We have not ascertained that the pecuniary | One day the count was at the head of his resources of the adventurer were much im- regiment in the Place du Carrouzel, assisting proved by this recognition of his nobility; in- at a splendid military parade. On one side deed it would seem from the context that this of the square were the garden and palace of was not the case. It is far more difficult to the Tuileries; on the opposite side the Aveobtain an estate than a title; and perhaps the nue du Neuilly, extending as straight as an count may have thought it imprudent to refer arrow along the side of the Champs Elysées, his claims to the searching arbitrament of the to the verge of the horizon, now terminated courts of law. But his grateful prince would by a triumphal arch; on the third, the Place not suffer the scion of the noble house to Vendome, with its noble column; and on the languish in poverty and obscurity; and in- fourth, the Seine spanned by a bridge loaded deed the talents of the count offered the fair- with statues. This magnificent scene was est opportunities for his advancement, or ra- crowded with spectators, even to the trees of ther made his advancement a duty on the the Champs Elysées; and as the Count de part of the court. He received successively Sainte Hélène felt himself to be one of the the knightly decorations of the Legion of great actors in the pageant, a wild throb must Honor and Saint Louis, became a member of have heaved the chest of the escaped forçat. the order of Alcantara, and rose to be a lieut-But the word he hardly now considered to enant-colonel in the legion of the Seine. On apply to him; for his fourteen years' sentence his part he repaid the royal favor with un- was expired if not fulfilled. Some days ago bounded devotion, his loyalty was without re- he had celebrated in his own mind the fourproach, and he was esteemed one of the most teenth anniversary of his condemnation, and rising and respectable characters in the declared himself to be a free man! It is no French court. wonder that on this occasion he should revert The expensive manner in which the count exultingly to his escape from the bagne, as an lived might have afforded, but for one cir- event which had turned the current of his cumstance, some suspicion that he enjoyed life, and given him to his fortune; but as his still weightier favors of government than thoughts lost themselves in the recollection, crosses and decorations. The pay of a lieut- he leaped suddenly in the saddle, as if transcnant-colonel, with any fragments he might fixed with a spear. have recovered of his hereditary possessions, At first he hardly knew what it was that was not enough to account for a liberality as had affected him, or knowing it, he set it down unbounded as it was unostentatious. The in- as a delusion growing out of his waking exhaustible fund on which he drew was neither dream. An eye had rested upon his for a squandered nor spared; he had money for all moment, as his face was turned towards the legitimate purposes; and when other men had crowd-a phantom eye doubtless, such as recourse, on extraordinary emergencies, to sometimes glares upon us from the abysses of loans and mortgages, the Count de Sainte memory, for he never could meet with it again. Hélène had nothing to do but to write a Yet the count could not help repeating to cheque. His marriage accounted for this. himself, nor avoid a sensation of sickness as he His noble wife was the mine, on the produce did so, that the comrade he had abandoned to of which he lived; and her Spanish gold was his chains, spurning him with his foot while he daily transmuted in any quantities into French did so, was now a free man like himself, and silver. by a more legitimate title! In the case of almost any other human being in similar circumstances, this would have been of little consequence, for he was now rich enough to buy silence from hate itself. But Pontis knew his man.

It was supposed at the time, however, that other men had recourse to more disreputable means of supply; for the wholesale robberies that were committed on all hands had become as alarming as they were inexplicable. No precautions were sufficient for the safeguard of valuable property. In the recesses of palaces, thefts were as common as in the shops of the citizens; and it was obvious that there had been established a system of brigandage, whose organization comprehended a much higher class than usual. Even a nobleman was not safe from suspicion whose habits exhibited anything of the mysterious; but as for our count and countess, they lived so much her through a ruinous court, and signifying by in public, they belonged so completely to the a silent gesture that he would dispense with court and to society, that the suspicion must her further service, he knocked at another have been wild indeed which could attach it- door. Here he was again challenged; but self to them. his voice gained him admittance as before,

"What is your pleasure?" said she, speaking through the wicket; "I am alone, and although very poor, do not care to open to strangers." The visitor muttered a word in reply, and the door was opened as instantly as its ponderous bolts permitted. He followed

That night the portress of a common looking house in the rue Saint Maur was called from her repose by a gentle ring at the bell.

