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as to yield that result. Where, however, the disquietude of modern life. A genial picty natural constitution is not what we have taken takes root most readily, of course, in cheerful upon ourselves to call Horatian, it is possible natures; but in every soul, the necessary reto subdue its restlessness and make it happier sult of unbroken trust in “ a faithful Creator," in action without a continual eye to results. is repose, simplicity, harmonious unity of Let it not be said that we introduce incongru- character. God is great! “ The world is a aus ideas into this paper, when we add, that a beautiful world, after all," and the true “hapgenial piety is the medicine that best“ minis- py valley” is the serene depth of a man's own ters to a mind diseased" with the Faust-like 'spirit.

From the Examiner, 19 Aug. seriously formed by the allied powers, than THE FIRST AND THE LAST. the peril which threatened the repose of tho

world is reduced, if not entirely dissipated. THE Speech from the Throne on the con- It could not escape such acute observers dusion of the session presents a most gratify- as Russian statesmen, that when England sent ing contrast to that with which it commenced, a fleet to the Baltic, wholly unprovided with in so far as the War is concerned. The Roy- vessels of light draught, and not carrying a al words are no longer faltering or ambiguous; single mortar, there was no immediate pro but clear, distinct, and decisive. Instead of bability of any attack being made on either mnouncing military preparations, and a West- of the only two northern fortresses concernern alliance without any definite objects, hering which Russia can feel any serious anxMajesty declares that " in cordial cooperation iety, Cronstadt and Sweaborg: And it was with the Emperor of the French, her efforts equally clear when the French and English will be directed to the effectual repression of troops stopped short at Gallipoli, that their that ambitious and aggressive spirit on the movement to the East was thus far a mere part of Russia which has compelled us to take demonstration, and that for some months at op arms in defence of an ally, and to secure least no fear need be entertained for the brightthe future tranquillity of Europe. This is est jewel of the Russian crown-Sebastopol. language not to be misunderstood. The But the same sagacity which led the Ruscountry at length knows that its Government sian Cabinet to conclude they might proseis in earnest.

cute their schemes during the spring and Precisely in the same proportion that the summer with impunity, will now teach them declaration of her Majesty's advisers made that the time for diplomatic trifling on the during the session have increased in firmness, part of the allies has passed away, and that the pretensions put forward by the ministers autumn will see them proceed with much of the Czar have abated from their original more effectual instruments. arrogance. Count Nesselrode no longer speaks Of course we do not overlook the part which of the Sultan as the vassal of the Czar; no the gallant Turkish army has played in inspirlonger treats with contempt the pretension of ing the allied Governments with sufficient the maritime powers to interfere in the affairs courage to form this resolution ; and the of the East; and no longer declares that in graceful allusion in the Queen's Speech, protheir despite the material guarantee shall be nounced with even more than usual empharetained, until the virtual sovereignty of the sis and eloquence, to “ the courage and perEmperor Nicholas over its Christian subjects severance manifested by the troops of the has been acknowledged by the Porte. The Sultan in their defence of Silistria, and the last despatch of the Russian Chancellor is an various military operations of the Danube” apology for a detected and defeated policy, as -accompanying the Cross of Grand Comconfused, as equivocating, and as abject as mander of the Bath which her Majesty has, ever proceeded from the pen of even a Prus- we believe, just bestowed upon Omer Pasha sian diplomatist.

—will doubtless incite those noble and patriWhat, then, is the lesson to be learnt from otic men to still greater and more brilliant the momentous events which have occurred achievements. during the six months' interval which sepa- It is also a matter of congratulation that rates the two speeches ? It is that the so-call- the Speech does not contain a syllable reed“ policy of peace,”—the policy of yielding specting any alliance save that with France. to oppression, and endeavoring to conciliate It is no longer “in concurrence with other insolence,-has been in fact the policy of Powers” that the great object of securing war; and that the determination to repress the future peace of Europe is to be pursued. ambition and resist aggression is no sooner The German potentates, even the stern and

resolute young Emperor from whom we were rienced during the session, that produced by told to expect so much, will now understand the closing Speech has certainly not been the that whilst France is with us, we care not who least. But it has been an agreeable one; and joins us, nor who may stand aloof. This con- we are convinced that those calm but enerviction may yet, if anything can, instil into getic words which we have quoted will go the German Courts something approaching to further towards securing a just and lasting manly and independent feeling.

peace, than a bushel of German protocols, or Of all the disappointments we have expe-'a century of Vienna conferences.

