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greatly rejoice that Hamburg has given its influ- courts, and diplomatic notes fraught with hypocrisy ence for the accomplishment of this scheme. By and sophistry. Though she had voluntarily exthe constitution, that free and intelligent city is cluded herself from a true German union, governed accorded a preëminent share in the representation by her special constitution of the 4th of March ;
by a central power and general legislative bodies, in both houses of the federal legislature, in which and though she had formally refused 10 enter into a it cannot fail to have the influence which its im- confederacy with such a union, formed under the portance deserves.
This must be regarded as a 'auspices of Prussia ; she insisted upon her right of great guarantee that the policy of the confederation having the lead in reörganizing Germany—and, in will, especially in commercial objects, be more his note of the 16th of May, to the Prussian extraorenlightened than has hitherto prevailed in Ger- dinary ambassador, M. de Canitz, Prince Schwar
zenburg tried to prove that the revolution could be many. Prussia has always used her influence
put down in Germany only by the coöperation of against the progress of the southern states for in- Austria ; that Prussia was quite unable to do so by creasing the protective duties, and in favor of a herself; and as he had no material assistance to liberal tariff. And now, when she will be strength- offer, and, forgetting that Austria is bankrupt in ened by the accession of Hambury, we have every reputation, he did not hesitate to offer moral support, confidence that a great reform will be made in the hinting openly to the sympathies of southern Gercommercial system now in use.
inany. Such sympathies do exist, because, by the
bigoted Catholic clergy in Bavaria, &c., Prussia is Hamburg will cease to be a free port.
constantly denounced as the bulwark of heresy, and Hamburg is, at present, free only for itself, while they would fajn make their ignorant votaries believe it is essentially the port of Germany, in respect to that every Prussian is an incarnation of the devil which all its freedom vanishes. No duties are with a lail and cloven "feet. But these prejudices collected in Hamburg ; but very high protecting are on the wane in the same proportion as the duties are now collected upon their imporis, à iniquity of the Austrian and Bavarian governments few miles out of Hamburg, in whichever direc- begins to stare in the eyes even of the dullest minds. tion they go.
At the present moment the positions are mateHow infinitely more important will
rially changed. Hungary, as Paskiewitch says in it be that the influence of Hamburg shall be used his despatch announcing ihe surrender of Görgey, in liberalizing the whole policy of Germany, than lies prostrate at the feet of the czar; and Austria, simply in retaining a system, however valuable in though out at the elbows, stands with her arms itself, which extends to scarcely a twentieth part a-kimbo, resolved to take the German affairs seriously of the population for whom the merchants of into hand with her helpmate Bavaria, who hopes to Hamburg are employed. Of whit value would it get part of the lion's share. The Prussian govbe to England, were London and Liverpool free sisted its worst enemy in subduing Hungary, by
ernment begins to veer round. After having asporis, if all produce and materials, on leaving for allowing Russian troops to pass through Silesia ; the interior, were exposed to heavy protective after having forfeited the sympathies of many patri duties? What London and Liverpool are to Eng- ots in all Germany, by refusing the imperial crown land, Hamburg is to Germany. With a view, offered by the national assembly, by the manner in therefore, only of advancing their own interests, which it has behaved in the Danish war, by annihiby extending a free commercial policy throughout lating its own constitution given on the 5th of De. Germany, the citizens of Hamburg have pursued, election, it is obliged to fall back on its allies of the
cember, and by forcing upon Prussia a new law of in our estimation, a wise and enlightened course, old régime, Russia and Austria. We see how it in throwing the whole weight of their influence veers round in the explanations on its German policy, into the Prussian confederation, and thus doing which it laid, some days ago, before the first and much to counteract the projects and designs of second chambers, through its commissaries, M. de Austria, in every way opposed to their principles Bulow and M. de Radowitz; and we find that the and interests.
plan proposed by the three kings, of Prussia, Hanover, and Saxony, for the constitution of all Ger
many, except the Austrian provinces, is already From the Examiner, 221 Sept.
antiquated, in as far as it is given to understand that
Prussia cannot sacrifice its old alliances against adTHE CONDITION AND PROSPECTS OF GERMANY. vantages that are at best uncertain, because the The subjoined letter was written without any
unanimous consent of all the German governments view to publication. But it very ably expresses
is very doubıful.
