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port duty of ten per cent., and an import duty the jaws of a monstrous snake, which had already here of the same amount. The native Persian swallowed half her person, and was only preventmerchant has only to pay this import duty, and ed from completing its repast by her outstretched is consequently able to sell his goods considera- arms. “ Cut the snake open with your sabre,” bly under those of the Erivan merchant. Pover- cried she to the man, or slit its jaws on each ty is daily on the increase, and the poor classes, side!” But the man was petrified with fear.– in order to pay their taxes, are often compelled “ At least,” she entreated, “ hand me the sabre to sell all their furniture, and even their very and let me rescue myself.” Her crics were in beds; whilst persons in good circumstances, see- vain, for he had lost all power of exertion. “ Ah!" ing ruin staring them in the face, emigrate, for she then exclaimed in despair, “I see you are a the most part to Persia, where they find every fa- coward, I will live no longer;” and closing her cility for settling

arms above her head, she instantly sank into the

monster's belly. Then the man saw the snake Local information of a more scholarly kind coil itself round a pillar of basalt, to crush the than lay within the reach of Peter Neu, was bones of its victim, and he heard the smothered obtained by Baron von Haxthausen from an-shrieks of the woman within it. Half insane from other friend, whose attachment he contrived terror and remorse, he rushed from the cave, and to earn at Tiflis, an Armenian named Abo- ever after wandered about, the wretched being

whom I saw." vian.

Abovian is descended from the family of an We will add two brief legends. The first hereditary village chief. In Georgia and Immi- is attached to an old castle at Suram, in the retia the Russian Government has recognized South of Georgia. these families as of princely rank, -in Armenia not even as noble! Early abuses on the one side have led to injustice on the other.

It was formerly in the possession of a Thaval, Abovian wished to be a monk, and passed his a feudal prince, who gave the early kings much novitiate in the celebrated convent of Echmiad-trouble. On the south-west side of this castle is zin, at the time when the traveller Parrot was and so strong that it appears to form a part of

seen a wall, standing boldly over a deep abyss, preparing to ascend Mount Ararat. Parrot want the rock on which it is built. A certain Thaval ed to engage a native, suitable for his expedition, once made great efforts to erect this wall, conand proposed to the young monk to accompany sidering it necessary for the defence of the cashim. He soon discovered in Abovian evidence

tle. But his labor was in vain, for during the of remarkable talent, and encouraged him to enter on a course of study at a German university, thrown down, and the people imagined that the

night all that he had built up in the daytime was Abovian went to Dorpat, and in four years had work was under a curse or magical spell. A attained a complete German university education, at the same time speaking and writing Ger-clared that the wall would never be completed,

Persian priest being consulted on the matter, deman so correctly that no one would have imag- until the only son of a widow should be buried ined him to be a foreigner : he married a Ger- alive under the foundation. The boy was found man, and has established a complete German

and the wall was completed; but the wall has household.

never dried, its surface remains covered with

moisture—the tears of the unhappy mother. The active use of his own eyes and ears in travel, and the help of two such ready com- The second relates to the mountains of Ulmentators as Abovian and Peter Neu, have mish Altotem, in Armenia. They are said to made Baron Haxthausen's account of Trans- have three hundred and sixty-six valleys. caucasia by far the pleasantest that is accessible to English readers. Abovian also, we should say, deals in good stories. Here is

There once dwelt in a cavern in this country a vampyre, called Dakhanavar, who could not cndure any one to penetrate into these mountains

