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our decision and our action hang the immediate Canning has carrerally abstained from implicating fate of Turkey, and it may be the prospective des- the home government directly in a foreign dispute, tinies of India and of England herself.
he has given his opinion and his counsel in a man
ner which claims the entire sanction of his sovFrom the Times, Oct. 3.
ereign and of Britain. It is stated that the Turkish Her majesty's ministers, suddenly and specially minister of foreign affairs addressed to the Engconvoked from their various pursuits or retirement lish and French ambassadors several momentous in different parts of the kingdom, held a cabinet questions, after the receipt of the Russo-Austrian council yesterday, at the Foreign office, which was ultimatum. These questions were answered by a numerously attended. At this unwonted season collective note, in which Sir S. Canning and Genof the year, the fact that a cabinet has been sum- eral Aupick affirmed that the treaties of Kutshukmoned by direction of Lord Palmerston for the Kaimarji, and of Passarowitch, do not justify the despatch of serious business, is a sufficient indica- demands for the surrender of the Polish and Huntion of the importance attached by that minister to garian fugitives; that the refusal of the Porte the late occurrences at Constantinople ; for we would, therefore, not amount to a breach of these believe that the threatening state of the relations treaties, or to a lawful cause of war; that the assistbetween Russia and the Porte, and the last de- ance of the armed forces of France and England, spatches received from Sir Stratford Canning, are in the event of war, could not be promised without the sole cause of this deliberation of the govern- special instructions, but that these states would ment. The promptitude with which this call on readily proffer their mediation to avert a rupture the responsible advisers of the crown has been between the Porte and the two emperors. At this made and obeyed, augurs well for the spirit which stage the matter rests. Prince Radzivil immeought to govern their resolutions in such an emer- diately set out for St. Petersburg, and will be gency, and we trust that the next few hours will followed thither by Fuad Effendi, charged to exsend forth to Constantinople the fullest assurances plain to the Emperor Nicholas the scruples of the that, if these menacing and unjust demands of Divan, so that at the very moment the British Russia are to be enforced by more menacing and government is called upon to decide upon the course injurious acts on the part of the Northern power, it may hereafter have to pursue in the East, the they will have awakened in the government, as Russian cabinet is resolving the question of peace well as in the people of England, a determination or war. to show that such pretexts are ill chosen to cover It is impossible not to be struck by the extreme an aggression on the sultan's independence. That inadequacy of the cause which has given rise to independence has been placed, by repeated acts of this turmoil. A few enthusiastic Magyar patriots, the diplomacy of Europe, under the joint protec- who have outlived a struggle which has been more tion and recognition of all the powers ; and if ever tatal to their country than to themselves, and who there was a moment when it could not be assailed appear to have ended in plunder wliat began in without peculiar ignominy, it is when the Porte imposture, have taken refuge under the guns of invokes the rights and usages of nations for the the fortress of Widden, accompanied by certain protection of defeated fugitives, intent only on Polish soldiers of fortune, who have participated escape from the scene of an unsuccessful contest. freely in every civil broil of the last eighteen To intimidate and to degrade the sultan and his months. These men have obviously no object but ministers into the commission of a mean action, at to effect their escape through Turkey to the West the command of a Russian aide-de-camp, is an out- of Europe, where their delusions and their conrage which might have been spared by the sov- spiracies may ferment at a vast distance from their ereign of one empire to that of another ; and in native scenes of action. To intercept such fugithis instance Europe will acknowledge that the tives would seem more embarrassing than useful principles of honor, humanity and civilization, even to their enemies, for we cannot credit Prince claim her support for Turkey against pretensions Radzivil's brutal threat of a wholesale execution dictated either by the cruelty of revenge or the of the band. Turkey may be bound not to harbor designs of a still darker policy.
