« ElőzőTovább »
hand, the superior manufactures of England, which Central Hungary is doomed irrevocably to be they would gladly have purchased with their corn, isolated from the commerce of the rest of the wine, hemp, tobacco, wool, &c., were excluded world, and the maxim of the Austrian Bureauby the enormously high tariff which was main- cracy is to be carried out in its full extent, that tained by the government of Vienna, in spite of " Hungary must be stifled in her own fat." their repeated remonstrances ; while, on the other hand, the coarse and exorbitantly dear manufactures
From the Economist, 8 Sept. of the Austrian provinces were admitted into Hungary at a nominal duty, at the same time that the THE ADHERENCE OF HAMBURG TO THE ZOLLraw Hungarian produce, with which alone they
VEREIN. could make their payments, was loaded with heavy The decision of Hamburg to join the confederdifferential duties. The line of custom-houses ation of German States, under the Berlin constibetween Austria and Hungary was in fact main- tution, must be regarded as one of the most tained for the protection of Austrian wine-growers, important events which has happened since the and the imperial manufacture of tobacco; the pro- commencement of the revolutions of 1848 ; and esduction of tobacco being free in Hungary, whilst pecially so, as this step may be considered the cerin Austria it is a monopoly in the hands of the Lain forerunner of the accession of the other Hanse government. After repeated attempts of the Hun- towns, and of the whole of the German states on garian Diet to obtain a more equitable arrange- the Baltic, including Hanover. We are not disment, some of the Hungarian Liberals conceived posed to view the result of the struggle in Hamthe plan of reprisals, by which the Austrian gov- burg, as some of our contemporaries do, as any ernment might be brought to terms. To obtain evidence of a reactionary spirit against free trade English manufactures seemed hopeless ; and they in the community, nor even as disadvantageous to therefore resolved, at any rate, to exclude Aus- the advance of that cause which we have so much trian manufactures, except upon the condition that at heart. We know that many persons supported Austria would admit Hungarian raw produce upon the course adopted by Hamburg, with a firm belief moderate terms. Such was the origin and ten- that they were taking the best, if not the only, dency of the Vedegyelet, or Defensive Union, which means which now exists, not only for securing a was formed in 1844, with Count Casimir Batthy- more liberal commercial policy for Germany, but any as president, and Kossuth as director. also for avoiding that hopeless confusion, anarchy,
This view of the case is amply confirmed by and for a time at least, that military despotism, to the proceedings of the Hungarians, as soon as they which the policy and designs of Austria towards obtained, by the concessions of April, 1848, a re- Germany must lead, unless opposed by a firm and sponsible Hungarian ministry. In June of that united government in the north. year Klauzel, the Hungarian minister of com- For our own part, knowing how much the citmerce, sent a note to Baron Krauss, the Austrian izens of Hamburg value the privileges of commerminister of finance, proposing a liberal modifica- cial freedom, and seeing the important and influ-, tion of the tariff. The answer of the Austrian ential position which they will occupy in the new minister was, that the Austrian government was Germanic Confederation ; and, moreover, having then engaged in a revision of the tariff, and that confidence in the liberal commercial tendencies of its intentions would be communicated to the Hun- those who are now most influential in the councils garian ministry in the month of September. But of Prussia, we cannot but hail this event as the before the month of September arrived, Jellachich best guarantee for the advancement of free trade seized upon the Hungarian seaport of Fiume, and in Germany. The city of Hamburg itself may early in that month invaded the main territory of be called upon to make some concessions of a disHungary.
tasteful kind. A city that has been so long a free It is also matter of notoriety that, in the spring port, will not relinquish those advantages without of this year, Kossuth's government adopted a most much reluctance and regret. But so far as regards liberal commercial tariff, and communicated it to the commerce of Hamburg, the change will be England by an accredited envoy.
much more nominal than at first sight it appears. Such are the facts of the case. It seems hardly Since those days when the advantages of free ports, conceivable that in spite of them an attempt should as places of foreign commerce, were so much valbe made to fix upon the Hungarian liberals the ued, the modern warehousing system has been charge of a narrow and restrictive commercial introduced, by which, so far as regards the great policy.
