Well knowing that with ships alone he cannot fafter Russia had herself refused to maintain the reduce the granite forts of 'Russia by a coup de status quo. Russia having refused to abide eveo main, Sir Charles Napier has evinced a sound by the treaty of Adrianople, our Cabinet will not discretion : he is known to possess experience; admit that the treaty of Adrianople can be sehe has unbounded trust in the energy and brave-cured. The peace you have thrown away, says Ty of his countrymen; he holds a carte blanche. our Government to Russia, you cannot have with It has sometimes been said that our soldiers in the privileges that you havo abused. In other Turkey are ill-fed and comfortless : amongst the words, the protest which Lord Aberdeen wrote many detailed facts adduced by Mr. Sydney. Her against the treaty of Adrianople immediately bert, one alone would refute every statement of after its conclusion is now to be realized by the the kind-the sickness amongst the soldiers does action of the British Government. It is not this not exceed four per cent, including what springs Minister or that Minister who sustains the necesfrom voluntary intemperance. The slowness of sity of a firm and energetic course; not Lord our movements has been the subject of reproach: Aberdeen who still hankers after peace, and some Ministers are justified by the facts, that the Tur- other Lord who is eager for war. As Lord John kish commander has been enabled by our sup- Russell says, constitutionally, each Minister is port to act with renewed confidence, renewed answerable for the course of action adopted by energy, and renewed success, and that before a the entire Cabinet. Each Minister is separately single blow has been struck by the Allies the ad- responsible for the policy of peace or war, for the vance of Russia throughout her entire territory preparations of the Minister of War, the arrangeis stayed. Results thus attained, almost by anti- ments of the Lords of the Admiralty; and while cipation, can only be due to the completeness of such is the case constitutionally, it is also, Lord the plan in detail and in scope.

John Russell certifies, the case in fact. Our position with our allies is not less intelli- Clear in their position abroad and within the gible. With regard to France, who embarks her Cabinet Ministers appcar now to be equally clear soldiers in English ships of war, there can be do in their position with Parliament. Mr. Disraeli question; none with regard to Turkcy. The assailed Lord John Russell upon their policy, usrisks that Austria runs in definitively committing ing for his purpose any pretext, whether to be herself to war needed not Lord John's expound got out of generalized inductions or special ing; but she has declared to the Western Powers, phrases. Lord Dudley Stuart, however, brought " that if the Principalities be not evacuated by them to a harsher and more distinct test. He Rassia, she will use forcible means in order to proposed to take out of their hands the discrecompel their evacuation.” The conduct of Prus- tion of proroguing or summoning Parliament, sia continues as obscure as the ultimate fate of and he enabled them to convert his motion into her Monarch—he is trifling with the Western a question for the House of Commons, whether Powers, and with his own crown,

or not Ministers were fit to be trusted ? whether With a position clearly defined as respects or not the Commons desired to trust them? The Russia, our allies, and our preparations in the answer was a reply in the affirmative, the unanifield, the position of the Cabinet itself is now mity of which neither the ingenuity of Mr. Disrendered not less distinct. Whatever doubts may raeli nor the hardihood of Lord Dudley Stuart have formerly affected individuals whatever could disturb. On taking leave of Parliament separate conceptions may have seized upon ardent therefore, Ministers will stand before the country minds—it is evident that Lord John Russell has with a position distinctly defined, as, by their de. been empowered to speak on this point with dis- clarations, their responsibility has also become detinctness. Lord Aberdeen clung to the hope of fined. maintaining peace with the status quo, but not

From the Times, 7 Aug.

had been sent home by Sir CHARLES Napier in CAPTURE OF THE EMPEROR NICHOLAS. the small steamer which had captured them ?