the mortal enemies of Russia or Austria on their It is most fortunate that, at such a crisis, the respective frontiers, but all that is asked for these British ambassador at Constantinople should be a persons is leave to depart; in fact, their removal man whose sedate character, unshaken firmness, from the Ottoman dominions would terminate the and long experience, command the profound re- quarrel, just as the departure of Louis Napoleon spect, not only of all parties in this country, but from a Swiss canton put an end some years ago to of all nations abroad. Sir Stratford Canning is the menacing requisition of the French for his not an envoy to be moved to rash or inconsiderate immediate expulsion. actions ; he represents, with the greatest authority, But when we consider how paltry and unreal the stable and dignified policy of this country, and the cause is for which so much wrath has been put if he is ever led to take a great resolụtion, it is by on; when we observe that, instead of having resome positive interest and some great emergency. course to the more subtle infinences of Russia, It becomes the country, therefore, to give its unre- which are not unknown at Constantinople, Prince served support to an ambassador who enjoys our Radzivil delivered his message in the tone of a unreserved confidence ; and though Sir Stratford bully and the terms of a challenge, and thereby
rendered it impossible for the Porte to comply with case England would coöperate with France. This such demands without grievous humiliation, we feeling did not arise, at least in the eyes of rational cannot entirely divest ourselves of the apprehension and fair men, out of any belief of insincerity on that the Russian government has taken this oppor- the part of England; but it was doubted whether tunity and these means to fasten a quarrel on the the English government would be supported by Turkish empire for its own purposes. The nature public opinion in England in any measures showing of the assistance given by Russia to Austria in the a determination to resist to the last the pretensions Hungarian war,
has effectually paralyzed the op- of the czar. The French government naturally position she would heretofore have encountered in hesitated at the chance of being drawn into a quarthat quarter. France is too much engrossed at rel with Russia, being then left alone to sustain home and in Italy to embark on a very bold and it, and acting single-handed. These fears, conenergetic course of foreign policy ; and Mr. Cob-sidering what is to be done at home, can scarcely den's late absurdities, added to many fruitless and be blamed. It is necessary to observe that the feeble passages in our own foreign policy, have proceedings of the Peace Congress in England raised doubts abroad as to the efficacy and sincerity and in Paris, led parties here to suppose that, on of Britain. These temptations to reënter upon no account, and in no cause, would the English the favorite scene of Russian aggression had long people approve of their government having recourse ago been pointed out; we know not even now to to extreme measures. The unanimous opinion of what extent the Emperor of Russia is disposed to the press in England, however, and particularly follow them ; but certainly the tenor of Prince that portion of it which is known to give faithful Radzivil's commission, and the subsequent ultima- expression to public opinion, has removed all hestum, lead to no other conclusion than that a course itation on that score. It is now believed that of policy adverse and insulting to Turkey may be though John Bull may have little objection to pursued to actual hostility.
occupy his leisure hours, or to vary the monotony If these intentions have been entertained at St. of commercial pursuits, by a little harmless thePetersburg, and if this quarrel has been sought for (ory, yet the old spirit of the Saxon is still alive as a more sinister purpose than even the sacrifice of ever, and that it wants only some act of outrageous a few poor refugees, the moment is come when the and manifest wrong, on the part of a powerful desvigorous and united action of England and France pot against a weak and inoffensive neighbor, to is the best chance of averting war. On a less call forth the ancient energy of his character and striking occasion, Lord Palmerston proposed that his love of fair play. The French government the combined fleets should take up their position seem now convinced that England will be true to within the Dardanelles ; and the rejection of that herself and to France, to the last, in this quarrel scheme by France was held to be the source of her of injustice ; and the instructions addressed to the subsequent miscarriage in 1840. Louis Napoleon French minister at St. Petersburg are, I am told, is bound in an especial manner to let no such op- not a whit less energetic than those which, I preportunity slip again. He has lived the life of an sume, have been addressed to the English ambasexile under the protection of those very usages sador. There is reason, however, to hope that which are now violated by despotism on the track the affair will terminate otherwise than in a hostile of revenge ; and Switzerland did for him what manner, and that the Emperor of Russia will be Turkey is still proud enough and strong enough to convinced not only of the injustice of his pretendo for other victims of political agitation. What- sions in the present instance, but that it is his ever, then, the mature resolutions of the court of interest at this moment, as much as that of any St. Petersburg may be on the receipt of the refusal other sovereign, not to do anything that would of the Porte, the resolutions of the faithful allies again throw Europe into confusion or war. The of the sultan will not, we hope, be less firm or decided attitude of the two governments of France less effective. To abandon the Turkish Divan, and England will convince the emperor that his would be to abandon our own principles, our own pretensions will not be tolerated with impunity. envoy, and the future integrity of the Ottoman The divided state of parties in France renders her empire ; but if this cause be maintained with the action more difficult ; why, it is superfluous to say. spirit and dignity which it requires, there is great But the existence of these difficulties will not, I reason to believe that the pretensions of the Em- believe, deter her in such a cause, or prevent her peror of Russia will subside, and an affair which from joining frankly with a friendly government in has had a formidable commencement, may still be resistance to injustice. brought to a pacific termination.
