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NEW BOOKS.

who hold to the maxim that “ words are things,” The Women of the Old and Nero Testament. Ed- and with whom the word “ lectures” awakens as

sociations of inanity and tediousness, pompous disited by William B. Sprague, D.D. New York:

plays of superficial knowledge, oracular utterances Appleton & Co.

of commonplaces, and literary larcenies in comparThis is by far the most superb gift book we have ison with which hen-roost robbery is reputable, yet seen, and of the greatest intrinsic value. We from the pleasure of perusing one of the most brilpresume that its costliness will place it beyond the liant and fascinating volumes which has ever issued reach of many; for a work so richly bound, and so from the American press. It consists of six lecprofusely illustrated with fine engravings from orig- tures, or rather essays, on Authors in their Relainal designs, must necessarily be expensive. But tion to Life, Novels and Novelists, Wit and Huwhoever can afford the outlay will turn to this as mor, The Ludicrous Side of Life, Genius, Intelan appropriate and worthy token of pure affection lectual Health and Disease. In treating these and refined taste. The volume is embellished with subjects, the author has not inflicted upon his readeighteen exquisitely finished engravings, being the ers a single page of dulness. His style is remarkideals of so many female characters mentioned, with ably direct and energetic, a fitting medium of his more or less minuteness of narrative in the Holy clear and sharply defined conceptions—terse, epiBible. The engravings are all from designs by grammatic, brilliant, rising at times into true eloStaahl.

quence. But to commend his essays as specimens The reading matter is not of an ephemeral char- of fine writing merely, would do him serious injus

The pen-and-ink portraits are life-like, tice. They are characterized by shrewd insight, forming our judgment from the Scripture narra- practical wisdom, and, as the necessary consequence tives, and skilfully wrought out. The Rev. Dr. of the utter absence of cant and sentimentalism, a W.J. Kip furnishes an article upon the Virgin hearty, healthy tone of sentiment and feeling. His Mary, which opens the volume, and the other con- ridicule of the unmanly puerilities of literature, and tributors are Dr. E. Mason, the editor, the Revs. his contempt for shams, false pretences, affectations, C. Wadsworth, E. N. Kirk, A. A. Wood, Drs. and sentimentalisms, remind one of the savage Halley and Beman, Bishops Henshaw and Hop- mirth of Longfellow's Northern Jarl, whose kins, Drs. Todd, Cox, Murray, and others. We can assure our readers that they will find in this

loud laugh of scorn volume specimens of the most chaste and finished

From the deep drinking-horn

Blew the foam lightly. style, and delineative passages of the most exquisite character. He who presents to mother or sister, wife or daughter, loved one or friend, this sub- Disease, touches with no gloved hand the peculiar

The concluding essay, on Intellectual Health and stantial and elegant volume, will not only indicate and besetting sins of the northern and southern sechis confidence in the refined and elevated taste of tions of our country—the Yankee's conceit and the the recipient of so handsome a gift, but will aid in Southerner's pride. He says of the Yankee, that giving even a still loftier tone to taste, by mingling - he has a spruce, clean, Pecksnisfian way of doing with its gratification the strength and purity of earnest moral and religious sentiment.— Comn. Adv. certain fashion, in justice and retribution, he still

a wrong, which is inimitable. Believing, after a Lectures on Subjects connected with Literature and thinks that a sly, shrewd, keen, supple gentleman, Life, is the title of an exquisitely printed little vol- like himself, can dodge, in a quiet way, the moral ume, by Edwin P. Whipple, published by Ticknar laws of the universe, without any particular pother & Co., of Boston. The popularity of the author being made about it.” He illustrates this by the as a lecturer will secure for the work an extensive preaching and practice of Yankeedom in respect to sale in New England, but it has claims so much the Mexican war. beyond the ordinary range of similar books, that We hazard nothing in predicting for these lecwe desire to commend it to the reading public tures a wide popularity., They will entitle their around us, as a very ingenious and suggestive author to the same rank as an essayist which he work. The subjects treated by the lecturer are, already occupies as a reviewer and critic. Authors,' » 6 Novels and Novelists,” "66 Wit and

J. G. W. Humor,"

,” 6. The Ludicrous Side of Life," “ Genius,” and “ Intellectual Health and Disease.” In Orations and Occasional Discourses. By Rev. discussing these topics, Mr. Whipple analyzes

George W. BETHUNE, D. D. New York: G.

