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-it spoils thousands who might be clever greatest among our British poets, Shakspeare
Not a few, and those the most promis- and Milton, both speak complainingly of their ing—children for example like Hartley Cole- “ late spring.” Their regrets were unneeded. ridge-require to be positively kept back, not Better, far better that it should be so, than urged onwards. In his pitiable case it was that the fruits, nipped and shrunk, should belie not the predominance of fancy in his child- the promise of the abundant blossom. Let hood that was unhealthy, but the unboyish each period of life wear its own garb, and play consciousness of self. Games at play with its own part. For old age there is rest,-perother boys would have been far better for severing activity for manhood,—and for chilhim than to sit listening with greedy ears hood the grace and beauty and careless hapto the philosophers of the Lakes. The two piness which are peculiarly its own.
From The Spectator. sion ; a variety of topics being touched more GRAHAM'S JORDAN AND RHINE.* or less fully. Most of them have a relation to
the present state of the East -as the rule of MR. GRAHAM is an Irish Presbyterian minis- the Turks, the religious and moral character ter, who was chosen by the General Assembly of the Oriental Christians, the prospects of of his church as a missionary to the Jews. In Russian success,--or refer to the past, chiefly this capacity he has travelled extensively both in connection with Scriptural illustration. In in Europe and the East; his head-quarters Germany or the “ Rhine” portion, the digresbeing, apparently, at Damascus and Bonn. sions are more numerous. There are, indeed, The title of his book is less descriptive than sketches of German manners and religion, suggestive of his subjects—Germany and the Jewish, Christian, and Rationalistic. A large East; for although he resided by the Rhine part of it, however, consists of moral and reand not a very long distance from the Jordan, ligious reverie or outpouring, intermingled those rivers only appear incidentally in his with Latin, German, and English poetry, as pages.
well as theological and literary criticism. Although the work is the result of travelling, Power, with a strong tendency to the artiit is far from being a book of travels. In the ficial and reiterative force of the platform, is “Jordan” portion, Mr. Graham takes up a sub- the literary characteristic of Mr. Graham. A ject—as Lebanon—describes the appearance good deal of what he has written will from its of the region, the character of the inhabitants, nature be chietly attractive to persons of the the sects into which they are divided, and il- writer's religious views. Many of his Eastern lustrates both the country and its customs by sketches have little actual novelty, but obtain passages from Scripture; a personal incident an appearance of newness from the comparaoccasionally falling in. He then goes to Baal- tive form into which he throws them. As in bec; treating the ruined city in a similar way, other Oriental travellers, there is some contraand strikingly impressing upon the reader the diction in Mr. Graham's estimates of the gigantic cyclopean character of its ancient Turk, though upon the whole he inclines to structures. Damascus is the third, and as re- the darker view of things, as regards the Mogards the land of the Jordan the closing sub- hammedan; and the same with the Muscovite. ject. It is treated more fully than Lebanon He has, however, a more ready escape from and Baalbec. There is a sketch of Oriental dilemmas than many inquirers, for when he is urban life, in a comparison between an East- fairly nonplussed be casts the resolution upon ern and a Western city, as well as a picture Providence. The Jordan and the Rhine conof Damascus in its outward form and the man- tains a good deal of information upon many ners of its people. Under the title of the points, though overlaid with extraneous topics, Jewish Mission in Damascus, we have an ac- and often urged with needless iteration. The count of the Oriental Jews, the inherent dif- system of Oriental life—the moral and reficulties of converting them, and the general ligious character of the Orientals—the present troubles of a missionary. Oriental customs in state of feeling and opinion among the Jews opposition to European, connected with dress the corruption of Christianity in the East, and the human body, closes the Jordan section and its effect upon the Moslems and the leof the book.
brews—with some good remarks on languages In all these chapters there is much digres- --are developed with a certainty and pre
cision which only actual experience can give. * The Jordan and the Rhine; or the East and Independently of its merit, this account of the the West. Being the result of Five Years' Resi- Arabic language just now, when so many perdence in Syria and Five Years' Residence in Germany. By the Reverend William Graham, Mem- sons have gone or are going Eastward, and ber of the Royal Irish Academy, etc., etc. Pub-'should have Oriental speech. lished by Partridge and Oakey.
