From the Examiner, 25th Aug. essence of Russian rule. The beaurocratic sysDEFEAT OF THE HUNGARIANS.

tem of Austria, Prussia, and France, has shown We have on former occasions pointed out the itself as lamentably insufficient to provide for the advantages that would have accrued to Europe, wants, as to prevent the disturbances, of the reand to England in particular, from the victory of spective populations. In Austria, some years ago, the Hungarians, and the maintenance of Hungarian no less than 140,000 officials were employed to independence. A market would have been opened govern a population of 21,000,000. In other words, that would go far to compensate for any diminu- about one man out of every 150 individuals was a tion of trade in other parts of Europe. A firm permanent policeman, besides extra hands embarrier against Muscovite aggression would have ployed on special occasions; and the number was been established. And a rational constitutional daily increasing. In France, Louis Philippe supgovernment would have existed in the east of Eu- posed he should always be able to buy over his rope, as a model for neighboring nations.

political adversaries by the creation of fresh But we must now contemplate the reverse of places of honor and emolument. Even in Prussia, the picture. Hungary, it is to be feared, must where the system show's itself under the most fasuccumb in the struggle. Could she, as a prac- vorable aspect, and where the officials are at least tically independent state, have had but a few years men of education and intelligence, it was a univer to develop her enormous material resources, we sal complaint that all individual energy had been should have entertained no fears for the result. annihilated, and the welfare of the country sacriWe should have had full confidence in her being ficed to routine and paper formulas. But the inable to cope, single-handed, with any forces that efficiency of the system has become thoroughly might have been brought against her by the con- evident, from the events of the last and the present federated despots of Europe. But as it is, she has year; and the real means of governing which the been taken by surprise, and forced into a contest great continental powers at present depend upon, for which she was not prepared. At its commence- are bayonets and cannon, and the command, by ment she was without an army, without generals, means of a forced conscription, over the population and without arms; and, worse than all, her sea- who are to be trained to use those bayonets and ports were in the hands of her enemies. What cannon against their fellow-citizens. Hungary has accomplished under these disadvan- Such is the system now predominant. It stands tages, what a determined and energetic resistance out in all its naked deformity. It is no less the she has opposed to the united forces of two em- instrument of a President of a republic than of an pires, affords ample evidence of the internal re- Autocrat of all the Russias. We, in this fortusources, moral and material, which she possesses ; nate country, find some difficulty in realizing to and shows how firm a barrier she would have con- ourselves the exact state of things that is understituted against northern aggression, and how apt stood by a state of siege. Accustomed as we are to a guardian she would have been of western civili- the equable rule of law, we can hardly picture to zation. But the odds against her were such as ourselves the arbitrariness and brutality of martial history has not yet recorded. The Muscovite czar sway. We perfectly agree with the Times, in an hoped to crush, at one blow, the Hungarian nation article of Monday last, that “the control of armed and all principles of freedom on the continent; and power and military authority is a bad substitute for this great end, like a desperate gamester, he for established laws and civil justice ;” but we canhas played his last stake. Already were his last not admit that “in many parts of Europe the reserves—the barbarous and uncouth tribes of the armies alone have saved society, and saved whatAsiatic steppes, armed not with the musket, but ever remains of freedom.” The evils of seditious with the bow and arrow, Kirgises, Baschkirs, and turbulence are at the worst but transitory ; those Calmucks—on their march towards the devoted of military despotism are permanent and enduring. country. “A fire devoureth before them, and be- They are destructive not merely of freedom for hind them a flame burneth ; the land is as the the moment, but all hopes of freedom hereafter. Garden of Eden before them, and behind them a but, in point of fact, on which side has terrorism desolate wilderness." Must we add, Yea, and been found? What excesses have anywhere been nothing shall escape them."