or count their valleys. Every one who attempted "Once, in my youth," said he, “I went to Bay. this had in the night his blood sucked by the azid, in Asia Minor. While sauntering about monster, from the soles of his feet, until he died. the bazaar, my attention was arrested by a man | The vampyre was however at last outwitted by of a wretched and melancholy appearance, rest- two cunning fellows: they began to count the lessly wandering about and trembling incessant- valleys, and when night came on they lay down ly. On inquiring the cause of his miserable con- to sleep, taking care to place themselves with the dition, the following story was told me. He had feet of the one under the head of the other. In once been a linen-weaver, and resided at a vil- the night the monster came, felt as usual, and lage at the foot of Mount Ararat. Falling in found a head: then he felt at the other end, and love with his master's wife, he induced her to fly found a head there also. “Well,” cried he, “I with him: they betook themselves to the moun- have gone through the whole 366 valleys of these tains, and in the evening reached a cave, where mountains, and have sucked the blood of people the woman staid to rest, while he went to seek pro without end, but never yet did I find any one visions. After a short absence he returned; but with two heads and no feet!" So saying he ran great was his horror at beholding the woman in away, and was never more seen in that country ;

one :

but ever after the people have known that the the altar, in accepting her husband, is the last mountain has 366 valleys.

that is for a long time heard from her lips. From

that moment she never appears, even in her own We must add one more Armenian legend house, unveiled. She is never seen abroad in the that refers to Tamerlane, and is connected public streets, except when she goes to church, with a certain monastery and a certain lake, veiled. If a stranger enters the house or garden

which is only twice in the year, and then closely and accounts also for the quarrelsome nature she instantly conceals herself

. With no person, of the Lesghis.

not even her father or brother, is she allowed to

exchange a single word; and she speaks to her One time he set out, intending to destroy the husband only when they are alone. With the celebrated monastery of Kiegantavang; and rest of the household she can only communicate when he came to the river which ran through the by gestures, and by talking on her fingers. This valley, he saw encamped on the other side an in- silent reserve, which custom imperatively prenumerable army of horsemen, arrayed in red and scribes, the young wife maintains until she has blue. “ There is surely no king, no great nation borne her first child, from which period she bein this country," he exclaimed, —" whence then comes gradually emancipated from her constraint: such a host ?" But Tamerlane alone saw the she speaks to her new-born infant; then her moarmy; his followers saw nothing; then he per- ther-in-law is the first person she may address; ceived that a miracle had been wrought, and he after awhile she is allowed to converse with her cried out, “Gjor-getsch !” (Behold and depart;) own mother, then with her sisters-in-law, and afand ever since, this monastery has borne the Tatar terwards her own sisters. Now she begins to talk name of Gjorgetsch.

with the young girls in the house, but always in Tamerlane spared the monastery, and soon af- a gentle whisper, that none of the male part of terwards came to Lake Goktschai, on the shore the family may hear what is said. The wife of which stood a small monastery, where he saw however is not fully emancipated, her education a monk cast his cloak upon the water, place him is not completed, until after the lapse of six self upon it, and sail along the lake. On behold- years; and even then she can never speak with ing this miracle, Tamerlane called the monk to any strangers of the other sex, nor appear before him and said, “ Pronounce a blessing on my ar- them unveiled. If we examine closely into these my, and demand any favor, it shall be granted social customs, in connection with the other phathee.” Then the monk asked him to set free as ses of national life in Armenia, we cannot but many prisoners as the church of the monastery recognize in them a great knowledge of human would hold. Lang Tamar assented, and all the nature and of the heart. host which his army had taken prisoners went

I have before observed that these usages are one after another into the little church, and thus not of an oppressive nature, but merely an eduobtained their liberty. But the monk, instead of cation of the female sex; for after the completion a blessing, gave Tamerlane a curse in writing : of her term of probation, the woman becomes "Henceforth no ten men of thine army shall free, enters on the full rights of the married state, obey one and the same leader !” From that hour and is the independent mistress of the house. If the army of Tamerlanc was scattered abroad, and her husband is the head of the family, and she never collected again. From a part of this ar- survives him, she succeeds to his place and primy the Lesghis are descended, and never to this vileges, and is obeyed with the same veneration day have ten of them continued to obey the same as the father, the patriarch of the family. She Icader.

then occupies a social rank higher than any wo

man in the East, and indeed one commanding From the very full and most interesting ac- more respect than even amongst Europeans.count of the Armenians we can quote only a Abovian's mother was in this position.