A boy

ter

THE GUN-BOAT QUESTION.

stowage of the machinery without exposing it THERE seems to be still some misunder- to shot; and to use wood where iron would be standing of the gun boat question. Lord

unsafe. And this was done by building from Clanricarde has truly stated that the services the floor (keel there is none) to the line of in the Baltic requires vessels of a heavy ar-flotation with iron, and finishing upwards, the mament, and drawing about five feet water. top sides and bulwarks, with wood. The gun-boats built by the Admiralty are no

The danger of a shot under water is small doubt all that is desirable in armament, but indeed, water deadening or diverting shot to they draw between eleven and twelve feet. a degree which ought to be very intelligible on Why is this? We know that vessels of the a little reflection. Endeavor to strike a smart same scantling, power, and equal capabilities blow in the water, and you will learn to value in every respect, can be built with a draught the resistance of the fluid, and to comprehend of five feet; and what possible motive can the how much the momentum of a round shot Admiralty have for preferring the longer-leg- must be diminished in passing even point ged craft, which must be utterly useless in the blank through a few feet of water. shoal waters of the Baltic ? A prejudice stands who makes ducks and drakes with a stone in the way of the most perfect combination of may thence have a notion of the effect of war heavy armament and light draught. An error

upon a slanting shot. in one extreme has been avoided, and per

We do not go so far as to contend that haps as often happens in such cases, an error

a shot might not by possibility take unlucky in the opposite extreme has been adopted. effect upon an iron hull under water, but it is When Lord Ellenborough was at the head of so very unlikely a chance as not to counter the Admiralty, it was determided to build a

vail the certain advantages of such a strua whole fleet of iron steam vessels; no less than ture; and if the bare possibility of an un thirty, if we are not mistaken. After all was

lucky shot were a decisive objection, the steam settled, and many of the vessels were on the machinery even encased in wood would be stocks, if not actually built, the question was

condemned for purposes of war.

Some risks raised, what would be the effect of shot upon

must always be compounded for in every huthem. The experiment was tried, and the re

man contrivance for locomotion, whether in sult proved that for purposes of war they peace or war. might as well have been made of glass. Iron

The fact that the Prussian Government has was then condemned, and without sufficient purchased the vessels to which we have rediscrimination between the uses for which it is ferred, the Nix and Salamander, for gun-boats, superior to wood, and of those in which it is proves that in the opinion of that Govern unfitting for war. But private builders have ment at least, iron, so far as it enters into made this distinction ; and as we have before their build, is not unfitted for war. stated, Messrs. Russell & Co. have furnished The Czar too has profited by the model, and the Prussian Government with gun-boats, the the Pruth, which for a time so importantly very model of what is wanted for our service aided the operation of his armies on the Dain the Baltic and the Euxine, combining a nube, was on the plan of the Nix and Salapowerful armament with a draught of only mander, but on a smaller scale. five feet. How was this done ? Not by build

No doubt the gun-boats built by the Admiing of wood wholly, for a smaller draught than ralty are the best for the purpose that can be eleven or twelve feet cannot be had with built of wood, but that material necessitates a wooden vessels of the scale required; nor by draught of eleven or twelve feet, more than building of iron wholly, it having been proved double the desirable draught; and every inch that iron splinters under shot, so as to render above six feet tells as a serious disadvantage, it unfit for vessels of war. But it was possi- or an absolute inefficiency.-Examiner, 19 ble to use iron, where it would serve to dimi-Aug. nish draught, and to conduce to the snuggest

