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Russia. From no natural antagonism to Russia, The secondary German States have shown a therefore, from no peculiar sympathy with Eng- strong reluctance to enter into the Austro-Pruslish or French policies, nor, we believe, from any sian alliance. They have fallen in, but with a enthusiastic interest in the welfare of the Turk, slowness which raises the doubt whether they but simply from a sense of self-preservation, really desire the objects to which they have subAustria comes forward to defend the existing scribed. In this respect they sympathize with system.
Prussia. More than one German Court hates At the first blush, it might appear that Prussia the very idea of disturbance, and would grant is almost as much interested in the matter as supremacy to Prussia in lieu of Austria if that Austria; but indeed her stake is not so great. supremacy were indorsed by the guarantee of There are differences in the chances of loss and Russia against revolution. gain in any general disturbance of existing terri-| Should the event confirm the inferences from torial arrangements. Austria might reasonably present appearances, we shall have to deal with sacrifice her Polish provinces to save the more facts as we find them. If Prussia should take important provinces of Hungary and Italy, but the course which would appear to be the sequel there are no provinces which Prussia could save of her maneuvering career, the circumstances by the sacrifice of Poland; for the same move of Europe would forbid this country any longer ment which would make Poland declare herself to treat her as an ally. We must look upon independent of Prussia, would increase the irri- her to be what she is, but what her professions tation of Russia, and would probably kindle a have hitherto precluded us from considering her, conflagration on the Rhine. If, indeed, Prussia -far better a foc in front than a traitor at our were prepared to stake her existence on a truly back. It may suit the Court at Berlin to make popular movement, there might be hope in such the Prussian ports the entrepôt for a disguised à policy; but the King must regard the move-trade with Russia as through a “neutral” state; ment of 1848 as a failure, which brought him but “free trade” considerations cannot prevail nothing but chagrin, ridicule, and repentance. against the political and military considerations So far as mere loss is concerned, it would ap- which would forbid our tolerating a Power on pear that he has only an even risk in siding the Baltic, occupying the position of a neutral, with or against Russia—he might lose, and might to play the part of an enemy. We have neceslose the same things, on either side. But in re- sarily spoken throughout of the King of Prussia gard to possible gains, the balance falls differ- as distinct from the Prussian people; and we ently. Since Austria has cast her stake on the must regard the minor Courts of Germany with side of the Western Powers, a new game is the same discrimination. It is true of States as thrown open to Prussia. Should Russia be vic- well as of individuals, that a purely selfish course torious in the contest which is to shake Europe, is neither wise nor safe; and although in the the post of second to Russia is vacant; for Aus- main, through the jealous misunderstandings of tria has placed herself on the other side, and her neighbors, Royal Prussia has been permitted there is no power of sufficient magnitude to rival to enjoy a dishonest growth, the successive SovePrussia in that position. If Austria win, the reigns have had many warnings that such a utmost that Prussia could hope would be to course may be crossed: there has been many a share German supremacy with Austria ; if Russia sign that the people of Prussia are neither prewere to win, Prussia might hope to possess Ger- pared for subservient dependance upon Russia man supremacy alone, the gift of Russia, or the nor for perpetual war against liberal instituprice of Prussian support in the contest. What tions. It is even understood that there is disif the Austrian empire be entirely destroyed ? sension between the present occupant and the What if there be a new kingdom of Hungary, a nearest heir to the throne of Prussia on the subnew kingdom of Italy, or even an icdependentject of the national independence. With these kingdom of Poland ?' Still the Prussian domin- internal questions England at present cannot ions could be but very little if at all diminished; deal. It is a question for King Frederick Wilthey would be shielded from the new and dan- liam to consider whether the Russian alliance gerous power by intervening territories; and the will repay him for the hostility of the other post of chief in Germany would be ipso facto va- great powers of Europe, especially if in provokcant. Instead of being " a geographical expres- ing their enmity he has also to encounter enesion," subordinate to the more distinct expression mies within his own_dominions. In a contest of Austria, Germany would become a political such as that which Prussia is now helping to verity; her unity would be undisturbed by revolt enlarge, England and France must accept the with non-German provinces of the supreme Ger- alliances which the circumstances of the time man power, and the ambition of the house of Ho- may offer to them-must treat as friends those henzollern would be satisfied. It is impossible to who practically aid them, as enemies those who suppose that these hints have not passed from thwart or circumvent. St. Petersburg to Berlin.
NICHOLAS AND THE PEACEMONGERS. Cer-| For ourselves, however, we confess we see but tain people almost as insane as himself, appear little hope of his burying the hatchet, while he to think the Czar of Russia is desirous of peace. so vigorously continues to throw it.-Punch.
