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Russia. From no natural antagonism to Russia, | The secondary German States have shown a therefore, from no peculiar sympathy with Eng- strong reluctance to enter into the Austro-Pruslish or French policies, nor, we believe, from any sian alliance. They have fallen in, but with a enthusiastic interest in the welfare of the Turk, slowness which raises the doubt whether they but simply from a sense of self-preservation, really desire the objects to which they have subAustria comes forward to defend the existing scribed. In this respect they sympathize with system. Prussia. More than one German Court hates the very idea of disturbance, and would grant supremacy to Prussia in lieu of Austria if that supremacy were indorsed by the guarantee of Russia against revolution.

At the first blush, it might appear that Prussia is almost as much interested in the matter as Austria; but indeed her stake is not so great. There are differences in the chances of loss and gain in any general disturbance of existing terri- Should the event confirm the inferences from torial arrangements. Austria might reasonably present appearances, we shall have to deal with sacrifice her Polish provinces to save the more facts as we find them. If Prussia should take important provinces of Hungary and Italy, but the course which would appear to be the sequel there are no provinces which Prussia could save of her manoeuvering career, the circumstances by the sacrifice of Poland; for the same move- of Europe would forbid this country any longer ment which would make Poland declare herself to treat her as an ally. We must look upon independent of Prussia, would increase the irri- her to be what she is, but what her professions tation of Russia, and would probably kindle a have hitherto precluded us from considering her, conflagration on the Rhine. If, indeed, Prussia-far better a foc in front than a traitor at our were prepared to stake her existence on a truly back. It may suit the Court at Berlin to make popular movement, there might be hope in such the Prussian ports the entrepôt for a disguised a policy; but the King must regard the move-trade with Russia as through a "neutral" state; ment of 1848 as a failure, which brought him but "free trade" considerations cannot prevail nothing but chagrin, ridicule, and repentance. against the political and military considerations So far as mere loss is concerned, it would ap- which would forbid our tolerating a Power on pear that he has only an even risk in siding the Baltic, occupying the position of a neutral, with or against Russia-he might lose, and might to play the part of an enemy. We have neceslose the same things, on either side. But in re- sarily spoken throughout of the King of Prussia gard to possible gains, the balance falls differ- as distinct from the Prussian people; and we ently. Since Austria has cast her stake on the must regard the minor Courts of Germany with side of the Western Powers, a new game is the same discrimination. It is true of States as thrown open to Prussia. Should Russia be vic- well as of individuals, that a purely selfish course torious in the contest which is to shake Europe, is neither wise nor safe; and although in the the post of second to Russia is vacant; for Aus- main, through the jealous misunderstandings of tria has placed herself on the other side, and her neighbors, Royal Prussia has been permitted there is no power of sufficient magnitude to rival to enjoy a dishonest growth, the successive SovePrussia in that position. If Austria win, the reigns have had many warnings that such a utmost that Prussia could hope would be to course may be crossed: there has been many a share German supremacy with Austria; if Russia sign that the people of Prussia are neither prewere to win, Prussia might hope to possess Ger- pared for subservient dependance upon Russia man supremacy alone, the gift of Russia, or the nor for perpetual war against liberal instituprice of Prussian support in the contest. What tions. It is even understood that there is disif the Austrian empire be entirely destroyed? sension between the present occupant and the What if there be a new kingdom of Hungary, a nearest heir to the throne of Prussia on the subnew kingdom of Italy, or even an independent ject of the national independence. With these kingdom of Poland? Still the Prussian domin- internal questions England at present cannot ions could be but very little if at all diminished; deal. It is a question for King Frederick Wilthey would be shielded from the new and dan- liam to consider whether the Russian alliance gerous power by intervening territories: and the will repay him for the hostility of the other post of chief in Germany would be ipso facto va- great powers of Europe, especially if in provok cant. Instead of being "a geographical expres- ing their enmity he has also to encounter enesion," subordinate to the more distinct expression mies within his own dominions. In a contest of Austria, Germany would become a political such as that which Prussia is now helping to verity; her unity would be undisturbed by revolt enlarge, England and France must accept the with non-German provinces of the supreme Ger- alliances which the circumstances of the time man power, and the ambition of the house of Ho- may offer to them-must treat as friends those henzollern would be satisfied. It is impossible to who practically aid them, as enemies those who suppose that these hints have not passed from thwart or circumvent. St. Petersburg to Berlin.

NICHOLAS AND THE PEACEMONGERS. Cer-For ourselves, however, we confess we see but tain people almost as insane as himself, appear little hope of his burying the hatchet, while he to think the Czar of Russia is desirous of peace. so vigorously continues to throw it.-Punch.