From these customs moreover arises an intinarration of the curious plan adopted for the management of wives, which Baron von Hax- mate, an absorbing, and exclusive relation in the thausen considers to be based on a subtle married state : the wife's very existence becomes

part of her husband's; she lives in him, and has knowledge of the nature of a woman.

intercourse with the world only through him.

This seclusion lasts for years, --it grows into a The young unmarried people, of both sexes, habit; the close intimacy of married life has enjoy perfect liberty, within the recognized lim-time to be matured and confirmed, and the wife's its of manners and propriety. Custom is here character is unfolded and strengthened: in her precisely the reverse of what prevails in the sur. early years she has been screened from the temprounding countries; whilst in the latter the pur- tation and opportunity for indulging in scandal chase of a wife is the only nsual form of contract- and intrigue, and it is unlikely that she should ing a marriage, until which time the girl remains gain a taste for this in after life; and when, after in perfect seclusion,-among the Armenians, on her probation, she acquires the liberty of speech, the contrary, the young people of both sexes en- she learns to use this privilege with discretion.' joy free social intercourse. The girls go where In short, marriages among the Armenians, I was they like, unveiled and bareheaded; the young assured, are generally patterns of conjugal hapmen carry on their love-suits freely and openly, piness. and marriages of affection are of common occur. This subject may be regarded also in a somerence. But with marriage the scene changes; what amusing light. Imagining five or six the word which the young woman pronounces at young married women (be it said with all due respect) living together in the same house, should | fireside one evening by an Ossetian host, and we not anticipate continual quarrels and distur: noted down next day. It is a story like the bance, and the loss of all authority in the head serpent of eternity, continually swallowing its of the family? No such thing: this danger is own tail; a story without end, of which the inremoved. Wome:i's quarrels generally arise from tention of course is to lull the hearer to rethe use of women's tongues; and it is not easy to quarrel for any length of time in pantomime, pose. whilst the amusement of the spectators tends to allay any angry feelings. Even afterwards, when

There once lived a man and his wife who had freedom of speech is restored, this being carried sixty bees; they counted them every day, and on in a whisper is unfavorable to quarrelling:

one time they missed a bee, they sought for it In short, to any one who has to manage a large high and low, and at last found it yoked to a household, containing several young women, I plough. The husband set to work to plough, could give no better advice than to introduce this and his wife led the bee; whereupon the bee Armenian custom.

stung her in the neck.

Then the man got

some nut oil, and rubbed it on the wounded This traveller's account of the Yezidis, part

, which swelled up to the size of a mountain. known as devil-worshippers, differs in some neck and bore many nuts. The husband count

A nut tree grew out of the mountain on her material respects from that of Mr. Layard.—ed the nuts every day until they were ripe, when A part of it may be quoted :