518 BARTLETT'S TRAVELS IN TEXAS, MEXICO, AND CALIFORNIA.
From The Spectator. are ever extraordinary, or in the still rarer BARTLETT'S TRAVELS IN TEXAS, case of very great literary ability, with sketches MEXICO, AND CALIFORNIA.*
which are valued for the artist rather than
the subject, the journal-like form is proper. These volumes contain a narrative of Mr. In general, its minute details induce weariness, Bartlett's personal travels, as Commissioner or from their resemblance to each other, especialSuperintendent of the surveying-party de-ly if unaccompanied by stirring occurrences, puted by the Government of Washington to and if the work be, like the volumes before us, settle the boundary between Mexico and the very long. United States in conjunction with a similar
Nevertheless, a good deal of information body from the Mexican authorities. The au- may be found in the Personal Narrative of Mr. thor's division of his travels is six-fold, accord- Bartlett, and some striking pictures of new ing to the particular section of the ground countries and their states of society. After the and the order of time. The truer division is reader has toiled through the daily details of less in number; embracing travels along the the first journey, he will have a broad imprescourse of the Rio Grande both on the Texan sion of the rich undulating prairie lands of Texand Mexican banks. 2. From San Diego on as, and the steep, difficult passes of the mounthe Pacific, along the course of the Gila, and tain table-lands, with their intervening deserts, thence across the barren table-land which di- where water is rarely met with, and abandoned vides the two just-named rivers. 3. A jour-wagons and the skeletons of animals mark the ney through Sonora, a province of Mexico way more distinctly than in the deserts of Aflying along the Gulf of California ; a sea- rica. After the "back-bone” of America is voyage to San Francisco, and a brief sojourn crossed, he finds wastes relieved in many there.
places by smiling valleys ; from which, howThe nature of Mr. Bartlett's duty carried ever, little is gained, the cowardly Mexicans him, occasionally, over ground that has only being unable to resist or punish the bands of been trodden by the native or the be wildered Indians who destroy their cattle, carry off their emigrant to California. A very large part is crops, and even their women and children, afpractically new, and the Commissioner occa- ter murdering the men. Native military tyransionally encountered difficulties of a trying and ny, the licence of war, and the number of incidents of a remarkable kind. The general reckless, emigrants from America, superadded character of his adventures and experience, to Spanish colonial morals, induce a lax state however, does not essentially differ from that of society; though Mr. Bartlett thinks that in of other travellers across the central wastes of remote places the native Mexicans have a mild North America which divide the settled re- simplicity, ill-exchanged for the sort of civiligions on the Atlantic from the Pacific seaboard. zation they pick up from American settlers In fact, though Mr. Bartlett's party underwent and emigrants. The incursions of the Indians, hunger and thirst, were beset by marauding and the loose principles of many of the Whites
, Indians who carried off their animals, and en- continually occasion adventures which recall countered the obstacles to locomotion which the novels and wild dramas of two or three must be expected in unexplored and moun- centuries ago, carrying the reader back to the tainous districts, yet they were too strong and Middle Ages. The most striking feature of the well-provided a body to be exposed to the whole book is the lawlessness of the country; dangers and privations which individual ad- crimes of violence reaching to life itself'seem a venturers have undergone in the waste table- normal state of things. The cold-blooded aslands of North America. The consequence is, sassination of Col. Craig, commander of the that matter more essentially interesting than escort, by a couple of deserters, when the Col. Mr. Bartlett's has already appeared in similar was disarmed and advancing to reason with books of travels.
them, was a murder arising from passion and a There is, however, quite enough of novelty determination to resist capture, that might have and interest in the incidents of his journey, occurred anywhere : but a word and a shot,
he fell in with, and the manners or a stab, seems the custom of the country from he has to paint, to have formed a very good the Gulf of Mexico to the Gulf of California. book, if he had not overdone it. In a country An educated man, and coming from a State totally new, or in a case where the incidents of law and order, the Commissioner was start
led and shocked by this violence ; but he was * Personal Narrative of Explorations and Inci- as helpless to punish as to prevent. dents in Texas, New Mexico, California, Sonora, and Chihuahua, connected with the United States as the frontier Americans, their timidity prob
The Mexicans do not appear to be so bloody and Mexican Boundary Commission during the years 1850, 51, 52, and '53. By John Russell ably restraining them; but they are artists Bartlett, United States Commissioner during that in another way. period. In two volumes, with Maps and Wlustrations. Published by Routledge and Co.