The Arabic is a noble but very difficult lan- good and useful; the true idea in religion is God, guage; has a beautiful character, and an exten- all the rest is nimbus and form, to be dispensed sive literature; has a more complicated and phi- with or retained at pleasure. The old Talmudi. losophical grammar than the Greek; and is spo- cal Jews, who have some veneration for the Old ken by sixty millions of the human race. Seve- Testament, are fierce and fanatical, nearly beral of its sounds are new to the European ear, yond the influence of argument and reason. And and nearly unattainable after
the organs of speech they are all equally worldly: Money is their and hearing have lost the softness and flexibility idol, and they worship it with great assiduity. of infancy. The Arabs delight in fine distinc. They receive tracts and Testaments willingly tions, and their ear discriminates with unerring when they get them for nothing, but the col. accuracy between the slightest shades of sound. porteur has sold, during the month, almost The sound halek means a walker ; double the as- nothing. pirate, hhalek, and it signifies barber ; add a little of the hissing guttural sound, chalek, and it is the The Jews are becoming freethinkers, and the proper word for creator. This example may strait-jacket of Rabbinical ceremonialism is burstshow how careful a preacher ought to be in the use ing at all its seams. They live like the Chrisof his aspirates before an Arab audience. The tians; open their saloons to the great and the language is diffuse, flexible, (in the sense of noble; and being asked in return, they follow the Shemitish flexibility,) and musical in a high de- Christian principle of eating what is set before gree; it is not composite like the Greek, English, them, asking no questions for conscience' sake. and German; it moves not on stilts like the Many of these reformed, freethinking Jews, have Latin; nor does it breathe forth trifles with the received the rite of baptism, but without any aocharming simplicity of the French and Italian. curate knowledge of its doctrines, or love toIt fails mainly in terms for expressing abstract wards its Founder. Enter into conversation ideas, and is therefore unfitted for idealism and with one of this class, and if he is in a talking philosophical speculation. Kant would be abso- humor he makes some such confession as the fol. lutely untranslatable into Arabic.
lowing—"I am not opposed to Christianity, or
any other religion, as I am persuaded that every Difficult as Arabic may be, a few words will man may be saved in the religion in which he make shift.
was born: we must be judged (if there is to be a judgment) by our actions, and not by our opin.
ions. I have said the Arabic is difficult
, and I may Christianity: 1 Cor. xiii. should be inscribed up
There are many admirable things in acquiring a langnage speedily. 1. Think nothing My daughter became a Christian to please her of grammars, lexicons, or books, for some time; husband, and I did not forbid her: my niece bebut, on the contrary, tako a native who knows not a word of your language, and say, as I did, that without believing on Jesus she could not be
came acquainted with priests, who persuaded her in Arabic, shu hatha ? (what is that ?) his reply saved ; and I bought her a New Testament, and gives you the name; and this, varied and contin- allowed her to follow her convictions. For my uod eighteen hours out of the twenty-four for a week, will give you the names of all the visible our religion, and the motives for it are often im
own part, I think it is dishonorable to change objects in the universe. 2. Never on any occasion open your lips but in the language you want pare; but if others think differently, I have no to learn : this rule is absolute and must not be quarrel with them on that account. I believe in broken. 3. The stomach was our best teacher no immediate revelation, and thus I get rid of all in the East. We saw people eating something tions of religious books; but I admit that the
the difficulties of inspiration and the contradicwhich they called chubez
, and after ten hours? Deity has revealed himself mediately through his riding, when we come to a village we forget not works, as well as through the teaching of sages to repeat chubez, chubez; nor will your thirsty and philosophers. All goodness and beauty and panting lips fail to cry moy, moy, as soon as you truth are from Him, wherever they are found, have heard the sound once repeated by a well: and he can and does employ the most various and now you want only one word more, namely, means to make them known to mankind. This flus, money, to be fully equipped for your jour. is my creed: you may call me a freethinker (Froney. This is your stock in trade to begin with, igeist) if you like, but I know many Jews and and chubez, moy, and flus—bread, water and money., Christians who are of the same opinion.” will make a way for you among these sixty millions. This is the way to learn a language as a dog lcarns to swim, namely by being thrown in
Mr. Graham is a strong opponent of the to a pond.