"Then we shall talk farther."


Among the crowd that day in the Place du Carrouzel, there had been a man who at"What! you here?" said the man who tracted the attention of some of the older opened the door to him, and who was the only members of the police. His was a well-known inmate of the apartment. Why, Peter, this face; but it had not been seen for many is an unusual and unexpected honor." years, and the thief-takers employed them"I have reasons, Alexander," replied the selves in getting the lineaments again by visitor gravely; and as he opened his cloak heart. But the man, secure in his innocence and threw his hat upon the table, the striking (for the bagne wipes off all scores), strolled resemblance between the two men would carelessly on. He did not meet a single achave enabled a stranger to pronounce them at quaintance-fourteen years being, in his callonce to be brothers. ing, the outside limits of a generation; till all

"Reasons you of course have, for you never on a sudden, as he glanced upon a general ofact without them: but before you open your ficer passing slowly on horseback, an expresbudget, let me put you in good humor by pre- sion of surprise escaped him, his dull eye senting you with this handsome sum of money, lightened with joy, and then the brief illuyour share of as rich a spoil as we have yet mination faded away into a fixed and lurid glare. At that moment the officer appeared to see him; and shutting his eyes suddenly, and ducking under the shoulders of the crowd, the old for at turned away.


It was easy for him to ascertain the rank and position of the object of his interest; to learn that, without estates, he possessed prodi"In the form of a human eye, which was gious wealth; that he had brought a wife with fixed upon mine to-day for an instant in the him from Spain, who was supposed to be the Place du Carrouzel. Whether it was any-source of his riches; and that the records of thing more than a fragment of a dream I had Soissons having been burned, he had estabfallen into at the moment, I cannot tell; but lished his birth by an "act of notoriety." if it was really in a human head, it belongs to the man you allude to."


"And what then?

and presently he found himself in a room much more comfortable than might have been expected from the exterior.

"Set it down; I cannot attend to business at present. I have seen a ghost."

"A ghost! I know a man who would scare even you; but I was not aware that you stood in special awe of the immaterial world. In what form appeared the ghost?"

"Merely that I am lost."

"What nonsense! You are too clever, too self-possessed, too far-seeing for that. You are unknown even to your own band-I, your lieutenant and your brother, being the sole medium of communication between you. Besides me, you have no confidant in the world but your own wife, your splendid countess, who is the life and soul of the association, The next morning he was met near the without whose guiding voice we could not stir prefecture by a man who entered into cona step, and who could not criminate you with-versation with him. out destroying herself."

"Ah!" said he; "that is so like him! He is a clever fellow, and he is now at his old tricks; but he has climbed thus far upon the shoulder of his comrade-he must down!" He went straight to the office of the prefect, and denounced Lieutenant-Colonel Pontis, Count de Sainte-Hélène, as an escaped forçat. The clerks laughed at him, the prefect ordered him to be turned out, and the informer, saying politely that he would call again tomorrow, took his leave.

"You are from Toulon?" said the stranger abruptly.

"All that is true; but you do not know the man as I do."


"We must buy him."

"It is for that I am here. But take care you bid high. Strip me of all I possess— take the diamond crosses from my breastthe jewels from my wife's hair-but let him have his price! You must do still more than that."

"Not blood?"

"Not without necessity. We must employ him. We must steep his hand in crime-and that will be your easiest task. Till he is again at the mercy of the police-till the fourteen years' fetters of Toulon dance again before his vision-it is impossible for me to sleep."

"And if all fails? If he will neither steal gold nor accept of it as a present—”

Well, if so?"

"You are going to denounce somebody?" "Well?"

"He is too strong for you."

"We shall see."

"Are you rich?"

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ten ten years of fetters would satisfy me. I and the wind moaned along its bosom, and will not abate him a month!" the waters answered with a hollow murmur which syllabled in his ear," Justice—justice !" and he fell into a profound slumber that lasted till the morning.

The prefect in the meantime had employed General Despinois to wait upon the count; but the latter, instead of meeting the charge with the incredulity, ridicule, or indignation that had been expected, made quiet speeches, and entered into long explanations, and the astonished envoy returned to his employers hardly able to form an opinion. That opinion, however, was at once come to by the more

"Ha!—ha!—ha! that is a good joke! But do you not know that he is more than a count, more than a knight, more than a lieutenantcolonel? Can you guess what he is?"