Knowing the thievish propensities of the lower
BARTLETT'S TRAVELS IN TEXAS, MEXICO, AND CALIFORNIA. 519
class of Mexicans, I directed my servant to keopdelicate leaves are rolled up into balls; and these a sharp look-out for my baggage, while I step- on being pounded, form a lather which answers ped to the cabin to secure a berth. Soon after the purpose of soap: It is likewise used to a he was ordered to bring me my desk; and though great extent as a thatch. The younger leaves absent less than a minute, he found on his return are eagerly eaten by cattle; and it is said that that the boat which had brought us had pushed the minute particles of silica in its stem render off, and a portion of my baggage was gone. The it, when cut longitudinally into strips, an excel. moment my servant had left them, they took lent substitute for a razor-strop. But there is what they could lay their hands on, jumped into yet another use to which it is applied, viz. as an their boat, and disappeared in the dark. Par- article of food. For this purpose the bulbs or suit was useless. The articles lost were not of roots are baked in the ashes, or in the same manmuch value; but it was provoking, notwithstan- ner as for making aguardiente, and the outer ding all my care, to be robbed by this rascally skin stripped off. It is then sweet, and rather people wherever I went. While speaking of my pleasant to the taste, and is extensively used by misfortune, one of the passengers said his silk the Indians on the Gila as well as by the Mexihandkerchief had been taken from his coat-pocket cans on the Rio Grande, who are too lazy to culby the man who brought him in his arms to the tivate the soil and raise corn. The engineers boat. Two other passengers, on examining their attached to the Commission told me that the enpockets, found that they had sustained a similar tire Mexican population at Presidio del Norte, loss. I could not help laughing; informing them consisting of a thousand souls, had no other food that I had taken the precaution to secure a fine for more than six months. silk handkerchief I had just bought, by putting a couple of oranges in my pocket above it.
The nature of his duties brought the Comhad better look," said my friends, and sce what missioner into frequent contact with the Inyour precautions amount to.” I did so, and dians ; a connection which he rather encourfound 'I had been operated upon as effectually as the rest."
aged, as he had a turn for ethnology, and was
occupied in collecting a vocabulary. His picThe commissioner did not overlook the arts tures are not generally new ; perhaps the in the course of his journey ; but they are all tribes he fell in with, are not the finest samples in a primitive state. Even that of distillation of the Stoic of the woods.” They exhibit the is coarse in its process, however satisfactory in Red Indians on the whole in a favorable light, its result.
and Mr. Bartlett is of opinion that many of their evil deeds are traceable to the bad char
acters of the Whites they come in contact with. Mezcal, or aguardiente, is a spirituous liquor This opinion may not extend to a little “ reiof great strength, much more so than our strong: ving," that being everywhere a gentleman's est whiskey. It is obtained from the bulb or root of the maguay or agave mexicana, and is the profession in the early stages of society. The common alcoholic drink throughout the coun- mission lost animals by a small kind of thievery, try. The process of making this liquor is as fol- but only encountered one grand attack, and lows: A hole is first dug some ten or twelve feet that on their return, through the Mexican terin diameter and about three deep, and is lined ritory, to the south of the Rio Grande. with stones. Upon this a fire is built and kept up until the stones are thoroughly heated. A About a mile from camp, we passed a small layer of moist grass is then thrown upon the arroyo, or ravine, pretty well filled with bushes. stones, and on this are piled the bulbs of the This arroyo was no sooner passed by the foremaguay, which vary in size from one's head to a most waggon in the train, than we were startled half-bushel measure, resembling buge onions. by the most terrific yells and shouting; and on These are again covered with a thicker layer of turning our heads, to our horror we saw a band grass; and the whole is allowed to remain until of Indians issuing from the arroyo we had passed they are thoroughly baked. They are then re- and charging upon the train. We immediately moved to large leathern bags, and water is poured turned about, put spurs to our animals, and rode on them to produce fermentation. At the end back with all speed towards the train. The sav. of a week the bags are emptied of the maguay ages, who numbered between thirty and forty, (as and its liquor; which, after undergoing the pro- stated to me by those in the rear.) were rushing cess of distillation, is ready for use.