P. Putnam. many of the essential principles of criticism, defines the characteristics of literature, and vindicates in

Every admirer of true and fervid eloquence detellectual power with sagacity and eloquence. He voted to practical and elevated purpose will hail takes the highest moral view of authorship; and this volume with unqualified pleasure. For ourgives admirable hints for the cultivation of a dis- selves we have often regretted the ephemeral form criminating taste in reading. The style of these in which alone the orations of Dr. Bethune, and essays is vigorous, pointed and lively. There is a others whom we could name, were to be obtained. spirited rhetoric in the mode of handling each sub- This elegant volume meets our want and a general ject, at once fascinating and impressive. We do desire, and oftentimes will the intelligent young not agree with all the writer's positions; but we

man and the man of more matured experience take sympathize heartily in the manly intelligence and it from the library shelf and refresh the intellect, independent philosophy of his tone; and feel in- and revive the heart with its perusal. The disdebted to him for one of the most charming belles courses are twelve in number, including the noble lettres volumes of the day.-N. Y. Eve. Post. oration on “ The Claims of our Country upon its

literary Men,” delivered during the present year We fear the rather unpromising title of this vol- before the Phi Beta Kappa society of Harvard Uniume may have the effect to deter a class of readers versity.-N. Y. Com. Adv.

From the National Era.

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1. The Electric Telegraph,

Edinburgh Review,

433 2. There and Back Again, Chaps. VI.-XV. Tait's Magazine,

452 3. Evrope : Austria ; France and italy; The Spirit { Examiner, Epectator, Daily News,

466 4. Los Gringos; Inside View of Mexico and Cali- n. Y. Tribune,

470 fornia, 5. Summer Journey, by Frederika Bremer, Foreign Quarterly Review,

472 6. Persia and Turkey,

Chronicle,

475 ILLUSTRATION.

-Fatal Facility; or Poisons for the Asking. Child." Please, Mister, will you be so good as to fill this bottle again with Lodnum, and let mother have another pound and a half of Arsenic for the Rats (!)”

Duly Qualified Chemist.-" Certainly, Miss. Is there any other article ?” 477. POETRY.- Autumn; The Hours, 451.- Death of the Flowers, 465.-Hungary in October

1849 ; A Woman's Plea for Mercy, 476. SuoRT ARTICLES.—Houses and Chinese in California, 450.—Caprices, 476.—Women of the

Old and New Testament; Mr. Whipple's Lectures ; Dr. Bethune's Oration, 479. PROSPECTUR.- This work is conducted in the spirit of | now becomes every intelligent American to be informed Littell's Museurn of Foreign Literature, (which was favor of the condition and changes of foreign countries. And ably received by the public for i wenty years,) but as it is this not only hecause of their nearer connection with outtwice as large, and appears so often, we not only give selves, but because the nations seemn to be hastening, spirit and freshness to it by many things which were through a rapid process of change, to some new state of excluded by a month's delay, but while thus extending our things, which the merely political prophet cannot compule scope and gathering a greater and more attractive variety, or foresee. are able so to increase the solid and substantial part of Geographical Discoveries, the progress of Colonization, our literary, historical, and political harvest, as fully to (which is extending over the whole world,) and Voyages satisfy the wants of the American reader.

and Travels, will be favorite inatier for our selections; The elaborate and stately Essays of the Elinburgh, and, in general, we shall systematically and very fully Qurterly, and other Reviews; and Blackroood's nolle acquaint our readers with the great department of Foreign criticisms on Poetry, his keen political Commentaries, atlairs, without entirely neglecting our own. highly wrought Tales, and vivid descriptions of rural and While we aspire to make the Living Age desirable to mountain Scenery; and the contributions to Literature, all who wish to keep themselves informed of the rapid History, and Cominon Life, by the sagacious Spectator, progress of the movement-10 Statesmen, Divines, Law. the sparkling Eraminer, the judicious Athenæum, the yers, and Physicians-10 men of business and men er busy and industrious Literary Gazette, the sensible and leisure -- it is still a stronger object to make it attractive comprehensive Britannia, the sober and respectable Chris and useful 10 their Wives and Cildren. We believe tha! ti:m Obserrer; these are intermixed with the Military we can thus do some good in our day and generation ; and and Naval reminiscences of the United Service, and with hope to make the work indispensable in every well-inthe best articles of the Dublin University, New Monthly, formed family. We say indispensable, becanse in this Fraser's, Tait's, Ainsworth's, Hood's, and Sporting Mag- day of cheap literature it is not possible to guard againsi azines, and of Chambers' admirable Journal. We do not the influx of what is bad in taste and vicious in morals, consider it beneath our dignity to borrow wit and wisdom in any other way than by furnishing a sufficient supply from Punch; and, when we ihink it good enough, make of a healthy character. The mental and moral appelite use of the thunder of The Times. We shall increase our must be gratified. variety by importations from the continent of Europe, and We hope that, by winnowing the wheat from the trom the new growth of the British colonies.