From the London Chronicle, 5 Oct. From the Times, Oct. 5. The feelings of the French towards Russia form
Paris, Oct. 4, P. M. a curious anomaly amongst popular tendencies, and I believe I can assure you, on the best author- a remarkable illustration of national character. ity, that the French and English governments are the colossal power of the czar dazzles them ; decided in acting together to the last in the affairs their imagination is irresistibly captivated by the of Constantinople. I noticed a day or two ago notion of a sovereign ruling over thirty degrees of the existence of a feeling here, not exactly of latitude by the simple declaration of his will; and mistast, but of doubt, as to whether in the extreme ) many think they see in him a chosen instrument
of vengeance against la perfide Albion—a coadju- perfectly conscious all along that they stood comtor who will infallibly aid them, sooner or later, mitted as deeply as ourselves ; the French and to wipe out the mortifying recollections of Water- English ambassadors having pledged their respecloo. Thus, M. de Lamartine, in his “ History of tive nations to back the Sublime Porte in every the Revolutions of 1848,” maintains that only two way short of an armed intervention, for which, as modes of forming “ a French system” were open they said, it was of course impossible for them to either to the government of the restoration, or to engage without special instructions for the purpose.
France might unite with Austria We note this seeming indifference as a phenomagainst Russia and England, or with Russia enon well deserving the grave attention of Lord against England and Austria.
Palmerston. We by no means infer from that, on In the first case, France would have obtained the present occasion, the cause of justice and developments in Savoy, in Switzerland, and in the humanity will be abandoned by the French governRhenish provinces of Prussia, by concessions to ment, which, it is understood, has approved the Austria in Italy, and on the Lower Danube, and on line taken by General A upick, and intimated its the shores of the Adriatic. In the second case, readiness to coöperate with England for the proFrance would have stifled Austria between herself tection of the Porte. and Russia. She could have spread freely in Italy, original opinion, that there is but little cause to
We retain, however, our retaken Belgium and the frontiers of the Rhine, and gained influence in Spain. Constantinople, the apprehend an actual rupture. It is very seldom, Black Sea, the Dardanelles, the Adriatic, conceded indeed, that a declaration of war follows a delibto Russian ambition, would have insured her these erate conference of ambassadors, or a timely refaugmentations of territory. The Russian alli- erence to courts; and the judicious course followed ance !—it is the cry of nature; it is the revolution by the sultan, in throwing the chief responsibility of geography; it is the war alliance for the eventu- of his refusal on Sir Stratford Canning and Genalities of the future of two great races; it is the equilibrium of peace by two great weights at the eral Aupick, is his security. We must give them extremities of the continent, comprising the mid- credit for requiring the fullest information as to dle, and exiling England, like a satellite power, to facts and documents before answering the question ; the ocean and Asia.