The truly liberal party in Germany is now everythe views of an intelligent and impartial German where kept down by violent means. Its heads, stigon the probable solution of the great problem of matized by the names of demagogues, republicans, German unity, and we have obtained permission socialists, communists, &c., are forced to fly their to lay it before our readers.
country, unless they choose to be capitally or crim
inally tried by their political adversaries. The When I wrote you last, there were hopes that most respectable men are shot as rebels, imprisoned, Prussia would succeed in consolidating a German or driven from place and home, promiscuously with confederation, with a general national assembly, the maurais sujets that deserve no better. Even the an upper house, a council of the princes, and the members of the national assembly who had been King of Prussia as the president of the union, be- recalled by their governments, but, as German patrifore Anstria and Russia could disengage themselves ots, preferred to obey the decrees of that assembly, from the Hungarian troubles. To counteract that in migrating with what remained of it from Franksalutary end, Austria had nothing at her disposal, fort to Stutgart, are imprisoned in Bavaria, and then, but underhand intrigues at the small royal threatened to be tried for high treason in Prussia. The holy alliance is in a fair way of outdoing itself, who must not be enlightened, lest they should begin of outheroding Herod.
to think and to have a will of their own, instead of Prussia, therefore, and Austria, will now take obeying. This is the counter-revolution that, at the the arrangement of the German affairs into their present moment, thinks it is powerful again, and is hands jointly. They have the power again ; and resolved to use its power for going the full length all they promised and executed since March, 1848, towards bringing back the old régime. was only done with a reservation that they should The other tendency is that which does not concontinue to be powerless. The reactionary party, sider either the power of the governments sufficiently with a tuft and place-hunting nobility at their head, great, or the victory gained sufficiently decisive, 10 and in league with the family interests of the sov- attempt a counter-revolution. Absolutism is likeereigns, are seriously bent upon bringing back the wise what it drives at; but it sees that standing good olden times, when the anointed of the Lord still or going back is impossible, and that a progresand his special and loyal favorites were, with the sive movement is indispensable for the purpose of assistance of priestcraft and a hired soldiery, reck- making advances to certain ideas of the age by cerlessly fleecing a flock of bipeds created for their tain forms; though there ought to be no essential support. But as long as Germany shall be inhab- change in the practical results. It would affect li'ited by its present race, it cannot become like China ; eral appearances, and prefer concessions to violence; nor can the democratic principles of Christianity as the latter would be risking too much. be thoroughly eradicated in civilized Europe, even These tendencies are struggling for superiority in though our modern saints do all in their power to the cabinets, though in fact they aim at the same reduce it to a hollow form.
end. They both wish to put down republicanism If not the crowned heads themselves, yet the throughout Europe, and they likewise agree in statesmen in the cabinets must have learned some thinking the smal] German states a nuisance, not thing within the two last memorable years. Besides, because the people there labor under many disadsome of the most essential reforms have struck such vantages, but because they consider them as breeddeep roots within that short period, that they cannot ing places of revolutionary ideas. be put down. In Austria religious toleration must The unity of Germany or of Italy (countries be realized, even through that assembly of the Prot- which in so many respects are similarly circumestant dignitaries which first met at the call of the stanced, as being the battle-fields for the rest of the government of Vienna on the 21 of August, when European countries, never-failing objects for their it moved in solemn procession to the Protestant policy, and an inexhaustible source for defraying meeting-house, and proclaimed its confession to be ihe expense of other nations' wars) will not be on a level with that of its Catholic brethren. acknowledged by the cabinets as a national or Eu
Thus we may confidently hope that, although ropeari desideratum, because it is a demand raised Austria, lying prostrate at the feet of the czar, will by the revolution. have an active hand in managing the new organiza- But if Germany were united it would give a diftion of German politics, we shall not return to the ferent direction to the whole policy of Europe ; and old régime. The new central power that is to be it is next to impossible that the German powers installed by Prussia and Austria jointly, will no should altogether overlook their vocation of renderdoubt be considered as being de jure a successor 10 ing their country less insignificant. They must see the old German Diet, and as operating on the basis that the interest of their own families is at variance of the treaties of 1815; but de facto it will be com- here with the interest of the nation at large, and pelled to grant many salutary innovations, especially that they should forfeit every claim to respect and a general national representation, as Austria will love if they did sacrifice the latter to their selfish not scruple to violate her constitution of the 4th of ends. Thus the liberal as well as the counter-revoMarch. One should, however, be a conjurer to lutionary absolutisms are compelled to shift their foresee what will be the state of our internal con- direction against their will. stitution or affairs a six-month hence, and whether This is especially true as regards Prussia. HowGermany will become one, two, or seven,
ever much her cabinet inclines to absolutism or desThat the Congress of Peace should have been potism, however great the abhorrence in which it sitting at the very time when so many countries holds a true and effectual constitution, founded of were actually bleeding, is a curious coincidence. course on democratic principles, yet she cannot withBut whether the great continental cabinets be plot- draw from the mission that happens to be allotted ting to exterminate every republic in Europe, from to her. She cannot become the ally of a league France down to Lubeck, or whether France herself whose object it is to uphold absolutism and legitibe privy to a new holy alliance of which Prussia macy at any rate, to oppose political and social and Germany are to be the victims, we may regard progress, and to repress that developinent which the rumors of such matters as at least the smoke freedom and independence bestow on the life of a indicating that the diplomates are busily employed in nation. She has become great through Protestanttheir laboratories.