"Yes: he is the man who broke his compact with me in the bagne of Toulon, and spurned me away with his foot as he sprang over the wall. I must have him back it is only justice. Good morning;" and the old forçat went into the prefecture.

This time he was apparently but little more successful than on the former occasion; but the functionaries were surprised at his perti- experienced authorities of the prefecture; nacity, and considered it due to the character and after a minute examination of the informof the count to send some one to him to hint er, who had planted himself at the office door delicately at the calumnies that were abroad. long before it opened in the morning, it was They told the informer, therefore, that inqui- determined to arrest the count on suspicion ries would be made, and directed him to call of being an escaped felon. But this was only the next day, in the idea that by that time what he had expected, and for some days all they would have authority to take him into Paris was searched for him in vain. They custody. He was pleased, accordingly, with tracked him at length to the house in the rue his success. He dined cheerfully; spent the Saint Maur; and although he defended himafternoon in walking about; in the evening self with his pistols, both of which he disfelt hungry again, but resisted the temptation charged at the gensd'armes, he was overpow to commit a theft, lest he should be locked up ered, and taken into custody. The revelafrom the business that engrossed him; and at tions made in this den of thieves identified night, being perfectly moneyless, he repaired him with the mysterious chief of banditti who to one of the bridges to sleep under an arch. had so long kept the city in awe; and being This was the most quiet, though by no conducted to the prison of La Force, he was means the most solitary, bed-chamber he tried for various distinct robberies, as well as could have found; for that night every crib for his evasion from the bagne of Toulon. in Paris was searched for him by messengers A narrative like this, with its circumstances who would have silenced him in one way or laid only a few years ago, wears an air of imother. As it was, he lay undisturbed except probability; but many personations quite as by his dreams, and the fitful moonbeams extraordinary took place after the conclusion glancing like spectres upon the water. Some of the Revolution. The peculiar feature in times he awoke, and fancied himself in the the case of Coignard, is, that the imposture prison of Toulon, till reassured by the voice was followed out to the very last, in spite of of the river which murmured in his ear. "It the legal exposure. He would not plead by is only justice." Then he felt hungry, and any other name than his fictitious one; and the night air grew chill, and the hard stones the president of the court was obliged to call pierced his limbs; and he thought of the thou- him simply, "You accused!" When transsands and thousands of francs that had been ferred to his old quarters at Toulon, under offered him, and of the pleasure and dignity sentence of fetters for life, he preserved the of robbing in a great band commanded by a calm sedate dignity of an injured man, and nobleman. But then he shrugged his shoulder was much respected by the other forçats, who by means of which Coignard had stepped always addressed him by his assumed title. upon the wall; and looking forward to the This character he continued to enact up to his morrow, a grim feeling of satisfaction stole death; and perhaps he ended by persuading over his heart, the indulgence of which seem- even himself that the companion of nobles, ed better than food, money, or honor. And and the protégé of a king, was in reality the then the moonbeams disappeared on the river, Count de Sainte-Hélène.

THE cager inquiry for materials from which the number by mentioning the confervæ that paper may be manufactured is still heard on all grow so abundantly on the surface of standingsides, and numerous are the suggestions made water, and become converted when dry into a spethereupon. One recommends turf; another, the cies of natural paper.-Chambers's Journal. frothy scum seen on ditches; and we may add to

From The Examiner. a perfect original. Peter when a lad had emiTranscaucasia: Sketches of the Nations and grated with his kinsfolk and countrymen from Races between the Black Sea and the Cas- Wurtemberg, and with them had settled first at pian. By Baron von Haxthausen, Author Odessa, and afterwards in a newly-established of "Studien über die innern Zustande Russlands." With Illustrations by Graeb. Chapman and Hall.

village colony near Tiflis. But Peter Neu was of a restless disposition; he wandered about through various parts of the country, went afterwards to Asia Minor, then to Persia, was appointed interpreter to the Crown Prince, Abbas Mirza, travelled with him for eight years, and after the death of the Prince returned to his countrymen. Peter was an invaluable treasure to