chaf,” by providing abundantly for the imagination, and The steamship, has brought Europe, Asia and Africa, by a large collection of Biography, Voyages and Travels, into our neighborhood ; and will greatly multiply our con History, and more solid matter, we may produce a work nections, as Merchants, Traveliers, and Politicians, with which shall be popular, while at the same tiine it will all varts of the world ; so that much more than ever it aspire to raise the standard of public taste.

Terms.—The LivING AGE is published every Satur- Agencies. - We are desirous of making arrangements day, by E. LITTELL & Co., corner of Tremont and Broin in all parts of North America, for increasing the circulafield sis., Boston; Price 121 cents a number, or six dollars tion of this work--and for doing this a liberal commission a year in advance. Remittances for any period will be will be allowed to gentlemen who will interest themselves thankfully received and promptly attended to. To in the business. And we will gladly correspond on this insure regularity in mailing the work, orders should be subject with any agent who will send us undoubted referaddressed to the office of publication, as above.

Clubs, paying a year in advance, will be supplied as follows:

Postage.-When sent with the cover on, the Living
Four copies for

Age consists of three sheets, and is rated as a pamphlet,
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at 4 cents. But when sent without the cover, it comes
Twelve “

850 00. within the definition of a newspaper given in the law,

and cannot legally he charged with more than newspaper Complete sets, in twenty volumes, to the end of March, postuge, (1} cis.)' We as the definition alluded to :1849, handsomely bound, and packed in neat boxes, are A newspaper is “any printed publication, issued in for sale at forty dollars.

numbers, consisting of not more than two sheets, and Any volume may be had separately at two dollars, published at short, stated intervals of not more than one bound, or a dollar and a half in numbers.

month, conveying intelligence of passing events." Any number may be had for 124 cents ; and it may be worth while for subscribers or purchasers to complete Monthly parts.-For such as prefer it in that form, the any broken volumes they may have, and thus greatly Living Age is put up in monthly parts, containing four or enhance their value.

five weekly numbers. In this shape it shows to great

advantage in comparison with other works, containing in Binding.–We bind the work in a uniform, strong, and each part double the matter of any of the quarterlies. good style ; and where castomers bring their numbers in But we recommend the weekly numbers, as fresher and good order, can generally give them bound volumes in fuller of life. Postage on the monthly parts is about 14 exchange withoui any delay. The price of the binding cents. The rolumes are published quarterly, each volume Ls 50 cents a volume. As they are always bound to one containing as much matter as a quarterly review gives i pattern, there will be no difficulty in matching the future eighteen months. volumes.

WASHINGTON, 27 Dec., 1845. Os all the Periodical Journals devoted to literature and science which abound in Europe and in this country, the hus appeared to me to be the most useful. It contains indeed the exposition only of the current literature of the Rnglish language, but this by its immense axtent and comprehension includes a portraituro of the human mind os the utmost expansion of the present age.

J, Q. DANS

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LITTELL'S LIVING AGE.-No. 291.-15 DECEMBER, 1849.

From the Quarterly Review.

a page from a parish-register would be nearly as 1. Recherches Medico-légales sur l'incertitude des edifying.

signes de la mort, les dangers des inhumations Addison and Montaigne, in their speculations précipitées, les moyens de constater le décès et de upon Death, had chiefly in view the mental feelrappeller à la vie ceux qui sont en état de mortings. The physical part of the question had only apparente. Par M. Julia de FONTENELLE. been treated in detached fragments, until Bichat

8vo. Paris : 1834. 2. The Cyclopædia of Anatomy and Physiology.

endeavored to give a connected view of those Part VIII. Art. “ Death." By J.’A. SY- changes in the system which are immediately conMONDS, M. D. London: 1836.

cerned in the extinction of life. Even this was 3. Recherches Physiologiques sur la vie et la Mort. only a single branch of an extensive subject ; and,

Par Zav. Bichat. Cinquième édition, revue far from exhausting it, the state of knowledge et augmentée de notes pour la deuxième fois obliged him to rest content with a general outline par F. Magendie. 8vo. Paris : 1829.