ism, wherefore she cannot fetter the spirit of free One fact is certain, that the continental cabinets inquiry; she has done so much for public instrucconsider the movement of 1848, which has shaken tion, and has been so proud of being called the inthe foundations of so many governments, as a phe- tellectual state de préférence, that now she cannot nomenon, whose principle ihey are determined to shrink from the results of a high development of uproot. It is a general crusade against what they intellect. Prussia has, through the assistance of call the revolution, that they are about.
democracy, whose principle she embraced in 1806, But there are two tendencies in the cabinets. The risen from her deep fall to a considerable height; one know's nothing about ideas; all history is to it and she has so osten boasted of having obtained all but a play of intrigue and power; progress and the results of the revolution by progressive reform, reform are but concessions that are marks of weak- that she cannot now declare open war to democness ; it knows but an absolute government and an racy, or turn back and call every reform an emanaobedient people, whose persons and property are at tion from the revolutionary principle. the disposal of the sovereign and his retinue, and / Prussia has promised so much that her honor
POSITION OF ROME AND HER CHURCH.
demands that she should keep her word, and to in Paris, writes an “Oh! fie" letter to Rome, Prussia still all sensible Germans look up as their and warns whom it may concern that France has a leader towards a better time. She has already flag in the Eternal City, and is going to be trionce braved all the rest of Europe, having England color in policy again. The pontificate has gone for an ally; and if she were once more to unfurl her banner, and in a cause so truly noble, Germany back to the days of Leo the Twelfth—only the believes and trusts that assistance would not be pontiff is out of town; France is in possession wanting from the same quarter.
not of Ancona but of Rome itself—having come to Weimar, August 31, 1849.
pray, remains to scoff, and intimates that she will
not be insulted by the ungrateful pontificate. From the Spectator, 15 Sepi.