committed by the people at all comparable to the Meanwhile, civilized Europe determined to main- atrocities of Haynau, or even to the Prussian exetain the attitude of an “impartial spectator,” and to cutions by court-martial ? On this subject we have look calmly on while the Hungarians were fight- valuable testimony in the accounts that have from ing no less for the liberties of Europe than for time to time appeared in moderate German papers ; their own. But let the Hungarians now be com- and above all in that Diary of Auerbach concernpletely crushed, let the great principle of rational ing the events of last October at Vienna, of which self-government once be thoroughly put down, and a translation was recently published, enabling the the system of military despotism predominant over English reader to form a correct opinion concernthe greater portion of the continent, and lately re- ing the present condition and future prospects of inforced by the government of Louis Napoleon, will Central Europe. Auerbach is not at all disposed take root and flourish with more luxuriant growth to believe that armies “ have alone saved society, than ever.

This is, and always has been, the very and saved whatever remains of freedom.” His reCCLXXXI.





flections on the closing of the diet after the cap- that a nation is permitted, as little as an individuture of Vienna by Prince Windischgrätz are of a al, to violate duties with impunity; and that for different character.

the one, as for the other, a day of retribution, it The diet closed by the troops! all the boasted may be late or it may be early, will assuredly arliberty of the people is illusory and an empty cheat, rive. so long as the soldiery are held in constant readiness to cut short the debates with violence at any

From the Spectator, 25 Aug. In all the movements in Germany, there- HUNGARY-CANADA-WEST INDIES-INDIA. fore, the chief object of attack is the military power.

HUNGARY succumbs to Russia. The war is at We have been, and are still, kept in thraldom by this power. Notwithstanding all the professions

an end ; and, for the moment, a thorough frustraof attachment and good faith, of the common inter- tion appears to have finished the revolutionary ests of the people and the princes, the power of the movement of 1848. Reaction, more or less proprinces is still supported by bayonets, and the pop- nounced, is everywhere in the ascendant-in ular spirit is everywhere subjected and kept under Rome, Paris, Prussia, Hungary; in every quarby force of arms.

-The state has abandoned ter. But the nature, objects, and prospects of the its proper centre of gravity in the diet, and trans- reaction, are not clearly to be descried. We only ferred it 10 the army. The struggle will now be know that they vary in every quarter. gin anew.

From letters published by the Austrian papers Pending that sure recommencement of the strug- as the intercepted correspondence of Kossuth with gle, we shall have an opportunity of observing how Bem, it appears that the Magyars had for some far the new theory of foreign policy adopted by a time been reduced to the greatest straits, especlarge section of the mercantile classes in this coun- ially for the want of money. At last Kossuth is try, and their oracles the Times and Lord Aber- induced to resign the dictatorship ; Görgey is apdeen, is a sound one ; whether, as they assert, pointed, and he makes his submission to Prince England ought to hold herself aloof, whatever in- Paskiewicz. Russia is the conquering " mediafractions of international law may be committed tor” between Austria and the kingdom which was by other states, and not even to raise her voice in maintaining its old constitutional forms with the remonstrance, lest she should incur the hostility sword. A letter in the Times, on the common of some powerful sovereign. We shall learn by sense of the Hungarian question”-in which an experience (may the lesson not be taught too late !) attempt is made, with considerable effect, to show whether the traditionary policy of England, which that the Hungarian claim to independence hy prewatched with a keen eye and upheld with a firm scription is vitiated by the Turkish occupationhand the balance of power in Europe-the policy looks so much like a “ feeler," that it would not of Cromwell, of William the Third, and of Chat- be surprising if Lord Palmerston were to put forth ham-is, as we are informed by these modern lumi- a suggestion for absorbing Hungary into Austria, naries, an unnecessary interference in affairs which with some guarantees for respect to her national. do not concern us, and an excess of precaution ity, and for constitutional freedom under a federagainst imaginary dangers from which our insularation like that drawn up by Count Stadion. position already sufficiently protects us. For our Meanwhile, the unconquered Magyars have been own part, we may perhaps, until this new-fangled conquered and have yielded. So much for "spire doctrine shall have been confirmed by experience, ited protests," or succors from Notting Hill and be permitted to entertain some doubts respecting it. Marylebone. We may question whether, even on a mere calcu- One report is momentous if true-Russia is to lation of profit and loss, the balance would not have be paid for her services by the cession of an Ausbeen in favor of a system which should have en-trian port in the Mediterranean ! Such a gift couraged the establishment of constitutional gov- could not be regarded by Western Europe with inernments and opposed the extension of restrictive difference. Not only would Russia have“ turned" tariffs, the usual concomitants of despotic rule ; Turkey and the Sclavonian provinces on which she which should have maintained the dignity of Eng- casts so greedy an eye, but the great representative land, even at the risk of a depression of some of old absolutism would thus have established an eighths per cent. in the funds; and by which she outpost in the most important part of Europe. would have discharged the duty in our judgment What will she please to have next? a port on the imposed by Providence on those to whom power Atlantic—on the coast of France or Spain ? is entrusted, the duty of watching over, advocating Italy is, and may well be alarmed. Reaction and enforcing the rights of the weak. It may be is rampant in Rome ; where the Pope's commisthat the conquest of Hungary, and the establish- sioners are playing such antics as cannot fail to ment of Russian predominance in the east of Eu- keep open the memories of the shortlived repubrope, will not be followed immediately by the lic. Radetzky moves towards Venice ; whose closing of the Bosphorus to British commerce ; it continued holding out is a marvel. Mazzini sits may be that Hamburg will not share the fate of in council at Geneva, watching events. Hope Cracow; and that an European war will not be rests in the fact that absolutism, though partially produced by an attempt on the part of Austria, sup- restored, is really weak and worn out—too far ported by Russian bayonets, to reëstablish her superannuated to be even discreet. But if Russupremacy in Germany. But we must not forget sia, the champion of absolutism, were established