- but it was an outline drawn with a master's It was the opinion of Addison that nothing in hand. A more beautiful piece of scientific writhistory was so imposing, nothing so pleasing and ing could nowhere be found—none more lucid in affecting, as the accounts of the behavior of em- arrangement, more clear, simple, and concise in inent person in their dying hour. Montaigne style. IIe had to deal with a mass of tangled before him had given expression to the same sen- threads, and wove them into a vivid and harmotiment. Of all the passages in the annals of man- nious pattern. A disposition to fanciful system is kind, those, he said, which attracted and delighted the principal defect of the celebrated “ Researches him most, were the words and gestures of depart- on Life and Death,” which will continue a classic, ing men. “ If," he adds, “ I were a maker of when, by the progress of discovery, it has ceased books, I would compile a register, with comments, to be an authority. Since Bichat led the way, of various deaths; for he who should teach men numerous writers have followed in his track-exto die would teach them to live.” The register tended his experiments, corrected his errors,

and would not be difficult to supply. The commentary modified his theories. The knowledge is confined is a loss-rich as it would have been in the reflec- at present to professional works which few besides tions of a shrewd and thoughtful mind, fearless in professional men are likely to read, and is too much its confessions, holding up its feelings, in their bound up with general physiology to permit us to weakness and their strength, as a mirror in which enter at large upon the question. What Bichat the readers might behold themselves. But Mon- imperfectly discussed in a volume, we must dismiss taigne, who merely gives a formal adhesion to in a page. A summary of the newest and best Christianity, and too generally draws both precept information will be found in the able and philosophand practice from the code of Epicurus, was not ical Principles of Medicine by Dr. Williams, or the person to teach others to live or die. He had in the Lectures on the Principles and Practice of realized beyond most men the terror of death, stud- Medicine by Dr. Watson-a work upon which his ied it incessantly in all its aspects, and done his own craft have set the seal of their highest approbest to steel himself against the stroke; but the bation, and which it may interest others to be told resources of religion are scarcely dreampt of in is not a dry detail of symptoms and remedies, but his philosophy of mortality. He treats the ques- a lurninous account of disease, which he has had tion almost like a heathen, raises more misgiving the art to make as entertaining as instructive. It than he removes, and does less to reform the care- was not consistent with the plan of Dr. Williams, less and encourage the timid, than to offend the or Dr. Watson, to write-a formal treatise upon pious and disturb the peaceful. He seldum, in- death. This was done by Dr. Symonds—whose deed, touches upon a sacred subject without leav- admirable article in the Cyclopædia of Anatomy ing us in doubt whether he is in earnest or in jest. and Physiology, though a condensed, is the most He seems, in his bantering way, to be striking comprehensive, description with which we with one hand while he affects to support with the acquainted. The entire physical phenomena of other; and his attack, though far from formidable, natural death are passed in review ; the results of is more powerful than his defence. He would original observation are combined with the rehave been an eminent teacher in Greece or Rome, searches of others; and some portions of the subbut was noways fitted to be a master in Christen-ject, such as the signs of dying, are more elabdom. Two or three of Montaigne's countrymen orately treated than anywhere else. Addressed to have since attempted to carry out his conception ; medical men, it presumes a degree of acquaintance but not inheriting his genius with his project, their with their science; yet two thirds of the essay works are said to be meagre and vapid. More could hardly be more attractive to general readers worthless they could not be than the similar com- if it had been penned for their use.

General readpilations which have been published in English ; lers, however, are less inquisitive on the matter

31

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ccxcІ.

LIVING AGE.

VOL. XXIII.

than their deep concern in it might lead us to ex-| laying him backwards, which immediately sends a pect, or it would not be confined to the domain of current of blood to the brain. The effect of the ihe physician. Addison assumed that the interest circulation on a limb is seen in the operation for was as universal as the lot; but though

an aneurism of the leg-a disease in which the Death only is the fate which none can miss,

artery, unable to resist the force of the blood, con

tinues to distend, until, if left to itself, it usually another poet has said, with almost equal truth, bursts, and the patient bleeds to death. To prethat

vent this result, the main artery itself is often tied All men think all men mortal but themselves.

above the tumor,

and thus the blood is stopped Most feel about it much the same as did Justice short of the place where it was gradually working Shallow :-" The mad days that I have spent ! a fatal outlet. The lower part of the leg, cut off and to see how many of mine old acquaintance are from its supply, at once turns cold, and, unless dead! Silence.- We shall all follow, cousin! nature were ready with a new provision, would Shallow. Certain, 't is certain ; very sure, very quickly perish ; but if, by the disease, man is sure ; death, as the Psalmist saith, is certain 10 shown to be fearfully, the remedial contrivance all-all shall die. How a good yoke of bullocks proves him wonderfully, made.