at full speed with their lances poised, screaming But the mezcal is the least important of the and yelling, endeavoring to break the line and uses to which the maguay is applied. When its stampede the mules, as they crossed from one stem is tapped there flows from it a juice which, side to the other. Others followed, discharging on being fermented, produces the pulque, a fa- their arrows at the teamsters as they passcd ; but vorite beverage in Central and Lower Mexico, the teamsters remained each by his team, keepthough little known in the Northern States. ing the mules in their places, and closing up the From the fibres of its massive leaves, which grow line. At the same time, they kept the enemy to five or six feet in length and two inches in at bay by levelling their pistols at them. Theso thickness, is spun a stout thread, which is again men had the presence of mind to keep their seats doubled, and twisted into ropes.' Next, a heavy in the saddle and to hold their fire, which the bagging is made of it, similar to that in which savages wanted to draw. Had they fired and our coffee comes to market. Again, the more I missed their mark, (and their chances were ten to one against their hitting,) they would have around, fastened their heads to the waggon. He been pierced by a lance or an arrow the next mo- then took out his rifle and stood on the defen. ment.
sive, levelling it at each Indian as he approached, The men who were riding by the side of the and thus keeping them at bay. waggons sprang to the aid of the teamsters, and The Indians next made for Mr. Thurber, who held the leading mules, which kept them in their was still further in the rear, and at the moment places.
engaged in putting some plants into his portfolio. Failing in their attempt to frighten the mules They dashed at him with their lances ; and he and throw the train into disorder, the Indians had barely time to seize his revolver, with which dashed on towards the rear, and made a furious he kept them off. Our men were now close at charge on the party there who were driving the the enemy's heels; so that, finding themselves in spare mules and horses. Two Mexicans, herds- rather a tight place, they made for the adjoining men, were unhorsed by the charge; and a third, hills. being wounded, fell from his animal. He, however, held on to his bridle; when an Indian The laxity or want of discipline in the offirushed at him and pierced him to the heart with cial party will probably strike the reader. The his lance. The momentary pause of this man chief Surveyor was a long time in joining ; made him a good mark for the rifle, and sealed when he did join, he objected to the originating, his fate. Several were discharged at once, which point of the survey, which Mr. Bartlett had fixed brought the fellow to the ground. His compan- with the Mexican Commissioners, but he was ions, seeing him fall, ran to his rescue, raised him up, and threw his bleeding body across a mule compelled to sign on reference to Washington. ridden by another Indian, when they rode off at Colonel M'Clellan, the chief Astronomer, was full speed.
longer in coming than Mr. Gray; when he The firing now became general ; but the con- came, he began to contend with the Surveyor, stant motion of the enemy enabled them to es- and at last with the Commissioner, because the cape. The five Mexican soldiers, who were on latter would not let him be chief over him, and foot, stood up to the fight manfully, and were in a further reference had to be made to keep the thickest of it. They did much, too, towards keep him in his place. Various other grievsaving the last waggon, which had got separa- ances, of a similar kind, read strange for the litted, and was a hundred and fifty yards in the tle respect paid to public authorities
, without Indians between him and the rest of the train, intention to be really disrespectful. jumped from his mule, and, bringing the leaders
From the Athenæum.
where, at the early age of twelve, he became Memoirs of the Life and Scientific Researches a teacher. Subsequently, by arduous self
of John Dalton. By W.C. Henry, M. D. culture, he obtained the situation of assistant Printed for the Cavendish Society.
master in a boarding school at Kendal, of
which he was afterwards the principal. DalThe friends of the late Dr. Dalton must ton was emphatically self-taught; and from consider him fortunate. While the lives of his very boyhood were implanted those habits such men as Young, Wallaston, and other of self-reliance, of perseverance, and of severe eminent scientific persons remain unwritten, concentration of thought, by which in after we have here an excellent memoir of the life he was often heard to affirm that he had Manchester philosopher, giving such an ac- slowly wrought out what he fitly termed “ a count of his scientific labors as enables us to new system of chemical philosophy.” From estimate his characteristic mental gifts, and to a very early period his leisure was devoted to define his position among the masters of sci- philosophical pursuits; and so diligently did
For this we are indebted to Dr. Wilhe cultivate these, that in 1783 he was invited liam Henry—son of the late Dr. Henry of to Manchester to act as teacher in the departe Manchester, who was Dr. Dalton's esteemed ment of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy friend—and to the Cavendish Society. This in a Protestant Dissenting College. He reSociety has often done good work :—but none signed this appointment at the end of six better or more worthy of the gratitude of the years, but continued to reside in Manchester scientific world than the publication of this during the whole of his subsequent life. Memoir. It deserves to be and it doubtless With wise liberality and forethought, the will-be-published in a more accessible form. Manchester Philosophical society, of which he
John Dalton was born on the 5th of Sep- was President from 1817 to the period of his tember 1766, at Eaglesfield, in Cumberland. death, allowed him to occupy a room in their His family were small landed proprietors, call house as a study and laboratory. In this ed in the Lake district “statesmen;” but the apartment, the larger portion of his subsemeans of his parents were so narrow that bis quent life was passed in the labor of private education was confined to the village school, tuition and in the prosecution of experimen
tal research. It was, therefore, not an unfit- Next day I read it to an audience of about 150 ting return to the Society, that the majority or 200 people, which was more than were exof his papers are published in their Transac- pected. They gave a very general plaudit at tions. One of the earliest and most remark- the conclusion, and several came up to compliable of these communications is entitled, “ Ex- ment me upon the excellence of the introductraordinary Facts relating to the Vision of tory. Since that I have scarcely written any.