in the Adriatic, the old spirit of tyranny, however enter it on terms merely dictated by Upper Canantiquated and insane, would be strengthened with ada. a barbaric strergth, and the work of the last two The West Indian colonies exhibit a continucenturies at least would have to be done over ance of the same discontented not to say disafagain. It cannot be. If for no other reason, fected spirit which is growing habitual to them. France will have to retrace the steps of her poli- In British Guiana, Mr. Barkly maintained his cy in Italy. And our own diplomatists should tone of quiet firmness, but had not escaped a understand what they are doing.

severe lecture from the Combined Court ; and his Meanwhile, the Peace Society has assembled partial “reform” is met by a cry for a total change in convention at Paris, to preach the efficacy of in the constitution of the colony, with two chammoral resistance and the virtue of arbitration. bers, one wholly elective. Good things, which have been advocated long, es- In India, Gholab Singh has excited such grave pecially since the Christian dispensation, as yet so suspicions of his fealty, that Lord Dalhousie has little obeyed, which enjoined men to think less of demanded the surrender of all his guns ; he reJudaic forms, and to “ love one another.” The plies, that his soldiers won't let them be given commandment to do no murder is still defied, both up, but that the British may come and take them. on a small and on a large scale ; and we still re- The worst of it is, that this pretext is probably quire the police to defend us, both on a small and true; for in the Sikh territories the soldiery really on a large scale. M. Victor Hugo's able but dictate, except while their chiefs keep the lead by rhetorical sermon is only a few pages added to superior ambition and energy. Sikh chiefs must whole libraries of such literature. The acutest let their soldiers fight, and it is quite possible that of the pacificators, like Mr. Cobden and the Arch-| Gholab Singh cannot be true to his British allegibishop of Paris, only. give a qualified adhesion. ance if he would—quite as possible that he has If, however, the Peace Society has some new and no great wish to be so, if he can play the traitor substantive doctrine, some influence by which it with safety or probability of advantage. Of can supersede the use of war, let it be tried on course, he will be put down-in spite of the the spot ; let the society ask France, into whose Peace Society! capital it is so politely welcomed, to withdraw the The trial of Moolraj, Dewan of Moultan, for most gratuitous and vain of all warlike expedi- complicity in the murder of Lieutenant Anderson tions, that to Rome ; let it ask Russia and Aus- and Mr. Agnew, has the same political element in tria to waive their victory over the Hungarians ; a form which may become peculiarly interesting. let it ask Russia to forego an outpost on the Med- His defence implies that he was acting under the iterranean, needless if peace and arbitration are to compulsion of terror, taking the part he did in rule the world.