The trunk artery at Stamford fair ?" He moralizes mechanically sends out numerous tributaries, which again rejoin upon death, pays it parenthetically the tribute due it further on its course, and those above the aneuto an indisputable truth—but the price of oxen has rism gradually dilate to receive the obstructed cirnot the less of his thoughts. We persist in think- culation, and, carrying it past the break in the ing death distant because the date is doubtful, and channel, restore warmth and vigor to the drooping remain unconcerned spectators until we are sum- limb. What is true of the leg and brain is true moned to be actors in the scene.

of every portion of the body. Not an organ can Yet, however little the majority of men may be subsist deprived of a due and healthy circulation; tempted to originate inquiry, there can hardly be and when the blood is brought to a stand in its many to whom an account of the mental and cor- career, or is in a particular degree deficient in poral sensations, which attend upon death, can be quantity or corrupted in quality, then is death ina matter of indifference when brought before their evitable. “We are born," says Seneca, “ by a eyes. Father Bridaine, a French itinerant of the single method-we die by many.” But though last century, who, in a mixture of eccentricity and mortal diseases are legion in their seat and nature, fervid eloquence, combined the two most powerful they may all be resolved into the destruction of the agencies by which a vulgar auditory are attracted circulation, like the radii of a circle which come and moved, once wound up a discourse by the an- from an infinity of directions and meet in a point. nouncement that he would attend each of bis hear- The heart is the agent for propelling the blood. ers to his home ; and, putting himself at their It acts the part of a pump to the system, plays head, conducted them to the house appointed for without our aid at the rate of four thousand strokes all living—a neighboring churchyard. We deeply an hour, and sometimes continues in operation a feel that we are, in many respects, little qualified century ; but no organ, however marvellous in its for the subject which we venture to take up ; there construction and performances, can be beyond the is in it, however, a mysterious awfulness which reach of injury and disease in a body created mormay probably carry on our readers in spite of our tal by design. The heart is the seat of numerous imperfections. But the profit will be to those who disorders which destroy its power of contraction remember, as they read, that we describe, or at- and expansion, and when its action ceases the blood tempt to describe, the road which they themselves must stop ; but extreme cases are the clearest illusmust travel, and, like Bridaine, are conducting tration of principles, and the effects of arresting its them to their home.

pulsations are seen best when the event is sudden. John Hunter called the blood the moving mate- This is no uncommon occurrence. The passions rial of life. Elaborated from the food we eat, it of rage, joy, grief, and fear, make themselves felt carries nutriment and stimulus to every part of in the centre of circulation ; and these all have the the body; and, while in its progress, it replen- power, when intense, to paralyze the heart in a ishes the waste going on in the frame, it receives moment, or even to burst it by the agitation they and throws off much of the effete and worn-out create. A lady, overjoyed to hear that her son matter which would otherwise clog and encumber had returned from India, died with the news in her the machinery. The moment the blood is reduced ears; another, prostrate with grief at parting with below a certain standard, the functions languish ; a son who was bound for Turkey, expired in the the moment it is restored, the functions revive. attempt to bid him farewell. Physical causes,

in The brain, in general bleeding, is the first to feel like manner, put an immediate and lasting stop to the loss ; and a mere change of position, by affect- the heart. It may be done by a blow on the stoming the amount of blood in the head, will make ach, by the fall from a height, by too violent an the difference between unconsciousness and sense. exertion. Where the object is to bring down the circulation The lungs are no less essential to the circulation. to the lowest point, the safeguard against carrying The entire blood of the system passes along their the depletion too far is to make the patient sit up; innumerable vessels on its return to the heart, and and when faintness ensues, sensibility returns by ejecting through the pores the foul matter collected in its circuit, receives in exchange a fresh supply | if left to itself, and would fall to pieces with the of air. The process is stopped in drowning, when jolts and rough usage of better days. Lord Chesthere is no oxygen from without to inhale; in hang- terfield, in his decrepitude was unable to support ing, when the communication is cut off with the the rapid motion of a carriage ; and when about to lungs; in the morbid effusions which prevent the take an airing, said, in allusion to the foot's pace air from reaching the blood ; in the pressure which at which he crept along, “ I am now going to the holds down the chest and abdomen and will not rehearsal of my funeral.” The expression was permit them to play ; and in injuries of the portion one of many which showed that his mind had not of the spinal cord whence the nerves are derived, by participated in the decay of his body ; but even which the muscular movements of respiration are with men less remarkable it is common for the sustained. A vast variety of accidents and diseases intellect to remain unbroken amidst surrounding operate in one or other of these ways, and with the infirmity. The memory alone seldom escapes. uniform consequence that the unpurified blood be- Events long gone by retain their hold-passing connes stagnant in the lungs and stops the road. incidents excite a feeble interest, and are instantly Breathing is indispensable to life, because the forgotten. The brain, like a mould that has set, blood will barely move an inch without it; and keeps the old impressions, and can take no new though it did, would carry corruption in its round ones. Living rather in the past than the present, instead of sustenance and health.