518 BARTLETT'S TRAVELS IN TEXAS, MEXICO, AND CALIFORNIA.

From The Spectator. BARTLETT'S TRAVELS IN TEXAS, MEXICO, AND CALIFORNIA.*

are ever extraordinary, or in the still rarer case of very great literary ability, with sketches which are valued for the artist rather than the subject, the journal-like form is proper. THESE Volumes contain a narrative of Mr. In general, its minute details induce weariness, Bartlett's personal travels, as Commissioner or from their resemblance to each other, especialSuperintendent of the surveying-party de-ly if unaccompanied by stirring occurrences, puted by the Government of Washington to and if the work be, like the volumes before us, settle the boundary between Mexico and the very long.

United States in conjunction with a similar Nevertheless, a good deal of information body from the Mexican authorities. The au-may be found in the Personal Narrative of Mr. thor's division of his travels is six-fold, accord- Bartlett, and some striking pictures of new ing to the particular section of the ground countries and their states of society. After the and the order of time. The truer division is reader has toiled through the daily details of less in number; embracing travels along the the first journey, he will have a broad imprescourse of the Rio Grande both on the Texan sion of the rich undulating prairie lands of Texand Mexican banks. 2. From San Diego on as, and the steep, difficult passes of the mounthe Pacific, along the course of the Gila, and tain table-lands, with their intervening deserts, thence across the barren table-land which di- where water is rarely met with, and abandoned vides the two just-named rivers. 3. A jour- wagons and the skeletons of animals mark the ney through Sonora, a province of Mexico way more distinctly than in the deserts of Africa. After the "back-bone" of America is lying along the Gulf of California; a seavoyage to San Francisco, and a brief sojourn crossed, he finds wastes relieved in many places by smiling valleys; from which, however, little is gained, the cowardly Mexicans being unable to resist or punish the bands of Indians who destroy their cattle, carry off their crops, and even their women and children, after murdering the men. Native military tyranny, the licence of war, and the number of reckless emigrants from America, superadded to Spanish colonial morals, induce a lax state of society; though Mr. Bartlett thinks that in remote places the native Mexicans have a mild simplicity, ill-exchanged for the sort of civili

there.

The nature of Mr. Bartlett's duty carried him, occasionally, over ground that has only been trodden by the native or the bewildered emigrant to California. A very large part is practically new, and the Commissioner occasionally encountered difficulties of a trying and incidents of a remarkable kind. The general character of his adventures and experience, however, does not essentially differ from that of other travellers across the central wastes of North America which divide the settled regions on the Atlantic from the Pacific seaboard. zation they pick up from American settlers In fact, though Mr. Bartlett's party underwent and emigrants. The incursions of the Indians, hunger and thirst, were beset by marauding and the loose principles of many of the Whites, Indians who carried off their animals, and en- continually occasion adventures which recall countered the obstacles to locomotion which the novels and wild dramas of two or three must be expected in unexplored and moun- centuries ago, carrying the reader back to the tainous districts, yet they were too strong and Middle Ages. The most striking feature of the well-provided a body to be exposed to the whole book is the lawlessness of the country; dangers and privations which individual ad- crimes of violence reaching to life itself'seem a venturers have undergone in the waste table- normal state of things. The cold-blooded aslands of North America. The consequence is, sassination of Col. Craig, commander of the that matter more essentially interesting than escort, by a couple of deserters, when the Col. Mr. Bartlett's has already appeared in similar was disarmed and advancing to reason with them, was a murder arising from passion and a determination to resist capture, that might have occurred anywhere: but a word and a shot,

books of travels.

There is, however, quite enough of novelty and interest in the incidents of his journey,

the persons he fell in with, and the manners or a stab, seems the custom of the country from he has to paint, to have formed a very good the Gulf of Mexico to the Gulf of California. book, if he had not overdone it. In a country An educated man, and coming from a State totally new, or in a case where the incidents of law and order, the Commissioner was startled and shocked by this violence; but he was as helpless to punish as to prevent.

The Mexicans do not appear to be so bloody as the frontier Americans, their timidity prob ably restraining them; but they are artists in another way.

Knowing the thievish propensities of the lower

* Personal Narrative of Explorations and Incidents in Texas, New Mexico, California, Sonora, and Chihuahua, connected with the United States and Mexican Boundary Commission during the years 1850, '51, '52, and '53. By Bartlett, United States Commissioner during that period. In two volumes, with Maps and Illustrations. Published by Routledge and Co.