fear of his soldiery. This is one more of many

circumstances which indicate the necessity of efThe advices from the British dependencies are fectually breaking up and dispersing a military not hopeful for the permanence of tranquillity and power that too much resembles the Prætorian concord. In Canada, the British League has com- bands or the Mamelukes, a military force indepleted its session, and has sent home a manifesto, pendent of any soil or political bonds, acting solethe sum of which is, that the “ British” party in ly for its own military interests. Canada regretfully hankers after commercial protection in the tariff of the English customs, and

COLONIAL POLICY. to counteract the “ factious" operations of the French Canadians desires a confederation of the Tradition says that Queen Mary died of grief Provinces in British North America. In what for the loss of Calais : how would Queen Victoria respect such a measure could materially benefit the take the loss of her colonies ? Such a result is colonies, is not very clear. By the analogy of the not impossible. On the first blush of the thing it neighboring Union, the Colonial Congress would does seem incredible that this mighty empire, have jurisdiction over customs, navigation, waste upon which the sun never sets,” should go to lands, the composition of the central legislature, pieces, and signalize the commencement of its and some other matters, which would all, no downward career by imitating the dismemberdoubt, be modified by the peculiarities of the col- ment of the Spanish and Portuguese empires ; but onies and their relation to this country ; but in such things have been, and England herself has any case the pride of the “ British” party would lost one colonial dominion. The idea of indepenbe solaced, because they would become the lead-dence is becoming familiarized to colonists in ing section of an immense British majority in the various quarters ; and several English statesmen, central Parliament, instead of being a minority in actuated by indifference or the fatalism of official the Parliament of United Canada. That is prob- routine, studiously and avowedly contemplate the ably the paramount object of the British League. ultimate separation of the colonies. The “old

Invited to join the league, New Brunswick has English” notion of maintaining the integrity of astutely established a league of its own, to cor- the empire has succumbed before the philosophy respond with the other and watch New Bruns- of the Manchester school, which can respect nothwick interests. The Atlantic Province seems noting that is not vindicated by the direct profit and averse from federation, but equally disinclined to loss account in a money value.

Thus there is no influence opposed to the dis- 1 people of England to the “dismemberment of the integrating process which is at work in the colo- empire,” we do not foresee. nies themselves. It is not to be denied that in all To improve the colonial relation, therefore, is directions the ties are considerably loosened. The the alternative that ought to be earnestly conOrange party of Canada West is making an or- sidered. Some broad principles, possessing unity ganized demand for commercial protection and a in themselves, but capable of diverse application, federal union of the provinces as a means of over- should be settled. It seems quite possible to do whelming the Franco-Canadian majority : but that. To limit and define the matters which must whatever may come of that movement, annex- be reserved for the imperial authority, is the first ation" will be the policy of the opposition in Can- essential-sovereignty, foreign relations, ubiquity ada : if federation answer the purpose of the and inviolability of British citizenship. All other Orangemen, the Franco-Canadians and British Jib- matters may be safely surrendered to the colonies, erals will look to overcome it by annexation ; if to govern according to local knowledge and the federation fail the Orangemen, they will look to varying necessities of varying latitudes. Under annexation; material interest points to annexation; the present system, federation can do nothing for the official trifling with the colony converts loyal the colonies which they cannot attain separately; regard into vexation and dislike ; the seclusion of but it might greatly facilitate a reformed organLord Elgin, apparently in fear of popular outrage, ization of the colonial empire. Every group must, brings the monarchy which he represents into con- in some degree, acquire its own nationality : in tempt. The Canadians have poor inducements to character, the West Indian, the North American, loyalty. The Cape of Good Hope is so exasper- the South African, and the Australian, differ as ated by being mocked with a pretence of free in- much from each other as they do from the homestitutions and a reality of convictism, forced upon keeping Englishman. That distinct nationality the colony by a breach of faith, that it would do ought to be respected in the spirit as well as the little to defend itself against the occupation of any letter of the new colonial constitution. By bringforeign power : let Canada break loose, and the ing to bear upon the government of the colonies Cape would not long remain bound. The Aus- grouped into federations all the resources of the tralians have the advantages of distance from the empire, it would be possible to excite stronger metropolis, great activity, and cultivated political sympathies than ever—ambition for official pro ideas : let Australia see the North American fed- motion, the more attractive if it were carried eration break loose, and the Australasian fed- through an ascending scale ; love of honors, the eration would soon be independent. And all our greater if they were recognized at home ; affection other colonies gone, would the aggrieved and for the monarchy, if that were reciprocally repreinjured West Indies alone remain faithful ? sented in every part of the colony by colonists, and