and it is, therefore, most important to observe that, It never appears to have so much as suggested
in their opinion, “the treaties of Kutschah-Kayitself to this apostle of liberty, equality, and fra- nardi and Passaro witch do not confer on Austria ternity, that alliances or combinations of this kind and Russia the right of demanding the extradition take rank, in morals, with the partition of Poland;
of the Hungarian refugees.” We assume, for the nor, we believe, would they be repudiated for that sake of argument, that each emperor, in point of reason by his countrymen. The spirit in which form, demanded only his own subjects; and we say he writes is emphatically their spirit. It explains
that the utmost they can demand, jointly or severGeneral Lamoriciere's late abortive mission to St. ally, under the treaties, or under any recognized Petersburg, which would otherwise seem made for doctrine of international law, is, that the fugitives the express purpose of inviting the marked insult shall not be harbored in Turkey. to the president and the republic which it brought
The last advices from New York state that Bem down upon them. It also explains the otherwise and Dembinsky were expected in the United States ; unaccountable calmness or tameness with which and the gordian knot will probably be untied, by the news from Turkey has been received in Paris suffering them and their companions to leave Widbeyond the immediate precincts of the Bourse. din without beat of drum, and quietly embark on Where are the friends of the oppressed races of board some French, English, or American vessel the great European family? What has become in the Bosphorus. There is no necessity for bringof the philanthropic democrats, who so lately ing matters to extremities, nor for driving the rivalled Anacharsic Clootz in the extravagance
czar to throw, Brennus-like, his sword into the and cosmopolitan character of their demonstrations ?
scale. The sultan has done no more than duty Surely, all cannot have followed the fortunes of and honor required of him in saving these unhappy M. Ledru Rollin! Are they reluctant to uphold men from death, or (worse than death) Siberian the sultan, because they have assailed the pres
exile ; and if (which remains to be proved) the ident for restoring the Pope ! And do the legit- imperial demand is only the first step in a scheme imists, on their side, shrink from the antithesis of of aggression, which is to end in reducing him to contemporaneously defending both the Cross and the condition of a viceroy, his firm and chivalrous the Crescent? Not a single interpellation has resistance, backed by the universal sense of justice been addressed to M. de Tocqueville ; nor, with in mankind, can hardly fail to cause the indefinite rare exception, has the affair formed the prominent postponement, or, most probably, the eventual subject of discussion in any of the journals which abandonment, of the scheme. are regarded as the organs of the leading parties. This looks very much as if no party-republican,
From the Daily News, Oct. 5. legitimist, Orleanist, Bonapartist, or socialist- The Emperor of Russia has evidently been was particularly eager to commit itself against misled into his outrageous and impolitic challenge Russia, even in a cause appealing to the warm-to the Porte by the vile flatterers who, in his own est sympathies of an impulsive and excitable peo- court, and in our press, belauded his magnanimity, ple. At the same time, they must have been l extolled his military prowess and skill, and gave
their fullest support and approbation to the cause the principalities, send his agents to excite disof imperial tyranny against Hungarian freedom turbances in Bulgaria and in Bosnia, and sow in and independence. During that memorable strug- Turkey that same insurrectionary spirit, which he gle the press of London and of Paris deserted its declares to be heresy north of the Danube. But duty, and instead of representing the sentiments war the czar will not make. and sympathies of the people, led, on the contrary, With oppressed nations writhing beneath the to a belief that the English and French condemned fangs of despotism from the Baltic to the Danube, all kinds of popular resistance even on behalf of these military tyrants durst not venture on war the most prescriptive freedom. And the czar was with Western Europe, which would be felt not induced to suppose that in the crushing of Hun- only by the resuscitation of Poles and Hungarians, gary and the immolation of its champions he was but by the destruction of that export trade which doing that which the respectable and influential alone brings the Russian landed proprietors their classes of England and France approved. One revenues. Were the flax, the hemp, the tallow, presumption led to another. If Bem and Dem- and the corn, shut up to rot in the ports of St. binski were but ambulating revolutionists, if Kos- Petersburg, Riga and Odessa, as they would soon bu suth was a mere rioter and plunderer, as the Times in case of war, Russia would find that imaginative to this day does not blush to call him, Russia cer- wealth, which scribes are so fond of exaggerating tainly was warranted in claiming the extradition fail her altogether. Holland would scarcely ven. of men so branded.