Pope. In fact, a good many of his papers in
the section of " The Rhine" are theological The following, after ten years' experience, disquisitions, or sharp attacks upon the Papafive years in the East and five in the West, is cy. In the East, he admits that practically the summary of Mr. Graham on the conversion the Greek is the worse of the two churches. of the Hebrews.
There is a small body of the Greek Church on Is there no sign of life? no shaking among Mount Lebanon. Their numbers, however, are the dry bones? I see very little. The reformed inconsiderable, and the ignorance of the priests, Jews hear, and then tell you all religions are the monks, and the people, almost inconceivable. DXXXIX.
Indeed, throughout the entire East, the Greek ty, (viz. stupidity,) and so constitutes him the priests are proverbial for ignorance, impudence, spiritual father of the community. In theory, the and stupidity. The bishop comes to a village, Greek Church may in some respects have the adselects one of the peasants—who is able to read vantage of the Papal; but in practice, in vigor, the service, baptize the children, anoint the sick, in everything that constitutes character, effici. and bury the dead-lays his hands on him, com- ency, and respectability, she is far behind her. municates the electrical succession of apostolici.
CEMETERY OF PERA.- On this «grave-yard, SCARCITY OF PAPER.-A reward of £1,000 which covers the whole side of the hill, is the is offered by the proprietors of a well-known fashionable promenade of the fair Peraites; it is newspaper to any one who can suggest a plen& place where hainals or porters resort to, to bask tiful supply of any product cheap enough to suin the sun, whenever there is any–where droves perscde the material from which paper is now of donkeys are passing guests--and where the made. Without any arrière pensée, might I sugdogs have established a permanent settlement. gest that if a similar reward was offered to our che These dogs make their beds in the graves, and mists or manufacturers for a plan to reduce paper slumber in the shade of the turban-surmounted again to its primitive pulp, and then to discharge tomb-stones, which mark the last resting places from it the printers' ink, the same end would be of the males among the true believers. Each obtained. The old monks, we are well aware, one of these wild dogs has his grave, which is his destroyed many valuable MSS. for the sake of peculiar property, and which he defends against the parchment upon which they were written. the invasion of some canine czar, anxious to in- In the present day there are tons of paper stain crease his territories. Puppics are born in the ed with productions of an ephemeral nature (ro graves, and there reared to mature doghood; turns to parliament, to wit, which might do duty and fierce combats take place, and many a over and over again with no loss to the public; wretched dog is torn to pieces by his savage as on the contrary, there are few persons with even sociates; and from early dusk to the dawn of a moderate supply of printed material who would day, there is a howling and gnashing of tusks not be happy to contribute to the paper bleacher, among the cypress groves of this last resting-place saving both binding and shelf-room.—Corresponof the dead. You have some difficulty in making dent of the Builder. your way through the various groups of tomb
[This is done already, we think. - Living stones and trees, some falling and some fallen, which obstruct your path.
TRE CLAIM OF A TAILOR for £9 due for OVER-LEGISLATION. BY HERBERT SPENCER. clothes supplied, was resisted lately at the Mary.