bulk of foreign trade, every port, whatever duties What the exact nature of “ the very first boon may be payable for consumption, has all the that has been solicited for Hungary” may be, it advantages which free porls alone possessed in foris impossible to say till we receive further details. mer times. Since the bonding system was introHungary, in its full territorial integrity, and with duced into England by Sir Robert Walpole, Lonà really independent line of custom-houses, (or don has possessed every advantage as a great absence of them, if it so pleased the Hungarians,) entrepot of trade, and for the re-distribution of forwould indeed be a boon which we do not see the eign produce to neighboring markets, that has been slightest reason to expect. If there be any truth enjoyed by Hamburg. So far as regards its trade in the report, it probably means that a portion of | as a great importer and re-distributor of foreign
LINES ON A DEAD SOLDIER.
produce, Hamburg, by means of the bonding sys- the latter place in 1810, I was led by curiosity to tem, will preserve all the advantages which she see what they came for, and found that it was to now possesses, and this applies to at least seven bury the dead prisoners, as a great mortality preeighths of her trade.
vailed on board these ships. It must not be forgotten, that although the mer- I was present when one of these large boats full chants of Hamburg have hitherto enjoyed the of naked bodies (lying like logs of wood, one upon great facilities of importing and warehousing for another) arrived at the beach. The bodies were eign produce and manufactures of every descrip- rolled over the gunwale of the boat into the sea, tion, upon payment of a merely nominal duty, yet and then dragged on shore with a boat-hook, and that more than seven eighths of all the goods so thrown into a hole dug in the sand above high-water imported, were for the consumption of neighbor-mark, previous to which, Spanish children would ing countries, and the greatest portion by far for throw handfuls of sand into their mouths, and otherthat of the German states which form the new wise insult them. I could not look on the bodies Zollverein ; and, therefore, although they met with of these unfortunate strangers, buried by their eneno impediment from import duties at Hamburg, mies in this disgusting way, without some queries yet they were, nevertheless, exposed to them in a arising in my mind as to what were their names, more aggravated and inconvenient form, when they who their relations, friends, &c. reached the Prussian frontier. Those goods only
This occurrence was afterwards brought to my which were consumed within the very limited recollection on reading the following lines by the state of Hamburg, escaped the burden of customs late Mr. Malcolm, (42d regiment,) as applicable to duties. Seven eighths of the Hamburg trade has what I had witnessed, though not intended by him really been subjected to customs duties hitherto, for that particular occasion :and levied in a shape at once both irksome and uncertain ; much more so than if collected at the place of importation.
Wreck of a soldier passed away, No one can entertain the slightest doubt that
Thou form without a name ; the adherence of Hamburg to the Zollverein, will
Which thought and felt but yesterday,
And dreamt of future fame. greatly extend the influence of the free trade party in the Germanic Confederation, and will thereby
Stripped of thy garments, who shall guess lead to important modifications of the general
Thy rank, thy lineage, and race? tariff, which will be of infinitely greater impor
Of haughty chieftain holding sway,
Or lowlier destined to obey. tance to the commerce of Hamburg, and of those countries intimately connected with Germany by trade, than any concession which the citizens of
Though from that head, late towering high,
The waving plume is torn, Hamburg will be called upon to make, in adopting
And low in dust that form doth lie, the constitution of Berlin ; while the adoption of
Dishonored and forlorn ; the bonding system will place them in exactly the
Yet death's dark shadow cannot hide same position with regard to their trade with other
The graver characters of pride, ports of the North of Europe in which they at
That on the lip and brow reveal present stand. Their great trade, however, is Ger- The impress of the spirit's seal. In future, in place of paying high duties
Lives there a mother to deplore, on the frontier, exposed to the harassing competi
The son she ne'er shall see, tion of smugglers, if they can, as we have no Or maiden on some distant shore, doubt they will, succeed in materially reducing To break her heart for thee? those duties, paying them at the place of importation, but not until they are required to be for
These unfortunate men considered their being warded for consumption, we shall regard the confined on board of ship as an infringement of the change as a great step in advance for the commer- terms by which they had surrendered, and availing cial freedom of Germany. We shall have occa- themselves of a gale of wind in their favor, they sion again to return to this important subject.
mastered the Spanish guards, cut the cables of the
vessels, that they might be driven across the bay to From the United Service Magazine.