The manifest loosening of the territorial tenure
heretofore held by the head of the Roman CathECCLESIASTICAL affairs partake of the disorder olic Church has suggested a report, to the effect which prevails in every branch of polity, and that the organization of that church is to be therefore extraordinary interest is felt in every revised ; each great division of it, according to step that may give a new turn to the stream of political geography, acquiring a practical indepenevents, or furnish the nucleus around which the dence, with a kind of federal relation to the cenfloating fragments may form a resting-place. tral authority. In other words, the idea has been
Among many questions which excite the most broached, of breaking up the unity which the vivid curiosity, is the relation of France to the church retained through the headship of Rome. Church of Rome. It has for a long time been
It is under these circumstances that an ecclesipeculiar, acknowledging spiritual suzerainté rather astical council is summoned at Paris, for Monday than direct spiritual sovereignty in the Pope; and next, at the seminary of St. Sulpice. the conflict of councils on that head has grown
The bishops of the province of Paris (says the more perplexing of late years. The affair of the Univers) will alone take part in it. There will Archbishop of Cologne, though a foreign transac- perhaps also be present the Archbishop of Chalcetion, served to shake the faith in the pontifical donia, and two bishops of a neighboring province, authority still further than it had been. The who have requested permission to attend at this first preaching of De la Mennais, whose mystic senti- assembly of their colleagues. Amongst the priests
at the council will be some grand vicars, mentalism tended to gratify the religious instinct, and some theologians brought there by the bishops while it overruled the dogmatic power, has gained and the delegates of the chapters of the province. ground so far as to occasion a direct denunciation The superiors of the societies, which have their from the actual incumbent of St. Peter's chair- place of meeting in Paris, will be also invited. if incumbent he can be called who has fallen off There will be no external ceremony; the rites and is afraid to get on again. Nevertheless, marked out in the Pontifical will be followed. The
time will be divided between labor and prayer ; towards the close of Louis Philippe's reign, there everything will take place with all the seriousness had been so long, strong, and steady a reaction which the church commands. No vain discusupon the blank scepticism of the two previous gen- sions, and particularly none connected with polerations, as to give hopes of what the Scotch itics, will take place. Time cannot be lost in would call a wholesale - revival” in the Gallican useless words, for in the space of a week or ten Church ; a reaction partially exhibited in an enor- days it is proposed to treat of the following matmone increase of religious publications. It was Diocesan Synods ; Reports from Metropolitans and
1. Profession of faith ; Provincial Councils; an effect of that reaction, aided no doubt by the Suffragans ; Bishops ; Canons : Curés, Vicars, and personal character of the late Archbishop of Paris, Priests. 2. Uniformity of discipline to be estaband even of some leading schismatics, that the last lished in the province ; project of provincial statrevolution was characterized by a marked differ- utes; catechism for the province. 3. Diocesan ence from the first, in the absence of any anti- officialties ; desservants; infirm priests; forbidden religious movement. Another effect was the at- priests. 4. Ecclesiastical studies ; faculty of thetempt of the competitors for power, notably the ology; examination of a project of reörganization ;
seminaries, institutions, and free schools ; school provisional government and the actual president, of the Carmes. 5. Question of the immaculate to coquette with Romne for an alliance with the conception ; examination and condemnation of some papal authority. Pius the Ninth, whose sallies contemporaneous errors. All these matters will be in the direction of reform never blinded us to his examined in private assemblies, and be voted on at intellectual deficiencies, missed his way—took the general meeting. The decrees are brought forflight to Gaeta--and now, quite bewildered, has ward by the bishops alone in session, with the placed himself, like an old Pope of the most degen
accustomed solemnity. erate days, in a commission of absolutist car- Enough matter and to spare for a ten days' disdinals. The French government had considerably cussion! It is hardly possible that the actual stretched its ex officio republicanism to bring the position of the Roman Catholic Church as a uhole papal alliance within its resources, and had sent should be overlooked, even if the consideration of an army to restore the pontifical Louis Philippe to it be not deliberately contemplated under some of the Vatican ; but the pontifical Louis Philippe the heads indicated in the programme. Unless it declares that he is a very Charles Dix, and Louis- be excluded altogether, very startling ideas are Napoleonic France cannot go quite so far back as likely to be thrown out, and “the point of the that. So the prince president, neven de mon wedge” will probably be introduced at this part. oncle," and humble servant of the powers that be Unless, indeed, a wholly new spirit should man
ifest itself with sufficient power to make a last | race, because their only hope was in total revolustand for the Church of Rome. Pius the Ninth tion. No recognition of the national rights of was supposed to intend the step of assimilating Hungary could have satisfied them; but it was the constitution and regimen of the church to the precisely the excesses to which they had contribgenius of the age ; but if ever he entertained the uted which brought down upon them the whole design, he has failed, and takes refuge in reaction. force of the north, and terminated the campaign. The Council of Paris cannot supply the fatal omis- Moreover, the cabinet of St. Petersburg, exsion. But possibly, feeling its want of authority tending its observation to the rest of Europe, was and of influence sufficient to cope with so vast a well aware that the triumph or defeat of the Hunsubject, it might start the project of a Great Coun- garian insurrection was not a question confined 10 cil of the whole church. We speak under cor- the frontiers of that kingdom. Its consequences rection in expressing the belief that a council pos- embraced the whole of Southern Germany. Alsesses supreme power within the church-higher ready, in October last year, Hungary had kindled than that of the Pope himself. If so, the council the conflagration in Vienna which rivalled the might revise the constitution and regimen of the horrors of the Parisian days of June, when the church, as Pius the Ninth was expected to do; Polish Bem and the Saxon Robert Blum conspired only that the revision would be effected with to overthrow the monarchical institutions of Gergreater breadth and completeness. It is probable, many in the heart of her greatest capital. Howindeed, that the Romish Church may prove essen- ever patriotic the intentions of some of the Magyars tially incapable of this expansive and progressive may have been, their cause was identified elsemodification ; and, in that case, the conflicts of where with the explosion of those frantic doctrines councils which we note may be regarded as the and acts of violence which had so recently spread signs of its final disruption.