he shook them down; but on counting them,

one was gone, which he saw the bee dragging The Yezidis are monotheists, and are ignorant away. In a great passion, he took up a handful of the doctrine of the Trinity. Of the Holy of earth, and threw it after the bee, and out of Spirit they know nothing; they designate Christ this sprang a field, large enough to occupy three as the Son of God, but do not recognize his divi- days in tilling it. This field he sowed with nity. They believe that Satan (Sheitan) was millet, and went every day to see how the crop the first created, greatest, and most exalted of the was growing. One day a wild boar came, rootarchangels; that the world was made by him at ed up the field, and destroyed the crop. The God's command, and that to him was entrusted man shot the swine dead, and found in its tail a its government; but that, for esteeming himself roll of paper, on which the following was writequal with God, he was banished from the Di-ten: Once there came together to a mill two vine presence. Nevertheless he will be again re- men, one rich and one poor ; when each of them ceived into favor, and his kingdom (this world) went to take his own meal, they found it all restored to him. They suffer no one to speak ilí mixed up together, so that it could not be sepaof Satan: if the Tatar Mohammedan curse, rated. So if they baked a cake, and the ques“ Nalat Sheitanna !(Accursed be Satan !) be tion arose, to whom the cake belonged ; then uttered in their presence, they are bound to slay they agreed that he who should tell the best either the speaker or themselves. On a certain story should have the cake; whereupon the rich day they offer to Satan thirty sheep; at Easter man began :-"Once upon a time I had a goose, they sacrifice to Christ, but only a single sheep; upon which I loaded the food that I intended Christ, they say, is merciful, and his favor easily for ten laborers during the whole day; and she procured, but Satan is not so readily propitiated. carried the food into the field. But a wolf met The sacrifices take place usually in the open her, and ate up half the side of the goose. ! country, but sometimes near the Armenian healed the wounded side with brush-wood, and churches; they are offered chiefly to Satan, some again loaded the food upon her back, and sent it times to Christ and the Saints, rarely or never to the workmen, and they had their dinner eardirectly to the Supreme Being. Satan is called lier than all the other workmen in the country.” Melik Tuous (King Peacock). The Yezidis have This was the tale of the rich man; the poor man no special forms of prayer, but observe certain then began as follows :-“ I and my wife had fasts. Peter Neu assured me that they are ex- sixty bees, which we counted every day, till at tremely superstitious : if a circle is drawn around last one was missing ; we searched for it high and one of them with a stick, he dares not step out low, and at last found it yoked to a plough.of it; he will utter loud cries, but will remain on Then I went to plough, and my wife was to leau the spot for a week, unless the circle is erased the bee, but it stung her in the neck ; I poured by the person who drew it and with the same some oil upon the wound, for her neck had stick. Great purity of morals is required in the swelled up as big as a mountain.” And thus the priests. They are not permitted to wear linen or tale goes on, gracefully weaving one story into cotton, only hair-cloth next the skin.

another without end, until the listeners, one by

one, drop off to sleep. It has quite the character We should add that the account given in dreaming upon the sleepers.

of a dream, and probably produces the effect of this most interesting book of the Ossetes, and the inquiry into the affinity between their The whole work is adorned, we should add, customs and those of the ancient Germans, is with beautiful little sketches of scenery very of considerable value. But we cannot stop to ingeniously printed in colors. They form a discuss it. We must bring our notice to a most agreeable addition to a book that is wise, close, when we have extracted one more good accurate, methodical, and at the same time as story from its rich collection. It was told at the entertaining as novel.

crew.

From the Buffalo Democrat, Aug. 17. By the courtesy of Messrs. Mann, Vail & Co., WHAT THE SEA GIVES UP.

and the gentlemen in their office, we were yes

terday shown the results of the enterprise, as far THIRTEEN years have rolled away, with their as they have been revealed, and a melancholy joys and sorrows, their hopes and fears, their story they tell. The coin which has been obanticipations and disappointment, their fruits tained from the wreck, is partly American and and their ashes, since the happy throng that partly French. Some $1,200 in bright Ameriwaved their adieus and shouted "good bye,” can Eagles and lesser pieces, was deposited in from the decks of that "new and staunch steam- the Hollister Bank, and about the same amount er," the Erie, were borne away from our wharves, in gold, which has been burned and discolored one bright, Summer evening, to the joyous cheer- but without loss of value, complete the tale of ing of friends ashore, amid the flaunting of ban- perfect coin rescued, thus far. By far the greater ners and accompanied by the best wishes of hun. amount of treasure is probably contained in the dreds of spectators.-Crowding her forward and unshapen masses of metal, which have been taken lower decks were scores on scores of foreign pco- from the mud and ashes in the bottom of the ple, freshly arrived from the densely inhabited hull. These present the appearance of having countries of Europe, and bound for the broad been melted and dropped into water, and are of prairies of our fair land, to reaching which they gold and silver, in some cases perhaps, with the now looked with hopes stimulated by a prosper. baser metals mingled in them, and only by their ous voyage thus far and a cheerful reliance upon great weight revealing their intrinsic worth. the good ship beneath them and her experienced Rouleaux of five franc pieces, which having been