From The Economist, 19 Aug. ty; not of being based by our adversary, but THREATENED NEGOTIATIONS. of letting him off too easy ; not of conducting

the war ill, but of throwing away all the adThe first campaign is scarcely more than vantages of victory by too great a desire for half over, and already Russia has been baffled, peace, and too great magnanimity towards a defeated and repelled. She has been obliged fallen foe. Therefore we confess we feel no to exchange the attitude of aggression for inconsiderable alarm when we observe with that of self-defence. From being resolved to what alacrity every one begins to consider the appropriate neighbor's territory, she is reduced terms on which the war may be concluded, on to tremble for her own. In the winter her the first avowed discomfiture and professed refleet was busy destroying the Turkish navy tirement of the enemy. Let us reflect for a and massacring the Turkish sailors at Sinope: moment or two whether this alacrity is not in summer she finds all her ships locked up in somewhat dangerous and premature. their own harbors—confined to bed in short. Russia has evacuated the Principalities and In March she menaced, or was supposed to retired behind the Pruth. Is it so very cermenace Constantinople : in August she is tain that this is really a retrogressive movecalled upon to defend Sebastopol. In spring ment, or one that can be held to indicate eithshe was crossing the Danube : in autumn she er any actual relinquishment of her aggresis recrossing the Pruth. She has been baffled sions, or any deference towards the allies, or in nearly every enterprise, and beaten in near- any disposition to make peace? What has ly every engagement. She has lost all that led to it, and what is to be gained by it? In she had gained, except some of the fortresses the first place, this evacuation has not been in the Dobrutscha; and those are about to be ordered till it became an indispensable meawrested from her.

sure of safety. The allies were advancing, the The tone of the Czar has changed nearly as Ottomans were everywhere victorious, the much as his fortunes. The insolent language of Russians were everywhere baflled, the Austhe Autocrat, who was resolved to have his way trians held all the passes of the Carpathians, in defiance of all Europe, and who was astonish- and could at any moment have taken the Imed at the unreasonableness of those who perial troops at a fearful disadvantage. As blamed him and the audacity of those who soon as the attitude of Austria became unmispresumed to thwart him, has been moderated takably hostile, the Russian positions in Walinto the complaining phrases—not yet quite lacbia and Moldavia became obviously untenapologetic or deferential—of a man who would able. The forces of the Czar not only could fain make out that he had been misunderstood no longer remain there, but were peremptorily and ill-used. The last despatch of Count Nes- wanted elsewhere. selrode, so ably answered by M. Drouyn de For it was not on the Sereth that they could Lhuys, is in marked contrast to some former meet their advancing foes. Between Austria memorable documents from the same pen. on the west, Omer Pasha and his AngloThe evacuation of the Principalities has been French auxiliaries on the south, and the allied officially announced, with an indication that it fleet which might have assailed their rear, the. has taken place in compliance with the preju- invaders would have had no chance of escapedices-strange and incomprehensible as it is A retirement from the Principalities duly anhinted they are of the Emperor of Austria. nounced, might yet suspend the actual comf It is clear that the Czar has been worsted, and mencement of hostilities by Austria ; and in that he admits it; and it is believed that he is not—if Austria must be met or assailed-her inclined to come to terms. Already writers accessible point was clearly not the Transyland diplomatists are discussing what these vanian but the Gallician frontier. The eva terms should be. This is the crisis of affairs cuation which has been the object of so much that we have always looked forward to with congratulation, therefore, was probably dethe greatest anxiety. The dangers of hostili- signed to effect two objects, both most importies seem about to be exchanged for the far tant to Muscovite designs—the liberation of more serious dangers of negotiation. Our

one large force, which could be detached to readers will remember that, although we have take Austria at advantage on a preferable never dreaded the arms of Russia,