thing: all has been experiment and verbal ex. Colors,” and gives an account of that strange planation. In general my experiments have visual defect, or “color blindness,” which was uniformly succeeded, and I have never once falone of his peculiarities.
tered in the elucidation of them. In fact I can It appears that he was first led to notice his now enter the lecture-room with as little emotion inability to distinguish colors by studying bota- nearly as I can smoke a pipe with you on Sunny; when, to the infinite astonishment of his day or Wednesday evening." companions, he made the most ludicrous mistakes respecting the colors of flowers. This Dalton's scientific labors have acquired a induced him to enter into a philosophical ex- European reputation. His papers were reamination of the cause of this strange defect; produced in foreign scientific journals, and and he came to the following conclusion :- his name was quoted as an authority on sub
jects relating to chemistry and natural phiIt appears, therefore, almost beyond a doubt, losophy. Thus, when his grand discovery, that one of the humors of my eye, and of the known by the name of the " Atomic Theory," eyes of my fellows, is a colored medium, proba- was propounded, if it failed to be at first genbly some modification of blue. . I suppose it must erally accepted, it commanded at least univerbe the vitreous humor, otherwise I apprehend it sal attention. We must refer our readers to might be discovered by inspection, which has Dr. Henry's Memoirs for a lucid and masterly not been done.
history of this brilliant discovery, which has This theory was not, however, verified by secured to Dalton a proud niche in the halls the post mortem examination of Dr. Dalton's of fame. Nor had he to undergo the severe eyes; for the vitreous humor when used as a
trial and mortification, unhappily not uncomlens caused no modification of tint in red or mon, of not living to see his discovery acgreen objects. Dr. Henry publishes a very knowledged and its importance admitted. Dr. interesting letter from Sir John Herschel, giv- Thompson and Wollaston were the earliest to ing his views as to this color-blindness in Dal- acknowledge the truth and value of the atton; and those interested in this curious phe- omic doctrine; and though Davy, their great nomenon will find in the present volume ad-coeval leader in chemical science, for some ditional opinions on the subject by Sir David time stood aloof, it is evident that
, without Brewster and other philosophers.
having given his absolute assent to the theory, Dalton's scientific labors were interrupted he was favorably inclined towards it; for when in 1804 by visiting London, having been in the Royal Society awarded Dalton the Royal vited to deliver a series of lectures before the Medal in 1826, for his atomic theory, Davy, Royal Institution on Natural Philosophy. It who was then President of the Royal Society, was on this occasion that he made Davy's ac
observed :quaintance,-of whom, and of the lectures, we have the following account in a letter :
Mr. Dalton's permanent reputation will rest
upon his having discovered a simple principle, I was introduced to Mr. Davy, who has rooms -in fixing the proportions in which bodies com
universally applicable to the facts of chemistry adjoining mine (in the Royal Institution); he is bine, and thus laying the foundation for future a very agreeable and intelligent young man, labors, respecting the sublime and transcendenand we have interesting conversations in an tal parts of the science of corpuscular motion. evening; the principal failing in his character as His merits in this respect resemble those of Kep& philosopher is that he does not smoke. Mr. ler in astronomy. .. . Mr. Dalton has been laDavy advised me to labor my first lecture; he boring for more than a quarter of a century with told me the people here would be inclined to the most disinterested views. With the greatest form their opinion from it; accordingly I re. modesty and simplicity of character he has resolved to write my first lecture wholly; to do mained in the obscurity of the country, neither nothing, but to tell them what I would do, and asking for approbation, nor offering himself as enlarge on the importance and utility of science. an objoct of applause. I studied and wrote for near two days, then calculated to a minute how long it would take me reading, endeavoring to make my discourse about
Other honors rapidly followed. In 1830, fifty minutes. The evening before the lecture, he was raised from the class of Corresponding Davy and I went into the theatre; he made me Member of the French Academy of Sciences to read the whole of it, and he went into the fur- the rank of one of its eight Foreign Associates, thest corner ; then he read it, and I was the au- the highest station it has to bestow; and when dience; we criticised upon each other's method. The visited Paris, his reception by the French