terror and destruction through so many of the
fairest cities of Europe. At one moment the polFrom the London Times, of Sept. 19.
icy of M. Kossuth had been daringly aggressive ;
had he become undisputed master of Hungary, it RUSSIAN PREPONDERANCE.
would probably, or rather perforce, have become The Emperor of Russia has withdrawn his so again. The termination of the Hungarian war troops from Hungary with a promptitude and sin- has interrupted a series of calamities to which it cerity which are more calculated to increase his is not easy to assign bounds. weight and influence in the affairs of Europe than But, whilst we express our satisfaction that the any concessions of territory wrung from an enfee- blind enthusiasm of some of our contemporaries bled ally, or any act of hostile defiance to the has not been gratified at so enormous a price as other states which surround the frontiers of his a prolonged European convulsion, we have never empire. We are not surprised at the haughty concealed our regret that no other means of avertand self-applauding language of the proclamations ing it could be employed with effect, and we conin which the Russian autocrat has thanked his cur with some of our habitual antagonists in viewarmies and celebrated their triumph. Nor do we ing with dissatisfaction the increase which has regret that the harshness of some of the expressions thereby accrued to the power and influence of contained in these documents should be such as to Russia. That the fact is is generally acknowlmake the Austrian ministers feel how little such edged, and no less generally deplored, because we acts of friendship are to be coveted or accepted. have yet to learn that the armies and agents of The Emperor Nicholas took up arms against the Russia are to be regarded as the champions of imHungarian insurrection partly from a desire to ex- provement, and it fares but ill with freedom and tricate the house of Austria from the formidable civilization if they are to be the defenders of Eudifficulties which had been aggravated by the open rope from the most grievous excesses. But to and by the clandestine enmity of other powers. But what cause are we to attribute this augmentation the principal and decisive consideration which led of the European ascendency of Russia, which him to enter upon this campaign was the extreme those who are so ready to call revolutions liberty danger to which the possible success of the Hun- observe and deprecate as we do ourselves ? Evgarian republic, assisted by the most daring sol- idently to the occurrence of those very convulsions diers of the Polish emigration, obviously exposed which their puerile enthusiasm was so eager to the most unsettled portion of his own dominions.applaud ; and, secondly, to the extraordinary posiMany thousand Poles fought in the ranks of the tion of British diplomacy on the continent, which Magyars. Dembinski and Bem exercised a de- some of them have the intrepidity or the ignorance gree of control over the military plans of M. Kos- to defend. Whatever Russia has gained has been suth's government which might subserve their own by the weakness of others, rather than by her own ulterior objects, but which was highly unpalatable strength—by opportunities of influence which ofto such men as Görgey, who probably entertains fered themselves to her more readily than if she the wonted aversion of the Magyars to their Sar- had sought them-by calamities which threw matian neighbors. These foreign auxiliaries had others prostrate whilst she remained erect, and contributed to make the breach between the Hun- which left her mistress of her policy and resources, garians and the house of Austria irreparable, by whilst all the other continental states were withencouraging the deposition of the emperor and his out force, and without will. In other words, the revolution which paralyzed the other governments those factions which have weakened and convulsed of Europe left her the more free to pursue her own the continental states of Europe, but he owes course, even against their aberrations, so that we at least an equal debt of gratitude to that English may venture to affirm that no combination of cir- minister who based his policy on the chances of cumstances could have been so favorable to the these revolutionary adventurers, and at once threw extension of the power of Russia as that sudden aside the principles and the power which this counand irrational outbreak which swept away the try had so long adhered to and enjoyed in her sorhabitual checks to her policy. The Emperor eign relations. Nicholas made use of his position with great forbearance and moderation ; but, had his ambition
From the London Literary Gazette. been of a more active kind, he would have found that his most effectual auxiliaries abroad were
IMPORTANT DISCOVERY IN VENTILATION. precisely those liberals who professed the keenest At a time when cholera, with an appalling voice, hostility to his policy, but who had destroyed the calls the most earnest attention to house ventilation, system by which that policy was controlled. The and dreadful explosions and loss of life in mines conflict between a regular and absolute govern demand no less efforts to devise means for the prement, conducting its affairs with skill and secrecy, vention of these calamities, we have much satisfacand disposing of great military resources, and a tion in anticipating that human residences may fluctuating, irregular, and irresponsible popular easily be supplied with a continual circulation of power, whose resources are dispersed, and whose wholesome air, and the most dangerous subterradiplomacy is in the street, can have but one ter- neous works be preserved against accident from mination.