BARON Von Haxthausen's present work makes its first appearance in the form of the translation before us, and is to be published hereafter in Germany. The translation is ex-me; he had a remarkable genius for languages, cellent, and well entitled to take rank with us and knew a dozen European and Asiatic tongues, in the best class of new books. The writer is Turkish, Armenian, Georgian, Persian, Koor-German, French, Russian, Circassian, Tartar, a Westphalian nobleman, of studious and ac-dish, etc. Peter had an astonishing memory, and tive habits, who became first known to his own in six weeks would, without any effort, acquire a public in Prussia as the author of inquiries power of expressing himself fluently in a lanconcerning the tenure of land, and who has guage perfectly new to him. United with this since that time travelled much in Russia and talent he possessed a rich gift of poetical imagiclsewhere, pursuing his inquiries with great nation, and had an inexhaustible treasury of candor, and still making it his main duty to marchen, legends, and popular songs, gleaned study the relations of man to the soil, and his from all the countries he had visited; and as we condition in each given case. He details here lay in our tarantas, day or night, he used to rethe information acquired during travels in fell asleep. At first he was somewhat reserved, late these stories with untiring energy, until I Georgia, Armenia, and the adjacent provinces fancying that such popular stories were too triwhich lie between the Caspian and Black fling an amusement for a learned traveller; but Seas, on the Asiatic side of the Caucasian after a few days we became bosom friends, havrange, the region wherein Tiflis is the chief ing food, lodging, and everything in common.of towns, and Ararat the chief of mountains. And now the flood-gates of Peter's knowledge Though he has not lacked taste to observe were opened! whenever, as we drove along, I obor power to discuss scenery and architecture, served any ruin, a strangely-shaped hill, a caBaron von Haxthausen's main attention has vern, etc., I exclaimed, "Come, Peter, now for been devoted in every place to the condition And before an hour had passed he would return another story,-some legend or a fairy tale!". and habits of the people. He has observed from the nearest village, Tatar or Georgian, whatcarefully their habits and their humors, studied ever place it happened to be, with a whole load their character, stored up their legends. The of stories. At the same time, however, Peter was philosophic tendency does not in his case lead an adept in Buffoonery, and was never satisfied to mystification, or convert pleasant illustra- without receiving every day or two a downright tion into dull and ponderous detail; it gives, scolding for some act of stupidity. As soon as as it always should, the charm of clearness to this was administered and over, he embraced and every description and discussion, and the book kissed me again in the tenderest manner. is in truth, as a piece of reading, so much the lighter for it. A philosophic traveller is the last man who ought to be a dull one. Thoughtfulness and prosiness are qualities a great deal more antagonistic than your wise man of Gotham commonly perceives.

It is curious also to observe how much this book has gained by the advantage that flowed to the author from his manifest amiability, and the liking he contrived to acquire for all the people among whom his researches were pursued. A less approachable man would never have attached to his fortunes such a compound of the Pundit and the Scheherezade as the shoemaker Peter Neu, to the contents of whose memory author and reader of Transcaucasia are alike indebted for the unusually rich stores of local legend and tradition that enrich its pages. Peter Neu, shoemaker of Tiflis, became the Baron's guide, interpreter, and friend. He


Of these Suabians in Transcaucasia to whose stock Peter belonged, it should be said that they come chiefly from Wurtemberg, where they emigrated in 1818, being offended at religious innovations, among which the introduction of a new hymn-book in their churches was the chief. The Russian government assigned them some land near Odessa ; but, as they did not flourish there, they were transplanted at their own request, as colonists, to the neighborhood of Tiflis and other districts of the Transcaucasian provinces.

Baron von Haxthausen writes in no spirit of enmity to Russia. He travelled so far as such a thing may be said of an honest and candid man, in Russian interest, was treated hospitably by Russian officials, and sees much to admire in the Russian Government; but, inasmuch as he is honest and candid, he disguises no truth that he ascertains, and his evi

dences of misgovernment under the Russian ters, to answer my inquiries. Abovian acted as military system, and of oppression and ine-interpreter, which led the people to imagine that quality of treatment suffered by the Transcau- I had probably some secret mission to examine casians, is plain enough. into the state of the town, and report upon various complaints which they had recently forwarded. eller, seeking to obtain information upon these It was useless to protest that I was a mere travsecret cause of my visit, a mission perhaps from subjects: the people were evidently assured of the thus thrust upon me procured me an insight into the Emperor himself! I believe the credentials many things of which I might otherwise have reputation waited upon me from the city, praying mained ignorant. In the evening a solemn deto be allowed to lay before me its miserable condition; adding, that they had frequently represented the matter to the Government, but had the following particulars :never obtained a hearing. They related to me