slightly tipped from the perpendicular, are solAs they stood there, the young, the aged, the dered together by fusion, and in one case we parent and child, sexes and conditions all min-noticed a gold piece with a single link of a lady's gled in the pursuit of the one object, the seeking watch-guard adhering to its edge, as if placed a new home among strangers, in a clime of which there to suspend the coin. Two pork barrels they knew absolutely nothing, those ill-fated are filled with this confused and agglomerated emigrants thought litile of the perils of the deep, material, much of it in bits like shot, and weighnor conjured up any visions of the alternative so ing, altogether, some 1600 pounds. Beside this, soon to be presented to their bewildered minds, there are many pounds weight of coin partly of a death by the demon of fire, or a quieter melted, and clinging together very curiously. grave beneath the waters of the lake that look- At a rough estimate, if the metal prove only siled so placid and so innocent of danger. Thus ver, we should say that $20,000 of treasure has she went off, with banners streaming, cheers re- been recovered, which, with the avails of the sounding, music playing, and majestically plough- machinery, iron, etc., will make a handsome reed the bosom of her adopted element, the peer- turn for the outlay. less and unrivalled craft that was to bear the Our article is already so extended, that we palm from all contestants. There were some have room only to advert to the other valuables who came to the wharf too late, and these were that have been brought to light, and which, even grceted by derisive shouts from those on board, more than the money seem to carry the mind by and many a contemptuous laugh. But later at association, back to the owners of it all. The night, there came the awful rumor of a ship on housebold goods, the little familiar articles of fire and burning at sea, and those who watched property that so directly point to Home and its the great globe of fire, and saw it rise and fall joys, and tell the tale of sorrow so plainly, watchupon the swells, knew it for a beacon of death es, with the hands pointing to the hour when and woe, and went shudderingly to their couch- they stopped forever, knives, even the little pipes es to await the morning, with its full revelations that were in the pockets of the dead all act as of disaster.

silent historians and remembrances of the awful Thirteen years have passed since then, and eve', and seem by their familiar look, to take many another calamity has obscured, with its us back, at once, to the day and moment when dark story, the details of that dreadful night. those who nied them were hurried from life into For thirteen years the ashes of the Erie's dead a death as horrible as unlooked for. have been washed by the surges that boomed their requiem upon the lonely beach, and tossed the bones of the victims, and the treasure that

From the Examiner. went down with them and the sand and shells of

LOUIS NAPOLEON AND FREE TRADE. the deep in one confused heap.

But once more the light of day shines in upon The French Emperor has just given a strikthe secrets that the sea has so long kept, and ing illustration of the truth of what Sir Robert the ocean renders up its charge, at the behest of Peel urged upon his last cabinet, to the horror men who claim the hidden treasures. As of old and disbelief of some members of it. He assertthe savage nations consecrated a great entered that if the corn duties were once totally reprise by the sacritice of living beings, so this pealed, even in a time of famine,—they would exploration of the watery sepulchre has been ac- not again be enacted. France has enjoyed for companied by new deaths, and the darker, final the last year a free trade in corn, owing to the secret, is shared by those who would have learn. failure of the preceding harvest. Á more abunded the lesser ones. But long and difficult labor ant harvest than the present was never produced has accomplished the task of the searchers, and in France. The government nevertheless has their zeal has been rewarded.

come forward with a decree, that the free-trade

regulations of last year shall endure, and the un-, which we cannot hesitate to pronounce unjust restricted import of corn be permitted. France and illiberal. Foremost among these is the opin. therefore is brought to a level with England on ion entertained by the writer of Napoleon, of his that great and important point of legislation. conduct and its effects in Germany. Starting The trade in corn of both countries is free. The with unmitigated hatred of the great conqueror, similar reduction of duties on salt meats and cat- and blind to all the valuable legal and political tle will in all probability also be preserved, and improvements introduced by him into Germany, no doubt the principle found to be so advantage- Mrs. Austin heaps upon Napoleon all the abuse ous will be extended to other articles of neces- and obloquy she can. In this, womanlike, she sity. As to luxuries, France abounds in them. is biased by the unworthy conduct pursued by and can well afford, upon other than free-trade the Emperor towards the Queen Louisa; but, in reasons, to lower her tariff.