the aged naturally love to reproduce it, and grow The brain is the centre of nervous power, and more narrative than is always entertaining to without its agency we are unable to think, move, younger ears ; yet, without the smallest sense of or feel; but the immediate effect of mortal injuries weariness, they can sit for hours silent and unemis to paralyze the action of the heart or the lungs. ployed, for feebleness renders repose delightful, The apoplexies in which the blood escapes with and they need no other allurement in existence force into the brain, and breaks up its substance, than to feel that they exist. Past recollections kill through the first ; the congestion which is less themselves are sometimes erased. Fontenelleviolent acts by impeding, and ultimately arresting, not the author on our present list–outlived the the movements of the last. In either case the cir- knowledge of his writings, but the winter which culation stops, and with it life. Whatever is the destroyed his memory allowed his wit to flourish locality of a disease, the heart and lungs are either with the freshness of spring. He could mark and implicated themselves, or through the nerves and estimate his growing infirmities, and make them brain ; and in the majority of disorders the whole the subject of lively sayings. “ I am about," he are enfeebled together, till it is difficult to deter- remarked, “ to decamp, and have sent the heavy mine which is failing most. In some diseases the baggage on before.” When Brydone's family blood itself is utterly corrupted, and every organ it read him his admirable Travels in Sicily, he was touches feels its deadly influence. In others, the quite unconscious that his own eyes had beheld stomach is incapable of discharging its office, and the scenes, and his own lively pen described them ; the fountain is dried up which replenished the but he comprehended what he heard, thought it

The original stock, depositing its vitality amusing, and wondered if it was true! as it goes, gets smaller and smaller every round. Next the body relapses into helplessness, the Soon the waste in the system exceeds the supply; mind into vacancy—and this is the second childthe decaying parts drop away, and no new matter hood of man—an expression upon which some takes their place; the whole frame dwindles and physiologists have built fanciful analogies, as if languishes, and the organs, every instant feebler in infancy and age, like the rising and setting sun, their action, become finally motionless.

were the same unaltered object in opposite parts Rarely is there seen a case of death from pure of the horizon. But there is little more reserold age. In those who live longest, some disease blance than in the vegetable world between immais usually developed which lays the axe to the root turity and rottenness. Sir Walter Scott, when of the tree; but occasionally the body wears itself growing infirmities made him speak of himself out, and, without a malady or a pain, sinks by a playfully as coming round to the starting point of slow and unperceived decay. All the aged approx- the circle, said he wished he could cut a new set imate to the condition and show the nature of the of teeth. The remark touched the distinction beprocess. The organs have less life, the functions tween the morning and evening of life. Infancy less vigor ; the sight grows dim, the hearing dull, and age are both toothless, but the teeth of the forthe touch obtuse; the limbs lose their suppleness, mer are coming, the teeth of the latter are gonethe motions their freedom, and, without local dis- the one is awakening to a world upon which the order or general disturbance, it is everywhere plain other is closing its eyes. The two portraits are in that vitality is receding. The old are often indo- perfect contrast. Here activity, there torporlent from natural disposition ; they are slow in here curiosity, there listlessness-here the prattle their movements by a physical necessity. With of dawning intelligence, there the babbling of exthe strength enfeebled, the bones brittle, the liga- piring dotage. Decrepitude which has sunk into ments rigid, the muscles weak, feats of activity are imbecility must be endeared by past recollections no longer possible. The limbs which bent in to be loved. But to despise it is an insult to huyouth would break in age. Bentley used to say he man nature, and to pity it on its own account, was like his battered trunk, which held together I wasted sympathy. Paley rightly asserted that

stream.

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