the Trocadero, then occupied by their countrymen
blockading Cadiz. Supposing the vessels to have FRENCH PRISONERS ON BOARD THE SPANISH
drifted by the wind, our gun-boats were ordered to PRISON SHIPS IN THE BAY OF CADIZ,
their assistance, but when alongside they were FROM THE NOTE-BOOK OF CAPTAIN J. F., ROYAL HOS- saluted with cold shot (on board as ballast) thrown PITAL, CHELSEA.
by the prisoners into the boats, upon which, orders When the French army of General Dupont sur- were given to our men-of-war to fire into the prison rendered to the Spaniards at the battle of Baylen, ships ; accordingly, a heavy fire was directed upon in 1808, both men and officers were sent on board the vessels, also from Fort Puntales; however, one of old Spanish men-of-war, fitted up as prison ships succeeded and grounded near the Trocadero. The in the harbor of Cadiz. As large boats from these prisoners in it were liberated by their countrymen, vessels came frequently to the sandy beach between who brought down boats from Puerto Real for that Cadiz and Fort Puntales, while I was stationed at purpose.
I WOULD NOT LIVE ALWAY.
ensures its popularity.-Also, History of the NaWe find the following poem in the Christian Intelli- TIONAL CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY. By J. F. Corkgencer, given as the original version of the hymn in the ran, Esq.--- Also, a LITERAL Prose TRANSLATION
OF DANTE'S INFERNO. By John A. Carlyle, M. D. prayer-book :
For people who cannot read Italian, and yet wish I would not live alway, live alway below! to know this great poem, such a translation is far Oh no, I'll not linger when bidden to go; better than a versified paraphrase. From the same The days of our pilgrimage granted us here, house we have: Mr. Seymour's MORNINGS AMONG Are enough for life's woes, full enough for its THE JESUITS AT ROME : being notes of conversacheer.
tions held with certain Jesuits on the subject of Would I shrink from the path which the prophets religion in the city of Rome. We have marked of God,
for the Living Age a full review of this interesting Apostles and martyrs, so joyously trod?
work. PictuRES OF THE VIRGIN AND HER Son, by While brethren and friends are all hastening home, Charles Beecher : with an Introductory Essay by Like a spirit unblest o'er the earth would I roam? Mrs. Harriet Beecher Stowe. This is an original
work. SCENES WHERE THE TEMPTER HAS TriI would not live alway-I ask not to stay Where storm after storm rises dark o'er the way ;
Messrs. Phillips, Sampson & Co. have sent us Where seeking for peace, we but hover around,
the 2d volume of their good edition of Hume's EngLike the patriarch's bird, and no resting is found ; land, and the first number of a new issue of ShakWhere Hope, when she paints her gay bow in the air,
speare, in very large type, and on thick, white Leaves its brilliance to fade in the night of despair ;
paper. This number consists of The TEMPEST. And joy's fleeting angel ne'er sheds a glad ray,
Messrs. Munroe & Company have sent The CANSave the gleam of the plunge that bears him away. Celestial Empire. By Osmond Tiffany, Jr. A
TON CHINESE, or the American's Sojourn in the I would not live alway, thus fettered by sin ;
handsome volume. Temptation without and corruption within ;
Mr. Geo. P. Putnam has published, in excellent
LAMARTINE's New History.—With a prompt-
tine has been translated, and well translated, and I would not live alway—no, welcome the tomb! published in this city. The American edition thus Immortality's lamp burns there bright ’mid the takes the lead of any English edition, while the gloom ;
grace and ease of its style is such as will not be There, too, is the pillow where Christ bowed his improved upon, if a translation should be attempted
in London, as was promised. The translation has Oh, soft are the slumbers of that holy bed ! been very carefully made by Messrs. Francis A. And then the glad dawn soon to follow that night, Durivage and Wm. S. Chase, of Boston. When the sunrise of glory shall beam on my sight; There are few persons who did not follow with When the full matin song, as the sleepers arise wonder Lamartine's career during the first three To shout in the morning, shall peal through the months of last year's French revolution. In a skies.
large measure then, he must have owed the popWho, who would live alway? away from his God, ularity which gave him his position to the deserved Away from yon heaven, that blissful abode,
success of his History of the Girondists. It was Where the rivers of pleasure flow o'er the bright which he was so great a part in 1848, should be
natural therefore that his history of the events of plains, And the noontide of glory eternally reigns;
awaited as uniting claims to interest which seldom Where the saints of all ages in harmony meet,
meet; for one of the first authors of the time, who Their Saviour and brethren transported to greet;
has shown himself one of the first men of the time, While the songs of salvation unceasingly roll,
here resumes his pen to write his own history. It And the smile of the Lord is the feast of the soul.