In one sense, three alternatives appear to exhaust accessible to the colonists by deputy in the methe prospect of eventualities : to continue as we tropolis. are; to commence the work of separation by the This policy would scarcely be an innovation ; annexation of Canada to the American Union ; to it would only be to extend to our colonies proper supersede the motives to such annexation by im- the spirit of a policy already pursued towards forproving the relation of the colonies to the United eign dependencies like the Ionian Islands and Kingdom.

India. And we have, it is alleged, even in the To continue as we are is manifestly impossible. present cabinet, a statesman susceptible of develIn most of our colonies there are grievances opment to any exaltation of statesmanship. Here wholly unsettled, provoking new exasperations, then is a task for him : as a compensation for setand inflicting a continuance of material injury; it ting Europe by the ears, he may restore our colo is so with the fast and loose free-trade policy ex- nial relations and consolidate the integrity of the ercised towards Canada ; the political and penal empire—which is now imperilled by the very coltreatment of the Cape ; the treatment of the labor league that declined to sit in council with one requestion in the West Indics. In all those colonies puted so destructive !--Ibid. the sense of injury is too material, and too exasperating, while in all of them the intellectual ac

From the Examiner, 25 August. tivity is too great to permit a passive sufferance

THE HUNGARIAN of the actual policy. Some of our present rulers avowedly contemplate dismemberment: we tell

QUESTION them that it is not distant; we tell Queen Victoria It is a gallant and noble thing to trample upon that her reign may see it begun.

a fallen nation. We may expect that the reverses Separation, beginning with North American of the Hungarian arms will be followed up by annexation, is not only possible, but highly prob- attacks upon the Hungarian character. Already able, considering the motives already mentioned, this has been begun by the writer of an article in and the official indifferentism. But how it would Thursday's Times, headed as above. The writer be possible to maintain the rank of England in the professes to have resided on various occasions in scale of nations when she had been stripped of her Hungary, and to have carefully studied Hungarian colonies, or how whig optimists and Manches- history and political geography. If this is the ter economists could reconcile the sovereign and case he has done so to little purpose.



says, “the ultra Magyars wished to drive render that independence a nullity. Of course, as the Croats and Tschechs by force into a foreign long as the house of Hapsburg could send Hunnationality;" and proceeds to assert, that “the garian regiments to Italy, and garrison Hungary unjustifiably violent methods used by them are in- with Bohemian and Italian troops, her independisputable. The fogging of peasantry that refused dence was in a most precarious condition. The the change of language in public worship; the Hungarians were fully justified in demanding a innumerable cases of forcible interference between separate ministry of war, without which there parent and child, in the matter of education ; the could be no permanent security for their liberties. refusal of the Magyar censors to allow the Tschechs Such was the opinion of that great man, Count any newspaper whatever, in their mother tongue ; Szechenyi, whose name has been pressed into the are all too incontestable to be effaced from the page service of absolutism in a way that he would be of history."