In ancient times the princes and chiefs bestowed who possessed a deed confirming the grant by a a large extent of fields on the citizens of Erivan, former king of Armenia; this, I was informed, had been transmitted to the Government, as the As a natural result of this state of things, a in its usual tyrannical manner, had unceremoground of a petition. The Persian Government bitter animosity to the Russians and the Russian niously seized upon these town-fields, the Sirdars Government grew up amongst all these Caucasian tribes. On occasion of a journey which the Under the Russian dominion also the fields have appropriating the income arising from them.— Emperor Nicholas made, in October, 1837, remained in the possession of the Government, through these provinces, it is said that the tschi- which lets them out, fixing the rent according to nowniks, or officials, issued an order that no pe- the annual produce. The city is heavily burdentitions should be presented to him. At Akhal-ed and taxed, and the loss of this source of zik, the inhabitants of an entire village were seen kneeling on the road in silence as the Emperor drove past, and this circumstance recurred several times. The Emperor inquired of the people what it meant; they replied, that they were for bidden to approach him with petitions: he told them it was not true, and that they might fearlessly present any petitions. Thereupon the people poured forth to meet the Emperor in such numbers, that during his journey only as far as Erivan, about fourteen hundred petitions and complaints were preferred to him.

revenue is a serious calamity to its inhabitants. At present the crown taxes on each house able for the payment. A commission of the inamount to three roubles, and the city is accounthabitants, at the head of which is the chief magistrate, allots this sum according to the means of each person. The merchants, as a body, have to contribute five hundred rubles, and the artisans an equal sum, which amounts are assessed by the raise large sums for public buildings, bridges, and The city is also called upon to roads, for the police, the chief magistrate and his clerks, public servants, the town physician, etc. bazaar; the gardens are valued anew every three For this object a tax is laid on the shops of the years, and a tax of five per cent. levied on the net produce.


The existence in all these countries of a certain system and constitution in family and communal life, arising out of manners and customs, and even sanctioned by law, however defective (in Georgia indeed by the Vakhtang code of laws) was entirely disregarded by the Russian officials. They were far too indolent to study the existing social condition of the people, and followed only the laws and principles of administration to which they were accustomed and which they brought from Russia; whilst their rule was not a little marked by arbitrary conduct, with occasional extortion and spoliation; the superintendence and control being naturally much feebler and more ineffectual in the Caucasian provinces than elsewhere. The entire administration was at the same time of a military character; and all complaints, even those of a merely civil nature,

were referred to the General in command.

The Emperor, who, according to his own system and so far as policy permits, labors to be rudely just, ordered an inquiry into the national peculiarities, institutions, and rights of Georgia and the adjacent provinces, with a view to a separation of the civil from the military power, and the introduction of a more congenial system of administration. Baron Hahn drew up a scheme founded upon such inquiries, and a new state of things became only taxed to the amount of five thousand rouactually law; but the military officials, never-ries of the Sirdar and other officials, and the exbles, including the tribute to the Shah, the salatheless, would not abandon any of their old rights of wrong, and they made the new laws a dead letter in every particular. Here is another sketch of Russian Government in Transcaucasia, the scene being Erivan.

The inhabitants complain that their condition at present is more oppressed than it was under the Persians, notwithstanding that the Persian officials exercised an extremely arbitrary and despotic power over them. The imposts under their former masters were low, the citizens being

penses of the city itself. At present, the inhabi tants are obliged to pay fifteen thousand roubles, besides being called upon to furnish horses for the post service, and to maintain watch and ward,


Trade and commerce are heavily burdened; I spent the greater part of the day in examin- the resident merchant had formerly to pay two ing the canal-system of Erivan: and the head abbas for every horse-load of goods on passing of the police, who accompanied me, summoned from Turkey into Persia; whereas at the present several persons, best acquainted with these mat-day goods from Persia are charged with an ex

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