will be called egotistical. But it could hardly fail
to be so. If Cromwell had written an account of That heavenly music! what is it I hear?
some of the more stirring days of the protectorate, The notes of the harps ring sweet on the ear;
or if Jefferson had left on record the discussions of And see, soft unfolding, those portals of gold ! the committee who reported the declaration of indeThe King, all arrayed in his beauty, behold. pendence, such narratives would have been as egoO give me, () give me the wings of a dove ! tistical. It would have been absurd for Lamartine Let me hasten my flight to those mansions above; to fail to write this sequel to his other work, simply Ay, 't is now that my soul on swift pinions would because he, of all men, knew most of what transsoar,
pired in the period of which he writes. And in ecstasy bid earth adieu evermore.
He is certainly a most attractive narrator. And we cannot but congratulate ourselves that his agree
able though of course hasty narrative, is given to NEW BOOKS AND REPRINTS. us in the form in which we have it ; for this will Absence from our post has caused us to neglect prove itself a standard English history. some of the parcels from publishers :
The publication is one of the very creditable Messrs. Harper | Brothers have sent us Parts enterprises of Messrs. Phillips, Sampson & Co. 1 and 2 of the History of Pendennis. By W.M. The book is the size of one of their volumes of Thackeray: with Mr. Thackeray's own'illustra- Macaulay.—Boston Daily Advertiser. tions. It is well printed, and the author's name
1. Americans in Japan,
New York Courier 8 Enquirer,
145 2. California,
152 3. The California Mystery in England,
153 4. Overland Journey to California,
155 5. Ascent of Mount Orizaba,
Lt. W. F. Raynolds,
158 6. The Straits of Magalhaen,
Journal of Commerce,
161 7. Scientific Meeting at Cambridge,
164 8. The Shetland Isles,
W. C. Bryant,
167 9. John Howard and the Prison-World of Europe, Spectator,
171 10. The Modern Vassal, Chap. III.,
176 11. Canada and the British American League, Examiner,
186 12. Lord Palmerston's Hungarian Policy,
187 13. Are the Hungarians Protectionists?
188 14. Hamburg Adheres to the Zollverein,
189 POETRY.-O'er the Hill, 166.—Northampton, 185.- Original of “I would not live alway,” 191. Short ARTICLES.—Mystical Theology, 163.-Man Born to Slavery, 175.–Sentimental, 185 .
- French Prisoners and Spanish Prison Ships, 1810, 190. New Books, 191. Prospectus.—This work is conducted in the spirit of | now becomes every intelligent American to be informed Littell's Museum of Foreign Literature, (which was favor of the condition and changes of foreign countries. And ably received by the public for twenty years,) but as it is this not only because of their nearer connection with our twice as large, and appears so often, we not only give selves, but because the nations seem to be hastening, spirit and freshness to it by many things which were through a rapid process of change, to some new state of excluded by a month's delay, but while thus extending our things, which the merely political prophet cannot com pube scope and gathering a greater and more attractive variety, or foresee. are able so to increase the solid and substantial part of Geographical Discoveries, the progress of Colonization, our literary, historical, and political harvest, as fully to (which is extending over the whole world,) and Voyages satisfy the wants of the American reader.