BARTLETT'S TRAVELS IN TEXAS, MEXICO, AND CALIFORNIA. 519

class of Mexicans, I directed my servant to keep delicate leaves are rolled up into balls; and these a sharp look-out for my baggage, while I step- on being pounded, form a lather which answers ped to the cabin to secure a berth. Soon after the purpose of soap. It is likewise used to a he was ordered to bring me my desk; and though great extent as a thatch. The younger leaves absent less than a minute, he found on his return are eagerly eaten by cattle; and it is said that that the boat which had brought us had pushed the minute particles of silica in its stem render off, and a portion of my baggage was gone. The it, when cut longitudinally into strips, an excelmoment my servant had left them, they took lent substitute for a razor-strop. But there is what they could lay their hands on, jumped into yet another use to which it is applied, viz. as an their boat, and disappeared in the dark. Pur- article of food. For this purpose the bulbs or suit was useless. The articles lost were not of roots are baked in the ashes, or in the same manmuch value; but it was provoking, notwithstan-ner as for making aguardiente, and the outer ding all my care, to be robbed by this rascally skin stripped off. It is then sweet, and rather people wherever I went. While speaking of my pleasant to the taste, and is extensively used by misfortune, one of the passengers said his silk the Indians on the Gila as well as by the Mexi handkerchief had been taken from his coat-pocket cans on the Rio Grande, who are too lazy to culby the man who brought him in his arms to the tivate the soil and raise corn. The engineers boat. Two other passengers, on examining their attached to the Commission told me that the enpockets, found that they had sustained a similar tire Mexican population at Presidio del Norte, loss. I could not help laughing; informing them consisting of a thousand souls, had no other food that I had taken the precaution to secure a fine for more than six months. silk handkerchief I had just bought, by putting a couple of oranges in my pocket above it. "You had better look," said my friends, " and see what your precautions amount to." I did so, and found I had been operated upon as effectually as the rest."

The commissioner did not overlook the arts in the course of his journey; but they are all in a primitive state. Even that of distillation is coarse in its process, however satisfactory in

its result.

The nature of his duties brought the Commissioner into frequent contact with the Indians; a connection which he rather encouraged, as he had a turn for ethnology, and was occupied in collecting a vocabulary. His pictures are not generally new; perhaps the tribes he fell in with, are not the finest samples of " the Stoic of the woods." They exhibit the Red Indians on the whole in a favorable light, and Mr. Bartlett is of opinion that many of their evil deeds are traceable to the bad characters of the Whites they come in contact with. This opinion may not extend to a little "reiving," that being everywhere a gentleman's profession in the early stages of society. The mission lost animals by a small kind of thievery, but only encountered one grand attack, and that on their return, through the Mexican territory, to the south of the Rio Grande.

Mezcal, or aguardiente, is a spirituous liquor of great strength, much more so than our strong: est whiskey. It is obtained from the bulb or root of the maguay or agave mexicana, and is the common alcoholic drink throughout the country. The process of making this liquor is as follows: A hole is first dug some ten or twelve feet in diameter and about three deep, and is lined with stones. Upon this a fire is built and kept up until the stones are thoroughly heated. A layer of moist grass is then thrown upon the stones, and on this are piled the bulbs of the maguay, which vary in size from one's head to a half-bushel measure, resembling huge onions. These are again covered with a thicker layer of grass; and the whole is allowed to remain until they are thoroughly baked. They are then removed to large leathern bags, and water is poured on them to produce fermentation. At the end of a week the bags are emptied of the maguay and its liquor; which, after undergoing the process of distillation, is ready for use.

About a mile from camp, we passed a small arroyo, or ravine, pretty well filled with bushes. This arroyo was no sooner passed by the foremost waggon in the train, than we were startled by the most terrific yells and shouting; and on turning our heads, to our horror we saw a band of Indians issuing from the arroyo we had passed and charging upon the train. We immediately turned about, put spurs to our animals, and rode back with all speed towards the train. The sav ages, who numbered between thirty and forty, (as stated to me by those in the rear,) were rushing at full speed with their lances poised, screaming But the mezcal is the least important of the and yelling, endeavoring to break the line and uses to which the maguay is applied. When its stampede the mules, as they crossed from one stem is tapped there flows from it a juice which, side to the other. Others followed, discharging on being fermented, produces the pulque, a fa- their arrows at the teamsters as they passed; but vorite beverage in Central and Lower Mexico, the teamsters remained each by his team, keepthough little known in the Northern States. ing the mules in their places, and closing up the From the fibres of its massive leaves, which grow line. At the same time, they kept the enemy to five or six feet in length and two inches in at bay by levelling their pistols at them. These thickness, is spun a stout thread, which is again men had the presence of mind to keep their seats doubled, and twisted into ropes. Next, a heavy in the saddle and to hold their fire, which the bagging is made of it, similar to that in which savages wanted to draw. Had they fired and our coffee comes to market. Again, the more missed their mark, (and their chances were ten

to one against their hitting,) they would have | around, fastened their heads to the waggon. He

been pierced by a lance or an arrow the next mo

ment.

then took out his rifle and stood on the defensive, levelling it at each Indian as he approached, and thus keeping them at bay.