we point, and the sending of another to succor have always expressed the greatest fear of Odessa and the Crimea, which were indubitaher diplomacy. We know the characteristic bly about to be assailed by the allies. This weakness of the British nation-aggravated as evacuation, then, is not a political concession, it now is by our settled love of peace, and by but simply a necessary and judicious strategic the deep sense of responsibility which weighs operation. on rulers who, after forty years of peace bave In one sense, however, it was undoubtedly had again to deal with war. We know that designed to have a political effect. It liberates our real danger is not in being beaten in a Prussia—at least Prussia will choose to accept campaign, but of being overreached in a trea- it as liberating her—from her engagements to Austria. She had promised to aid that Power lend their mutual co-operation, in order to obin enforcing the evacuation in case Russia tain from the initiative of the Ottoman Goveither annexed those provinces or pushed its ernment the consecration and observance of conquests to the south, and to stand by her the religious privileges of the various Christian and defend her against internal and external communities, and turn the generous intentions foes in case she incurred danger or hostility manifested by His Majesty the Sultan to the while furthering German interests. But now account of their various co-religionists, so that Russia has retired-has done in fact what that there shall not result therefrom any inPrussia wished—the latter may plausibly fringement of the dignity and independence enough allege that whatever consequences of his crown. may ensue from any hostile steps on the part 1. Something no doubt will be gained by of Francis Joseph against the Czar, Austria exchanging the exclusive protectorate which will have voluntarily brought upon herself; Russia has heretofore exercised over the semiand that she can therefore no longer claim the independent provinces of Turkey in Europe, assistance of Prussia to guard her from them. for a collective protectorate of all the great The Court of Berlin is therefore perfectly free Powers. But the practical evils arising from to desert Austria in any dangers she may in- the anomalous position of those territories will cur by siding with the Western Powers, and only have been mitigated, not by any means to pursue its own projects of rivalry and am- removed, but by this change. Russia, if one of bition, with any help which Russia can be the protecting Powers, will become or continue stow. The evacuation of the Principalities by as before, the chief protecting Power. She is the Czar may thus convert Prussia from a he-close at hand; she has already a party in sitating neutral and a possible foe into an those provinces (in Servia a large and poweravowed if not an active ally; and has doubt- ful one); she will still retain all her instrı less been expected by Nicholas to operate ments and subtle machinery of intrigue ; she powerfully in paralyzing his new eneny. Thus alone, having an interest in mischief will be the same retrograde movement across the perpetually getting up grounds of complaint Pruth enables Russia to menace Austria on and interference; she, as before, will be ccasetwo sides, to pacify and neutralize Prussia, and lessly busy in fomenting disturbances, and to march fifty thousand men to the succor of charging the Porte with violation of the privihis endangered seaports.

leges of the Principalities when that GovernIt seems, therefore, by no means certain ment attempts to put them down; she, on the that the Czar has any real desire of suing for plea of " co-religion” and of kindred will have ar accepting a reasonable and satisfactory pretexts for remonstrances and claims, when peace. But even if he has, let us look at the the other Powers see nothing to complain of terms which the French Minister for Foreign Thus the virtual and active protectorate will Affairs declares that the common interests of be exercised by her nearly as much as Europe require.

now ; and if she can persuade any one of First. That the protectorate hitherto exer- the co-operating Powers to join her (as she cised by the Imperial Court of Russia over will possibly be able to do when coolness the Principalities of Wallachia, Moldavia and or hostility prevails among them), she may Servia, shall cease, and that the privileges easily override the opposition of the others, granted by the Sultans to these dependant and even if she does not, the very differences provinces of their empire, shall

, in virtue of will again make the Eastern Question a peran arrangement with the Sublime Porte, be manent apple of discord to the rest of Europe. placed under the collective guarantee of the Knowing, as we do, what these provinces have Powers.

always been to Russia—the means, namely, of Second. That the navigation of the Danube, keeping the Porte in perpetual hot water and as far as to its outfall into the Black Sea, shall of furthering her designs on Constantinoplebe delivered from all restriction, and sub- is it wise, is it at all a satisfactory arrangement mitted to the operation of the principles con- by which to terminate a troublesome and costsecrated by the acts of the Congress of Vi- !y war, to leave to that restless and eneroachenna.

ing Power any pretext for again interfering in Third. That the treaty of July 13, 1841, their concerns ? shall be revised in concert by the high con- 2. The freedom of the navigation of the tracting Powers in the interest of European Danube from all restrictions, and the removal equilibrium, and in the sense of a limitation of of those obstructions by which the calculated Russian power in the Black Sea.