and Travels, will be favorite matter for our selections ; The elaborate and stately Essays of the Edinburgh, and, in general, we shall systematically and very fully Quarterly, and other Reviews; and Blackwood's noble acquaint our readers with the great department of Foreiga criticisms on Poetry, his keen political Commentaries, atlairs, without entirely neglecting our own. highly wrought Tales, and vivid descriptions of rural and While we aspire to make the Living Age desirable to mountain Scenery; and the contributions to Literature, all who wish to keep themselves informed of the rapid History, and Cominon Life, by the sagacious Spectator, progress of the movement-to Statesmen, Divines, Law. the sparkling Eraminer, the judicious Atheneum, the yers, and Physicians-to men of business and men of busy and industrious Literary Gazette, the sensible and leisure-it is still a stronger object to make it attractive comprehensive Britannia, the sober and respectat le Chris- and useful to their Wives and Children. We believe that tian Obserrer; these are intermixed with the Military we can thus do some good in our day and generation ; and and Naval reminiscences of the United Service, and with hope to make the work indispensable in every well-inthe best articles of the Dublin University, New Monthly, formed family. We say indispensable, because in this Fraser's, Tait's, Ainsworth's, Hood's, and Sporting Mag- day of cheap literature it is not possible to guard against azines, and of Chambers' admirable Journal. We do not the influx of what is bad in taste and vicious in morals, consider it beneath our dignity to borrow wit and wisdom in any other way than by furnishing a sufficient supply from Punch; and, when we ihink it good enough, make of a healthy character. The mental and moral appetite 7se of the thunder of The Times. We shall increase our must be gratified. variety by importations from the continent of Europe, and We hope that, by "winnowing the wheat from the from the new growth of the British colonies.
chaff," by providing abundantly for the imagination, and The steamship has brought Europe, Asia and Africa, | by a large collection of Biography, Voyages and Travels, into our neighborhood ; and will greatly multiply our con. History, and more solid matter, we may produce a work Dections, as Merchants, Travellers, and Politicians, with which shall be popular, while at the same time it will all narts of the world ; so that much more than ever it / aspire to raise the standard of public taste.
TERMs.—The LIVING AGE is published every Satur- Agencies.- We are desirous of making arrangements, day, by E. LITTELL & Co., corner of Tremont and Brom- in all parts of North America, for increasing the circulafield sis., Boston; Price 121 cents a number, or six dollars tion of this work--and for doing this a liberal commission a year in advance. Remittances for any period will be will be allowed to gentlemen who will interest themselves thankfully received and promptly attended to. To in the business. And we will gladly correspond on this insure regularity in mailing the work, orders should be subject with any agent who will send us undoubted refer. addressed to the office of publication, as above.
Clubs, paying a year in advance, will be supplied as follows:
Postage.-When sent with the cover on, the Living Four copies for
$20 00. Age consists of three sheets, and is rated as a pamphlet, Nine
But when sent without the cover, it comes Twelve "
within the definition of a newspaper given in the law,
and cannot legally be charged with more than newspaper Complete sets, in twenty volumes, to the end of March, postage, (14 cis.) We add the definition alluded to : 1849, handsomely bound, and packed in neat boxes, are A newspaper is “any printed publication, issued in for sale at forty dollars.
numbers, consisting of not more than two sheets, and Any volume may be had separately at two dollars, published at short, stated intervals of not more than one bound, or a dollar and a half in numbers.
month, conveying intelligence of passing events." Any number may be had for 124 cents; and it may be worth while for subscribers or purchasers to complete Monthly parts.-For such as prefer it in that form, the any broken volumes they may have, and thus greatly Living Age is put up in monthly parls, containing four or enhance their value.
five weekly numbers. In this shape it shows to great
advantage in comparison with other works, containing in Binding :-We bind the work in a uniform, strong, and each part double the matter of any of the quarterlies. good style ; and where castomers bring their numbers in But we recommend the weekly numbers, as fresher and good order
, can generally give them þound volumes in fuller of life. Postage on the monthly parts is about 14 exchange without any delay. The price of the binding cents. The columes are published quarterly, each volume is 50 cents a volume. As they are always bound to one containing as much matter as a quarterly review gives in pattern, there will be no difficulty in matching the future eighteen months. volumes.
WASHINGTON, 27 Dec., 1845. Of all the Periodical Journals devoted to literature and science which abound in Europe and in this country, this has appeared to me to be the most useful. It contains indeed the exposition only of the current literature of the English language, but this by its immense extent and comprehension includes a portraiture of the human mind la the utmost expansion of the present age.
J. Q. ADAMS.
at 44 cents.
840 00. 850 00.
LITTELL'S LIVING AGE.—NO. 285.-3 NOVEMBER, 1849.