the first to repudiate if Providence should be Now it happens that there are no Tschechs in pleased to restore his faculties, and who himself Hungary. The writer, doubtless, means the Slo- took office, by the side of Kossuth, in a constituvacks, who belong to the same great Slave branch tional ministry formed upon those principles. as the Tschechs of Bohemia. But, letting this pass, The curious ascending scale of civilization in we may ask why, instead of vague charges, he does rural Hungary, according to this writer's views, not produce at least one single fact bearing upon is one that will hardly bear the test of inquiry. these charges. Such similar accusations as have It must be indeed a very strange taste that would been made in German papers have been invariably prefer the condition of the military frontier to that refuted. As for Magyar censorship, the notion of any part of civil Hungary. In most parts of of such a thing is most ridiculous. The censor- the Banat there are local advantages which will ship in Hungary was in the hands of the govern- account for its flourishing condition, without seekment, and consequently anti-Magyar; and it was ing any such cause as that of its having been always the policy of that government to fan the longest under imperial civil administration. But viljealousies which existed in Hungary, as they do lages could be pointed out in the Banat as wretched everywhere else, between races speaking a different as any that are to be found in any other part of Hunlanguage.

gary; and villages could also be named in other It is false to date the occupation of the greater parts of Hungary that would do credit to the Banat. part of Hungary by the Turks from the battle of With regard to passable roads and bridges, smiling Mohacs. After that battle, Solyman withdrew villages and neat cottages, the best-informed travelwithout occupying a single village of the realm. lers have been able to discover them in Hungary Whatever he and his successors acquired, was without ascending the Save, Drave, or Danube, gained from sovereigns of the house of Hapsburg. into Styria, Austria, and the Tyrol. After Austria had been saved by Sobieski, the If the Hungarian reform bills were passed only Austrian arms made progress in Hungary, and at the eleventh hour, it was solely because, since gradually the Hungarian kingdom was reëxtended 1832, they have met with a most determined reto its present limits; but Hungary could never, sistance on the part of the Austrian government. according to any maxim of national law, have been The present war in Hungary cannot be said, acconsidered a conquered province by the house of cording to any known and familiar application of Hapsburg. The election of each Hapsburg sov- language, to have begun in preventing a repeal of ereign was accompanied by a solemn oath on his the union ; for no union ever existed except acpart to respect the liberties and independence of cording to this newly-fangled, far-fetched, de facto the realm ; and when, in 1687, the crown was interpretation. But a union did exist, and had exrendered hereditary in that family, (consequently isted for eight centuries, between Hungary and after the time from which the writer of the letter Croatia, which the house of Hapsburg attempted dates the commencement of the constitution in by the most perfidious means to dissolve. Hungary,) an equally solemn oath was taken to As for the supposition that Austria will introthe same effect by the heir Joseph I., who was duce any system but that of absolutism, it is too crowned in the lifetime of his father Leopold; childish to be worth answering. The essence of and has been repeated by every one of the hered- the Austrian system of government is to govern by itary sovereigas since that time, with the exception a complicated mechanism of salaried officials. The of Joseph II.-—who is, therefore, always counted charter of Count Stadion makes no provision for any an usurper.

real self-government, and can only be forced upon But it seems that Austria “ rendered Hungary the various peoples that inhabit the Austrian terde jure an independent kingdom, but de facto mar-ritories at the point of the bayonet. ried to Austria, by the imperial and royal armies The fruits of the great crime of the annihilation forming one corps under the War Office of Vien- of Hungarian independence will be reaped by Rus

This the writer of the article asserts ; and sia. The Austrian emperor is henceforth the vasdoes not perceive that by so doing he shows, in sal of the czar, dependent upon Russian bayonets its strongest colors, the perfidy of the house of for protection against his subjects.

Russia will Hapsburg. For 165 years, according to this cal- bide her time. She will wait till the fruit is ripe, culation, the house of Hapsburg admitted by sol- and the provinces fall first under her influence, emn oaths the de jure independence of Hungary, and then under her dominion. The last barrier while she was doing all in her power de facto to' is swept away between Russia and Turkey.


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