foul currents of fire-damp. Dr. Chowne has enOne country, indeed, besides Russia, remained rolled a patent for Improvements in Ventilating entirely exempt from these infirmities of revolution ; Rooms and Apartments, of the perfect efficacy of the measures of the British Foreign-office were which, we believe, there cannot be a doubt, and on never taken with greater freedom from external a principle at once most simple and unexpected. pressure or popular debility; and if they have Without going into details at present, we may failed it has been, not from necessity, but from state that the improvements are based upon an choice. Nevertheless, even when an effort has action in the siphon which had not previously been made by this country to oppose or counteract attracted the notice of any experimenter, viz., that a tendency which she disapproved, it has so hap- if fixed with legs of unequal length, the air rushes pened that she has not only succumbed, but has into the shorter leg, and circulates up, and disactually contributed to promote the result least charges itself from the longer leg. It is easy to acceptable to British policy. We have seen it see how readily this can be applied to any chamasserted that in the Danish mediation Lord Pal- ber, in order to purify its atmosphere. Let the merston succeeded in defeating the intentions of orifice of the shorter leg be disposed where it can the Russian cabinet in the Baltic. A more erro- receive the current, and lead it into the chimney, (in neous statement was never made, for the settle- mines, into the shafts,) so as to convert that chimney ment which was ultimately adopted was precisely or shaft into the longer leg, and you have at once that which Count Nesselrode had sanctioned, and the circulation complete. A similar air-siphon every important point in the negotiation and the can be employed in ships, and the lowest holds, war was determined, not by English suggestions, where disease is generated in the close berths of but by Russian declarations. It was well known the crowded seamen, be rendered as fresh as the that the Emperor Nicholas was resolved and pre- upper decks. The curiosity of this discovery is pared to act, though with reluctance, and that we that air in a siphon reverses the action of water, were not.
or other liquid, which enters and descends or moves So, also, in the affair of Moldavia and Wallachia; down in the longer leg and rises up in the shorter when England protested against the Russian occu- leg! This is now a demonstrable fact; but how is pation, and was even said to have fomented the the principle to be accounted for? It puzzles our warlike spirit of the Porte, the Russian cabinet philosophy. That air in the bent tube is not to the simply took no notice of our remonstrances, and surrounding atmosphere as water, or any heavier declared it should continue to hold the country. body, is evident; and it must be from this relation In Italy and Sicily, when it was found that the that the updraft in the longer leg is caused, and the weight of England was thrown on the side of the constant circulation and withdrawal of polluted revolution, the credit and influence of Russia gases carried on. But, be this as it may, one thing increased in a compound ratio with all the govern- j is certain—that a more useful and important discovments we had estranged from ourselves ; and, to ery has never been made for the comfort and health crown these exploits of our foreign policy, our of civilized man. We see no end to its application. persecution of the interests of Austria contributed There is no sanitary measure suggested to which it to send her as a suppliant to Warsaw until Rus- may not form a most beneficial adjunct. There is sian armies appeared on the Lower Danube. not a hovel, a cellar, a crypt, or a black, close hole
If, therefore, the Emperor of Russia has reason anywhere, that it may not cleanse and disinfect. to view his present political position with pride We trust that no time will be lost in bringing it to and satisfaction, he may thank, in the first instance, the public test on a large scale, and we foresee no