The men who were riding by the side of the waggons sprang to the aid of the teamsters, and held the leading mules, which kept them in their places.

Failing in their attempt to frighten the mules and throw the train into disorder, the Indians dashed on towards the rear, and made a furious charge on the party there who were driving the spare mules and horses. Two Mexicans, herdsmen, were unhorsed by the charge; and a third, being wounded, fell from his animal. He, however, held on to his bridle; when an Indian rushed at him and pierced him to the heart with his lance. The momentary pause of this man made him a good mark for the rifle, and sealed his fate. Several were discharged at once, which brought the fellow to the ground. His companions, seeing him fall, ran to his rescue, raised him up, and threw his bleeding body across a mule ridden by another Indian, when they rode off at full speed.

The firing now became general; but the constant motion of the enemy enabled them to escape. The five Mexican soldiers, who were on foot, stood up to the fight manfully, and were in the thickest of it. They did much, too, towards saving the last waggon, which had got separated, and was a hundred and fifty yards in the rear. The driver of this team, when he saw the Indians between him and the rest of the train, jumped from his mule, and, bringing the leaders

The Indians next made for Mr. Thurber, who was still further in the rear, and at the moment engaged in putting some plants into his portfolio. They dashed at him with their lances; and he had barely time to seize his revolver, with which he kept them off. Our men were now close at the enemy's heels; so that, finding themselves in rather a tight place, they made for the adjoining hills.

From the Athenæum.

Memoirs of the Life and Scientific Researches of John Dalton. By W. C. Henry, M. D. Printed for the Cavendish Society.

The laxity or want of discipline in the official party will probably strike the reader. The chief Surveyor was a long time in joining; when he did join, he objected to the originatingwith the Mexican Commissioners, but he was point of the survey, which Mr. Bartlett had fixed compelled to sign on reference to Washington. Colonel M'Clellan, the chief Astronomer, was longer in coming than Mr. Gray; when he came, he began to contend with the Surveyor, and at last with the Commissioner, because the latter would not let him be chief over him, and a further reference had to be made to keep keep him in his place. Various other griev ances, of a similar kind, read strange for the little respect paid to public authorities, without intention to be really disrespectful.

where, at the early age of twelve, he became a teacher. Subsequently, by arduous selfculture, he obtained the situation of assistant master in a boarding school at Kendal, of which he was afterwards the principal. DalTHE friends of the late Dr. Dalton must ton was emphatically self-taught; and from consider him fortunate. While the lives of his very boyhood were implanted those habits such men as Young, Wallaston, and other of self-reliance, of perseverance, and of severe eminent scientific persons remain unwritten, concentration of thought, by which in after we have here an excellent memoir of the life he was often heard to affirm that he had Manchester philosopher, giving such an ac- slowly wrought out what he fitly termed “a count of his scientific labors as enables us to new system of chemical philosophy." From estimate his characteristic mental gifts, and to a very early period his leisure was devoted to define his position among the masters of sci-philosophical pursuits; and so diligently did For this we are indebted to Dr. Wil- he cultivate these, that in 1783 he was invited liam Henry-son of the late Dr. Henry of to Manchester to act as teacher in the departManchester, who was Dr. Dalton's esteemed ment of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy friend-and to the Cavendish Society. This in a Protestant Dissenting College. He reSociety has often done good work:-but none signed this appointment at the end of six better or more worthy of the gratitude of the years, but continued to reside in Manchester scientific world than the publication of this during the whole of his subsequent life. Memoir. It deserves to be-and it doubtless will be published in a more accessible form. John Dalton was born on the 5th of September 1766, at Eaglesfield, in Cumberland. His family were small landed proprietors, called in the Lake district "statesmen;" but the means of his parents were so narrow that his education was confined to the village school,

ence.