judging him, Mrs. Austin ought not to overlook! Whatever on other grounds, then, may be the fact, that even at the time of the invasion of said of the Emperor of the French, he undoubt-Germany there were many among the people edly seeks his supporters in the large masses, who preferred the grandeur of French slavery to not in privileged classes. As the great propor- the abject torpidity created by German misman. tion of the French people raise their own food agement, while a still livelier sense, of affection and consume their own produce, the price is of cannot be called, but of respect at least for the comparatively small importance, whilst the dif. character of him she abuses, now animates the ference between scarcity and abundance is of minds of the many cven in Germany, whose very great importance. In France at present, aspirations for political progress and political moreover, the state, or the authorities local or freedom are more than ever crushed by the central, are the great employers. It is a condi- boundless social tyranny of native princes and tion of things out of which government finds it their governments. Harsh in her judgment on necessary to extricate itself, yet this it can never Napoleon, Mrs. Austin is unjust in the opinion' hope to do unless in times of cheapness and she expresses of Ritter Lang, whose memoirs abundance. The Emperor seems wisely resolved have afforded us unmixed pleasure, with a great to get out of the difficulty by quietly adopting insight into the peculiar absurdities which charthe principles of free trade.

acterized the diplomatic service in Germany at the close of the last century. Mrs. Austin calls

him a derisor, a sneering writer who could see Germany from 1760 to 1814. By Mrs. Austin. nothing but the hard realities of life, and who London: Longman & Co.

found in them the materials for ridicule only.

In a literary point of view she may be right, in It is a known fact, that until the close of the preferring Göthe's highly colored and varnished eventful period with which this century com- picture of the last coronation of a German Emmenced, our neighbors the Germans had pro-peror at Frankfort, but, as a picture of the manduced but few autobiographies or memoirs of ners of the time, of the meanness of earthly pomp any historical or literary value. Whatever the in Germany, of the incomparable nothings with cause, the fact is not to be denied. Only within which German sovereigns occupied themselves, the last twenty years has anything like progress Ritter Lang deserves credit for truthfulness and in this direction been made; and the tide, once care in painting details, while Göthe has drawn set in, the publication of the memorabilia of the chiefly and acknowledgedly from imagination. worthies, who either assisted in creating or were Without entering further into the contents of created by the convulsions of the above period, the book, we can recommend it to our readers has increased in an unprecedented degree. From as an amusing and well-selected collection of the readable as well as the unreadable of the vo- extracts from a variety of German authors, to lumes which have in this way deluged the Leip- whose writings it may perhaps introduce them. sic book mart, Mrs. Austin some years ago col. If the only result of its publication should be lected the materials of several interesting arti- the translation of Ritter Lang's memoirs, Mrs. cles, which were printed in the Edinburgh and Austin will have rendered a service to the EngNorth British Reviews. As such they merited and lish literature.—Economist. were properly praised, but when replaced before the public in the dignified form of a large octavo, and under the imposing title of " Germany from

RESPECT FOR PROPERTY AND FEELING IN 1760 to 1814,” the expectation such a book na- FRANCE.-Let us do justice to the French charturally excites is not gratified. We of course

acter. Their self-command, their upon-honor expected, on opening the volume, to find much principle, is very remarkable, and much more original matter, derived from the authoress's long generally diffused than among our own popula. residence in the country and acquaintance with tion. They are, I believe, a more honest people its language and history, but were sadly disap- than the British. The beggar, who is evidently pointed to find it consist almost entirely of long hungry, respects the fruit upon the road-side quotations, translated from diverse authors strung within his reach, although there is nobody to together, it is true, with due regard for time and protect it. Property is much respected in France; place, but exhibiting little more than the paste and in bringing up children, this fidelity towards and scissors cleverness of a bookmaker, com. the property of others seems much more carebined with tolerable powers of translation. Of fully inculcated by parents in the lowest class, the few original ideas with which Mrs. Austin has in the home education of their children, than interlarded this scrap-book, there are one or two with us. This respect for property is closely

39

DXL.

LIVING AGE.

VOL. VI.

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