ture her annual loans. While Russian proprietors, The silence of the French public, the malignity as well as Russian serfs, would begin to ask why of our press, the known dissensions of our own they were to be mulcted or sacrificed, in order to government, and the boasts of foreign diplomatists set up again the shadow of an Austrian empire, in London, (that they could get up an émeute at any or to avenge upon brave Hungarians the imbecility time either in the press or in Parliament against and treachery of the house of Hapsburg. Palmerston,) misled the czar to believe that he We see it reported that Gen. Lamoriciere is might bully the Porte with the most complete im- returning to France. We should not be surpunity and success. Marvellous will be his rage prised. The conduct and the language of the when he discovers his mistake ; and most natural czar to that envoy was known to be a capricious his fury against those vile partisans that backed alternation of cajolery and menace, one day calling him through every act of invasion, oppression, Louis Napoleon his friend, the next hinting that cruelty, and military tyranny, in order to desert he might find it convenient to set up the Duke of him at the last moment, and expose him to a Bordeaux, or some more pliant pretender. Notrebuff from the sultan and his constitutional allies. withstanding the leaning of more than one French
The most galling circumstance to Russia is, statesman to a Russian alliance, we do not see the however, not so much the escape of Kossuth, and possibility of either the French government conthe presence in Western Europe of a statesman descending to the required meanness, or the well acquainted with the weakness and insecurity French public resigning themselves to the reof eastern despotism—its mortification is to find quired indifference. In both countries, indeed France and England once more drawn up in one of England and France, whether governments go line of defence before Constantinople against Rus- too fast or too slow, the people will be found to sian aggression. What blunders the czar must go right at the critical and serious moment. And have made to have produced this sentiment and the present is one of these. demonstration of resistance on the part of two powers, grown so indifferent to foreign policy and States ship Savannah, dated San Francisco, Aug.
A LETTER from Com. Voorhees, of the United to each other !
31, says—" There are about two hundred and fifty With respect to England, we doubt if Russia vessels in harbor, many of them large ships, and could have quarrelled with the Porte for any other mostly abandoned and going to ruin. They will cause that would have enlisted English sympathies all be wrecked in the course of the coming winter so strongly for it. Had Russia annexed the prin- if they be not taken care of in time. It is a most cipalities, closed the Danube, renewed the treaty ruin of so much valuable property. The owners
woful pity to look upon the shameful waste and of Unkiar Skelessi, it is to be doubted if it could and underwriters of New York and the other cities have stirred either our diplomacy or our public of the Union ought to petition the president for a opinion to interfere. But the outrageous demands man-of-war, whose special duty it should be to take of the Russian Envoy, inspired apparently by a care of the abandoned vessels by taking down some mere carniverous and sanguinary appetite, together of their yards and spars, and moor them safely, so with the spontaneous resistance of the sultan, on as to prevent them from going on shore or dragging the principles of humanity and just pride, have so
against each other. Such is the position of these
vesse!s, crowded together, that, if the windward rallied England and France, both government and
one were to take fire, the whole fleet would be public opinion, to the side of Turkey, that the burned, without the possibility of saving any of czar must recoil. He may indeed higgle about them."
1. Mornings among the Jesuits
287 2. What Becomes of Discharged Prisoners ? Chambers' Journal,
249 3. German Travellers on North America,
250 4. Nature's Ice Caves,
256 5. Language of the Tombs, 6. Water in London,
260 7. The Modern Vassal, Chap. V.,
262 8. Story of a Family, Chap. XVII.,
275 9. Maiden and Married Life of Mary Powell,
279 10. Turkey and Russia,
283 ILLUSTRATION.—The Great Sea Serpent of 1848, from Punch, 273. POETRY. Three Days of Christopher Columbus, 251. — Peace, 261. — The Fountain in
Winter; Blessing, 272.—The Red Flag, 278.-A Few Short Years, 282. New Books, 282.
Prospectus.—This work is conducted in the spirit of now becomes every intelligent American to be informed Littell's Museum of Foreign Literature, (which was favor of the condition and changes of foreign countries. And ably received by the public for twenty years,) but as it is this not only because of their nearer connection with ousiwice as large, and appears so often, we not only give selves, but because the nations seem to be hastening, spirit and freshness to it by many things which were through a rapid process of change, to some new state of excluded by a month's delay, but while thus extending our things, which the merely political prophet cannot compute scope and gathering a greater and more attractive variety, or foresee. are able so to increase the solid and substantial pari of Geographical Discoveries, the progress of Colonization, our literary, historical, and political harvest, as fully to (which is extending over the whole world,) and Voyages satisfy the wants of the American reader.
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