire animated his glance, elements desiring to mix and unite conformably to and he gazed as with the eye of a master upon the aloft his lighted torch with commanding gesture,

their particular tendencies. The Genius, holding gay throng at his feet.

The object of the picture controls and constrains them, without regard to became a problem, which philosophers and con- their ancient rights, to obey his laws. poisseurs strove to solve. “ Some regarded the Now view with me the new picture which the

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