Reprinted from the Westminster Review. Chap- lebone County Court, upon somewhat curious man's Library for the people. John Chapman, grounds. The defendant, a man named King, Strand.
did not deny the receipt or the value of the arti
cles supplied, but raised a quibbling objection We are very glad to see this valuable essay re-founded on an obsolete statute of George I., enprinted in a cheap and durable form. There is acting “ that no person in England shall make, no point on which the so-called educated classes sell, or sew on any clothes, buttons, or buttonmore require education or instruction than that holes made or bound with cloth, serge, camblets, treated in this book. The country is already se- or druggets, or any other stuff, under a penalty riously injured by over-legislation, and yet the of 40s. for every dozen buttons so made." The multitude, and not merely the unlearned multi-act further provided that no person could retude, but the educated and instructed multitude, cover the price charged for clothes made without professional men of all descriptions and men of buttons of gilt material, the object being to enbusiness continually demand new and more le-courage the “Brummagem” trade of the day gislation. Every ill that human nature is sub- As it was shown, first, that the aforesaid law, abject to they suppose can be cured by legisla- surd as it was, had never been repealed ; and, tion. They are far more eager to be ruled and secondly, that the present plaintiff could not progoverned than the lawmakers or the ministers, tend to have affixed the legal gilt buttons to the &c., are to rule and govern them. These dread coats supplied to the defendant, judgment was the responsibility; the others have no sense of perforce given against him. The defendant af responsibility, and they are never tired of crying terwards announced, by the mouth-piece of his out for more laws. To correct their crroncous counsel, that he should, in due course, sue the views or improper sentiments, Mr. Spencer's plaintiff for the penalties enacted under the statproduction will be very useful.- Economist. utes in question.
From the North British Review.
rected, and that we may, oftener than we deem, 1. Un Philosophé sous les toits. Par M. EMILE be sailing on a wrong tack. SOUVESTRE. Paris, 1851.
The book is in the form of fragments from 2. The Attic Philosopher. By M. EMILE Sou- the diary of a man of fair education, and of
(Translated.) London, 1854. very humble fortunes, such as may be found Reprinted by Appleton & Co. New York. in numbers, not only in Paris, but all over the
This is one of the pleasantest and prettiest Continent, who lives solitary and contented in little books that has ever fallen into our hands. his garret, supporting himself in tolerable comIt is the more interesting and surprising as fort on the meagre salary of a subordinate having issued from the press of Paris; and, Government employé
, content with poverty, after the vehement, diseased, and bacchana- and secure against indigence, watching the lian
pages of Balzac, Eugene Sue, and Victor world around him with a cheerful and sympaHugo, is medicine to our scandalized morality, thizing smile, and enjoying the good things of balm to our wounded sensibility, rest to the life rather by contemplation than by actual wearied fancy, and positive refreshment to the participation. Unambitious and unstriving, irritated eye. To come to it after such read- too wise to risk that scanty stipend which ma ing is like the “crystalline fount” after the derate desires and skilful management have “ feculent flood,”—like the "pure breezes of made into a competence for vaster but more morn” after the heated and morbific atmos- precarious gains, he finds that everything conphere of the hospital or the gaming-house-spires to teach him the same lesson-viz., in like the green fields and fresh vegetation of how small an apartment bappiness may dwell
, the country and the spring, after the glare and how cheaply that apartment may be furand fumes of a gaudy and gas-lighted theatre. nished. Observation, ever on the alert, proWe feel that we have escaped from intoxica- serves him alike from envy or repining: he tion to sobriety, from the vortex of passion to sees from his attic window the luxurious furthe peace of nature, from that which is simply niture of one opposite neighbor, an actress or noxious or revolting, to that which gives true singer seized for debt, and her chamber rude pleasure and does real good.