carelessness of Russia has caused its waters to Fourth. That no Power shall claim the right be choked, we have always pointed out as one to exercise any official protectorate over the of the most important of the objects to be se subjects of the Sublime Porte, to whatever cured, when the terms of peace came under rite they may belong, but that France, Aus- consideration. But if we recal to mind that tria, Great Britain, Prussia, and Russia shall these objects have already, and long since,

been insisted on in the most formal manner, | liberation. It may be handed over to Turkey and guaranteed by the most solemn treaties, or it may be simply dismantled-or it may and promised by Russia once and again under be made an independent" harbor of refuge, her hand and seal, we really do not see what di- under the protection of all the European maplomatists can persuade themselves is gained ritime Powers. As long as it remains the splenby compelling that dishonest Power to renew did port and fortress which it now is, in the treaties she has always disregarded, promises hands of Russia (Lord John Russell was quite which she has always broken, and professions correct in saying) Constantinople is permaso empty as to have become almost insults. nently menaced, and commerce can scarcely As Lord Lyndhurst so plainly urged, Russia be secure or free. has shown that no engagements can bind her. 4. The distinct denial of the claim of RusWhy, then, enter into fresh engagements ? sia po interfere on behalf of the Greek-ChrisYou insist on the free and unobstructed navi- tian subjects of the Porte will be a most valugation of the Danube :-secure it, therefore, able object gained ; and if the other Powers in the only manner in which experience has simply obtain from the Sultan the concession shown that it can be secured, viz., by restor- of perfect freedon from all interference, perseing to Turkey all its mouths and all the for-cution, or oppression on religious grounds to all tresses which guard them and which command his non-Mussulman subjects, we believe all willthe course of the river. Take back from Rus- have been done that can be done;-and more sia the Delta she obtained by the treaty of than is done in Austria, Russia, Spain or Italy. Adrianople, and let Ismail and Galatz be dis- Oppression of the Rayahs there no doubt is, mantled or transferred. We do not believe and will continue to be ; but it will be only that any other arrangement can be secure, or that which the Government is powerless to ought to be conceded.

prevent, and which time and an improved sys 3. “ The revision of the treaties of 1841 ” tem of administration can alone entirely put -if by this be meant the opening of the down. Hitherto it is certain that the chief op Black Sea to the navies of all nations—will be pressors of the Turkish Christians have been a signal triumph and a most important practi- Russian agents and the priests of the Greek cal-advantage to commercial enterprise ; but, Church. if merely a parchment treaty and unaccompa- In conclusion : We shall be as thankful as nied by “ material guarantees "—(“I thank any one for the restoration of peace on a perthee, Jew, for teaching me that word !” —it manent and solid basis. Our only object in can scarcely be considered safe or efficient. the preceding remarks has been to warn our The navigation of the Euxine is proverbially countrymen against acceding to terms which, difficult and perilous; Sebastopol is the only however plausible, are yet proverbially fallasecure and ample barbor whether for mer- cious; and which will leave the embers of chant ships or men-of war; whoever possesses discord still slumbering and ready to burst out that harbor, fortified as it is, will always be whenever circumstances shall render it the inmistress of the sea which it commands; the terest of the great aggressor again to fan them only real condition or security, therefore, for into a flame. Do not let us cobble or slur the free navigation of the waters in question over our work. Do not let us have to do it must be found in wresting that important pos- over again, at some future and less convenient session from the Czar, and disposing of in period. Do not let us have spent ten millions some other way, to be decided on mature de-l for a hollow and unreal victory.

From The Spectator, 19 Aug. mission to the enemy with a treacherous abanAMERICAN IMMENSITIES. donment of each ally in turn, and new ad

vance of hostility. But if it is so in Europe, The action of great States does not change the character of periodical literature in Amerand fluctuate with every week, although in the ica imparts to the news there a much greater reports which reach us from weck to week it appearance of capricious change. The latest may seem to do so; as, in a flickering light, intelligence would give the idea that America a brilliant object seems itself to share the tre- is in a sudden state of universal ebullitionmor of the light in which it is viewed. Trust that the annexation-fever has an acute access, to the reports of the day, and the really stead- which threatens every conterminous State. fast action of our Government in regard to Rus Not only is little Mosquitia doomed to bomsia and Turkey would be converted into one bardment and oppression at the hands of the of incessant change, alternating a craven sub-| American navy, by order of Gen. Pierce,

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