With wise liberality and forethought, the Manchester Philosophical society, of which he was President from 1817 to the period of his death, allowed him to occupy a room in their house as a study and laboratory. In this apartment, the larger portion of his subsequent life was passed in the labor of private tuition and in the prosecution of experimen

tal research. It was, therefore, not an unfit- Next day I read it to an audience of about 150 ting return to the Society, that the majority or 200 people, which was more than were exof his papers are published in their Transac- pected. They gave a very general plaudit at tions. One of the earliest and most remark- the conclusion, and several came up to compliable of these communications is entitled, "Ex- ment me upon the excellence of the introductraordinary Facts relating to the Vision of tory. Since that I have scarcely written anything: all has been experiment and verbal exColors," and gives an account of that strange planation. In general my experiments have visual defect, or "color blindness," which was uniformly succeeded, and I have never once falone of his peculiarities.

tered in the elucidation of them. In fact I can now enter the lecture-room with as little emotion nearly as I can smoke a pipe with you on Sunday or Wednesday evening."

It appears that he was first led to notice his inability to distinguish colors by studying botany; when, to the infinite astonishment of his companions, he made the most ludicrous mistakes respecting the colors of flowers. This induced him to enter into a philosophical examination of the cause of this strange defect; and he came to the following conclusion:

Dalton's scientific labors have acquired a European reputation. His papers were reproduced in foreign scientific journals, and his name was quoted as an authority on subjects relating to chemistry and natural philosophy. Thus, when his grand discovery, known by the name of the "Atomic Theory," was propounded, if it failed to be at first generally accepted, it commanded at least universal attention. We must refer our readers to Dr. Henry's Memoirs for a lucid and masterly history of this brilliant discovery, which has secured to Dalton a proud niche in the halls of fame. Nor had he to undergo the severe trial and mortification, unhappily not uncommon, of not living to see his discovery acknowledged and its importance admitted. Dr. Thompson and Wollaston were the earliest to acknowledge the truth and value of the at

This theory was not, however, verified by the post mortem examination of Dr. Dalton's eyes; for the vitreous humor when used as a lens caused no modification of tint in red or green objects. Dr. Henry publishes a very interesting letter from Sir John Herschel, giving his views as to this color-blindness in Dalton; and those interested in this curious phe-omic doctrine; and though Davy, their great nomenon will find in the present volume ad- coeval leader in chemical science, for some ditional opinions on the subject by Sir David time stood aloof, it is evident that, without Brewster and other philosophers. having given his absolute assent to the theory, he was favorably inclined towards it; for when the Royal Society awarded Dalton the Royal Medal in 1826, for his atomic theory, Davy, who was then President of the Royal Society,

Dalton's scientific labors were interrupted in 1804 by visiting London, having been invited to deliver a series of lectures before the Royal Institution on Natural Philosophy. It was on this occasion that he made Davy's acquaintance, of whom, and of the lectures, we have the following account in a letter:

observed :

It appears, therefore, almost beyond a doubt, that one of the humors of my eye, and of the eyes of my fellows, is a colored medium, probably some modification of blue. I suppose it must be the vitreous humor, otherwise I apprehend it might be discovered by inspection, which has

not been done.

Mr. Dalton's permanent reputation will rest upon his having discovered a simple principle, universally applicable to the facts of chemistry

in fixing the proportions in which bodies combine, and thus laying the foundation for future labors, respecting the sublime and transcendental parts of the science of corpuscular motion. His merits in this respect resemble those of Kepler in astronomy...'. Mr. Dalton has been laboring for more than a quarter of a century with the most disinterested views. With the greatest

I was introduced to Mr. Davy, who has rooms adjoining mine (in the Royal Institution); he is a very agreeable and intelligent young man, and we have interesting conversations in an evening; the principal failing in his character as a philosopher is that he does not smoke. Mr. Davy advised me to labor my first lecture; he told me the people here would be inclined to form their opinion from it; accordingly I re-modesty and simplicity of character he has resolved to write my first lecture wholly; to do mained in the obscurity of the country, neither nothing, but to tell them what I would do, and asking for approbation, nor offering himself as enlarge on the importance and utility of science. an objoct of applause. I studied and wrote for near two days, then calculated to a minute how long it would take me reading, endeavoring to make my discourse about fifty minutes. The evening before the lecture. Davy and I went into the theatre; he made me read the whole of it, and he went into the furthest corner; then he read it, and I was the audience; we criticised upon each other's method.

Other honors rapidly followed. In 1830, he was raised from the class of Corresponding Member of the French Academy of Sciences to the rank of one of its eight Foreign Associates, the highest station it has to bestow; and when he visited Paris, his reception by the French

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