ly dismantled; and the humble but always We rejoice to see that such a book can come neat room of another vis-a-vis, a sempstress seout of the heart of France—that such pictures cure in its plodding and unaspiring poverty. can still be relished there—that such a life as is He returns from a homely supper—the one here depicted can still be led there. For though festal banquet of the year-shared with a famthe tone of the book is pure, and all its senti- ily yet poorer than himself
, and remembers that ments are humane, genial and gentle, it is as re- he left the unrefined but joyous circle with mote as possible from anything mawkish or the regretful ejaculation Deja! and he meets maudlin. It has nothing of the pastoral tender- the opulent lady who occupies the first floor ness, the overdone Arcadianism, which made of the house next his own, returning jaded the popularity of the Romance of Bernardin de and ennuyệe from those gilded salons where no St. Pierre nearly as sure a sign of an unheal- joy is, and getting out of her carriage with thy state of the public mind as the profligate the yawning ejaculation, “Enfin !!". On New novels that appeared at the same time, and di- Year's day, when it is customary in France, vided with it the favor of the reading world and indeed throughout the Continent, to visit of France. Nor has it any closer similarity friends and give or receive presents, our phito the Swiss love-stories, and pictures and losopher who had no friends, and was too poor praises of savage life, with which Rousseau to make presents, was sitting somewhat mooddazzled and delighted the fancy of the profli- ily in his garret, for his fire would not light, gate and sophisticated dames of Paris, in the the day was rainy and the wood was damp, heinous days of Louis XV. Its pathos is all there was no milk left for breakfast, and the natural ; its sentiments are all genuine and pot of sweetmeat was quite empty. There is unforced—the reflections of a contented and a knock at the door, and a Paulette enters kind-hearted man who philosophizes from his a pale, thin, ill-dressed little girl, whose life he garret on the motley world beneath him, and had saved in a crowd two years before. mingles with it in his own humble sphere. It indicates that there is still a portion of the
“Il y a deux ans de cela ; depuis, je n'avais heart of France sound and unperverted; and revu la petite qu'à de longs intervalles, et je what is more to our immediate purpose, it moire des bons cæurs ; elle vient an renouvellegives a very interesting glimpse into some of ment de l'année m'offrir ses souhaits de bonheur. those points of Continental life and character, Elle m'apporte en outre un plant de violettes en in which it bas a marked superiority to our Aeurs ; elle-même l'a mis cu terre et cultivé; c'est own-peculiarities which it would be well if un bien qui lui appartient tout entier, car il a été we could transplant, and which incline us to a conquis par ses soins, sa volonté et sa patience. certain uncomfortable misgiving that some of Ce présent inattendu, la rougeur modeste de la our aims and exertions may be sadly misdi-petite fille et son compliment balbutie dissipent comme un rayon du soleil, l'espèce de brouillard | The philosopher resolves to gratify his feelqui m'enveloppait le cœur; mes idées passent ings by making this poor family a New-year's brusquement des teintes plombées du soir aux present of their coveted stove. Accordingly teintes les plus roses de l'aurore. Je fais asseoir he gets an old one of his own repaired and laulette, et je l'interroge gaiement.