From the Dublin University Magazine. tember, 1730, was the eldest son of Robert Keith, MEMOIR OF SIR ROBERT MURRAY KEITH, K. B.* who was for some time ambassador at the courts This is the memoir of an upright diplomatist, line of the Keiths of Craig, in Kincardineshire.
of Vienna and St. Petersburg, and of the ancient a character which we are disposed to hope is not His mother was a daughter of Sir William Cunaltogether so rare as many think ; at all events, the work before us shows that there once lived an
ningham of Caprington, a family in which there envoy who, with a sound judgment and a perfect Sir Robert Keith Dick Cunningham of Preston
were two baronetcies, both now represented by acquaintance with his position, combined the directness of a soldier, and the honor of a true
field, near Edinburgh. Robert Murray's brother knight. The character of Keith is developed by of Jamaica ; and his sister was Mrs. Anne Murray
was Sir Basil Keith, who died in 1777, governor the most satisfactory of all methods, the exhibition
Keith, the friend of Sir Walter Scott, and whose of his own letters, together with those of his correspondents, and in this manner laid open to the engaging character the novelist, as he himself light of day, it commends itself unfailingly to our Bethune Baliol, in the Chronicles of the Canon
tells, endeavored to portray under that of Mrs. admiration and esteem. In his private relations
gate.” Keith was early thrown upon the world. he was exceedingly amiable. Although possessed of but a moderate fortune, he saved little from his His father's duties kept him much abroad, and at emoluments as ambassador, conceiving that it was
the early age of eleven he lost his admirable his duty to maintain, by a generous expenditure, his family ascribe much of the tenderness and del
mother, to whose training, even up to that period, the dignities of his station ; and not only was his
He pe rsonal honor unquestioned, but, what we wish icacy of feeling which marked his character. could be said of every minister in every land, in
was for a time at the High School of Edinburgh, all his transactions he never sought to sap the in- but at sixteen was removed to an academy in Lontegrity of others. His simple answer to an in- for the army, as in a letter of this date to his un
don, with, apparently, the object of being prepared quiry respecting the secret-service money placed at his disposal was, that in the twenty-five years dur-cle, Sir Robert Dick, he says—“My present
studies are, riding the great horse, fencing, French, ing which he had been employed in various mis
fortification, music, and drawing." He seems, sions, he had never charged a shilling to the account of government for secret service. The correspon
however, to have been well-instructed in the clasdence embraces letters from the celebrities of the sics, as he was, in after life, enabled to make use day: from Frederick the Great of Prussia ; from of Latin as a means of intercourse in parts of Euthat Admirable Crichton of real life, whom even rope where he could not easily have availed him
self of any other tongue. His acquirements in Walpole praised, Marshal Conway; from the toofamous Duchess of Kingston ; from Mr. Brad
modern languages were, at that time, quite un
usual. French he wrote and spoke like a native, shaw, treasurer of the navy, and afterwards one of the lords of the admiralıy; and from other House and he was almost equally conversant with Dutch, of Commons' men and habitues of the clubs. The German, and Italian. These acquisitions attest story of the memoir is not devoid of interest, but
that early diligence, without which distinctions its other points of interest are almost absorbed by whole of his polyglot store, as we find him sub
are not often gained ; nor did they embrace the the stirring circumstances connected with the Danish revolution of 1772, when the life and rep: leaving school he obtained a commission in a
sequently alluding to his “ten tongues.” On utation of the young Queen Caroline, sister of Highland regiment in the Dutch service, known George II., were endangered by a successful conspiracy and a court intrigue, and when Keith came there until he was two-and-twenty, when the corps
by the name of the “ Scotch-Dutch," and remained forward to her rescue,
After having graduated in the
Scotch-Dutch as a captain, he transferred his ser
vices to one of the German states, with the object It was a proud and happy hour for our ambassador, of improving himself in military science. Whatwhen, having dared the authorities of Denmark to ever knowledge he then acquired was dearly purtouch a hair of her head, he led the injured prin-chased by the hardships and privations to which cess through the halls of Hamlet's Castle,f and he was exposed. The allowances were so insuffiplaced her in security.
cient that there was not enough of fuel, and the Robert Murray Keith, born on the 20th of Sep necessity which Keith was under of keeping guard * " Memoir and Correspondence of Sir Robert Murray over his store of firewood, during the depth of a Keith, K. B." Edited by Mrs. Gillespie Smyth. 2 vols. severe winter, brought on in him, we are told, a 8vo. London: Colburn. 1849.
habit of somnambulism. Keith served in an active + The Castle of Cronenburgh, near Elsinore, supposed to be the scene of Shakspeare's tragedy.
campaign under Prince Ferdinand of Brunswick, 13