" La petite répond d'abord par des monosylla- put up in their room while all are absent at bes, mais bientôt les rôles sont reversés, et c'est their daily work, and takes them besides a basmoi qui entrecoupe de courtes interjections ses ket of wood out of his own winter provision, longues confidences. La pauvre enfant mène observing that the sacrifice will only oblige une vie difficile. Orpheline depuis long temps
, him to warm himself by walking, or by going elle est restée avec son frère et sa squr, à la to bed earlier than usual. charge d'une vieille grand-mère qui les élevés de The above extract may serve as a specimen misère, comme elle a coutume de le dire. Cepen- of this little volume, and may explain wherein dant Paulette l'aide maintenant dans la confec- lies its charm. There is nothing remarkable tion des cartonnages, sa petite sæui Perrine com- in the events it relates, nothing brilliant in the mence à coudre, et Henri est apprenti dans une imprimerie. Tout irait bien, sans les pertes et pictures which it draws; but an air of cheersans les chomages, sans les habits qui s'usent, ful and healthy serenity broods over every sans les appetits qui grandissent, sans l'hiver qui page, and bespeaks a mind that has penetrated oblige à acheter son soleil! Paulette se plaint the true secret of life, and harvested its richde ce que la chandelle dure trop peu et de ce que est wisdom. Probably, however, the real le bois coûte trop cher. La cheminée de leur cause of the pleasure which the book is calcumansarde est si grande qu une falourde y produit lated to convey arises from the contrast bel'effet d'une allumette; elle est si près du toit que tween its atmosphere of repose, and the feverle vent y renvoit la pluie, et qu'on y gèle sur ish and busy world in which we live, and from l'atre en hiver; aussi y ont ils renoncé. Tout se the somewhat pregnant philosophical reflecborne désormais à un réchaud de terrc sur lequel tions which its perúsal irresistibly suggests. It cuit le repas. La grand'-mère avait bien parlé d'un poéle marchandé chez le revendeur du rez
depicts the best and pleasantest features of de-chaussée ; mais celui-ci en a voulu sept francs, Continental life, and makes us pause a while in et les temps sont trop difficiles pour une pareille our breathless and unceasing race, to consider dépense ; famille s'est en conséquence résignée whether we might not with advantage both to à avoir froid par économie."*
soul and body, take a leaf out of our neigh
bor's book. * During the two years I had only seen the child The extremes of character in civilized man at long intervals, and had almost forgotten her; are to be found in the Asiatic and the Ameribut Paulette has the memory of good hearts; and she comes at the expiration of the year to offer her can—the silent, dignified, placid, and stagnant wishes for my happiness. She brings me, besides, Mussulman—and the striving, pushing, restless, a bunch of violets, her own raising. They were progressive Yankee. Between these extremes made by herself entirely-by her own care, pa- lie the easy and joyous Celt, generally contented tience, and perseverance. This unexpected pre- with the passing hour, but often contented with sent, the modest blush of the little girl, and her stammering compliment, dissipated, like a ray of too little; the stationary and phlegmatic Gersunshine, the mist around my heart; my thoughts man of the south, cautious and unaspiring, frugal pass suddenly from the heavy dusk of night to the and complacent; the Norwegian, whose life brightest hue of sunrise. I make Paulette sit down, in most things resembles that of his Teutonic and cheerfully question her.
The child answered at first in monosyllables, brethren; the Swiss, who approximate nearer but soon our parts are reversed—and I only inter- to ourselves; and finally the British only a rupt by short interjections her full revealings. The few degrees less ambitious, insatiable, unrestpoor child leads a difficult life. Her parents have ing, and discontented than their western offhave remained under the care of their old grand- spring. In the appendix to the second part mother, who has, to use her own words, brought of Layard's Nineveh, there is a letter from a them up on want. However, Paulette assists her Turkish Cadi, so thoroughly Oriental in its now in "card-work. Her little sister, Perrine, be- spirit, so exactly portraying those peculiar gins to sew; and Henry is apprenticed to a print- features of character in which the East differs ing office. All would go well, but for loss by waste; from the West, and so amusingly astounding or being out of work; but for clothes which wear out, and appetites which increase; but for the win- to men accustomed to look upon exertion, the ter which obliges them to buy their sun. Paul- acquisition of knowledge, and the progress
of ette lamented that the candle burnt out too soon; wealth, as the great ends of existence, that we and that wood was too dear. The chimney of the garret is so large, that a bundle of fire-wood in it cannot do better than quote it. The traveller produces an effect like a lucifer match. It is so had astonished the weak mind of his Mussulnear the roof, that the wind sends the rain into it, man friend, by applying to him for some staand they freeze on the hearth in winter, and so tistical information regarding the city and prothey have given it up, and confine themselves to an earthen chafing dish, upon which they cook their food. The grandmother has talked a good francs for it, and times are too hard for such an deal of a stove she had bargained about with the expense—and the family has in consequence to reretailer on the ground floor; but he asked seven 'sign itself to cold, out of economy.