Improbable as the tale may appear-impossible "A Man gets up in the morning on his own the catastrophe-it was fairly upon the cards premises, but little knows where he may sleep at within the last few weeks. The facts are these: night.” The Czar of ALL THE Russias has -A short while back, while the allied fleets were lately been within an ace of offering in his own lying before Cronstadt, an English yacht belong. person a practical confirmation of this well-known ing to Lords Lichfield and Euston, with Baying. What would the British public have Lord CLARENCE Paget on board, ventured thought, what would Europe have thought,- somewhat too near the guns of the place. Sudwhat would the King of Prussia in his cups denly a puff of steam was seen on the Russian have thought,-what would Omar Pasha in his side, and a small Russian steamer put out to sea, fez cap have thought-what would the allied with the evident intention of cutting off the Eng. troops have thought,--and, finally, what would lish yacht. On board of that steamer were the the Three per Cents. have thought, if, about this Czar NICHOLAS, his son the Archduke CONSTANtime, the Czar of ALL THE RUSSIAS, the Arch- TINE, the Archduchess his wife, and the Russian duke CONSTANTINE, and the Archduchess, and Admiral, who all went forth to enjoy the satisthe Russian Admiral in Command at Cronstadt, 'faction of an casy triumph over the poor littlo yatch. She is, in point of fact, stated to have | --while all Europe was in commotion upon his been in the most imminent danger of capture.- account? We are, of course, speculating upon The Czar, however, was destined to be foiled in history of a very hypothetical character ; but still his anticipated little triumph, as he has already the event did so nearly occur as to justify specubeen foiled in his hopes of many a great one. An lation upon its consequences. In our mind's eye English war steamer, seeing the danger to which we can see Lords ABERDEEN and John Russell the yacht was exposed, advanced with all speed communicating the information to the Houses in to her relief. Shortly she obtained such a posi- their own dry and cautious manner. What tion that the English yacht was safe; and the would Messrs. BRIGHT and COBDEN have said ? only question that remained for discussion was What would Colonel SIBTHORP have said? The one between the two small war steamers—the newsmen would have gone bellowing the informa. one under English, the other under Russian co- tion about the streets, and their cries would have lors. Could the English but have known the been regarded by the testy old gentlemen in Belgravaluable freight which that little yacht contained via but as mere leasings for the sake of deceiving the -could the captain but have known that by cap- lieges and interfering with their digestive functions. turing her, or sending her to the bottom, peace What should we have done with the Czar, when would have been restored to Europe, and proba- we had got him? Reckless, unprincipled, and bly a million of human lives, first and last, be merciless as he has shown himself to be, we should saved, we have no doubt that he would have car- have been anxious to treat him like a gentleman, ried one or other of the alternatives into effect, and make him comfortable during his sojourn even though his own destruction, that of his among us. But at Berlin and at Potsdam !-let ship, and of every soul on board of her had been us suppose the information to have been brought the inevitable consequence. As it was, he saw in while the glasses were well charged with nothing before him but a little trumpery steamer champagne, and the King and his Russian - he had carried his purpose of relieving the friends were devising a fresh counter-proposition English yacht into effect--and remembered or to the counter-counter-proposition which had emders, which certainly had been issued, to the ef- anated from the Bamberg Conference. The fect that no English ship, upon the mere heroic Czar is taken !-he is in England-he is in the impulse of her commander, should be thrust into Tower,he is pretty well after the voyage—as the lion's mouth. We have no doubt that this easy in his mind as can be expected—but he was was so, and that when the English captain gave very seasick. What would the good folks in his orders for putting the head of his steam Wurtemburg and Bavaria who have bedizened er round, he did so with the feeling that he had their coats with Russian ribands and orders have very satisfactorily discharged the duty with which made of the intelligence--and M. Mazzini and he had been intrusted. Little did he suppose at the Italian Reds ? There is the Emperor of the moment, that he had lost probably the great- AUSTRIA, too, busy with his levies, and rejoicing est opportunity for obtaining personal distinction at his loan, which would have given him still which had ever been thrown in the way of a sin- higher gratification when he came to reflect that glc man. The English nation venerates the name the war being at an end, he was at liberty to apof Lord Nelson for the sake of certain little af- ply the proceeds to other purposes. There are, fairs in which he was engaged off Cape St. Vin- however, two sets of people whose acts we should cent, at the Nile, at Copenhagen, at Trafalgar, have been most desirous to behold, as the fact of and elsewhere, but not all of these wonderful, the capture was forced upon their convictions. important, and heroic achievements combined We should have liked to be in Cronstadt while would have had such an important influennce on the Czar was steamed away under the eyes of the history of the world, as the capture of that the garrison. Next to this, which would perlittle Russian ship. It was given to the captain haps have been the most interesting point of obof a small steamer to change the face of Europe servation, it would have been most peculiarly dein ten minutes well employed, but in pure inno- lightful to stroll through the Bazaar at Constancence he missed the chance.

tinople, and listen to the gossip of the old Turks It is seldom, indeed, in modern warfare, still when they were at last convinced that their old more rarely in naval warfare, that monarchs enemy the CZAR was really within the grasp of themselves run any danger of capture. Napo- the Allied Powers—a prisoner of war ! LEON, to be sure, at Arcis-sur-Aube, was com- On the political consequences of such an event pelled to cross swords with a squad of Cossacks we must scarcely venture to speculate. The im. in the twilight, but he was after all a general, notagination of the historian who is called upon to a king, by trade. If we remember right, upon write the history of the events which did not ocone occasion, poor old George III. was in danger cur may fairly recoil from the magnitude of the of capture from a French privateer off Wey- subject. Little petty questions, such as those mouth, and was only saved by some marine connected with the Sulina mouths of the Danube, chance which has slipped from our recollection. the navigation of the Black Sea, the freedom of In mediæval history there are, of course, the ca. the Circassian mountaineers, the restoration of ses familiar to every schoolboy of King John of Finland to Sweden, etc., sink into comparative France at Poitiers, and of Francis I. after Pavia. insignificance by the side of the chapter which But what comparison would there have been be- might have been written on the result of the tween the case of the Black Prince waiting on Czar's yachting expedition of Cronstadt. The a mediæval King, who went to battle in a coat wonder of it is that all this time we are not dealof mail, and the grand surprise of the Russian ing with a fable, nor with the result of a drunkCzar landing at Portsmouth-no, at Newhaven lard's inspiration, but with sober and serious fact.

consent to

The Czar of Russia, the Archduke Constan. Helena. And on this matter we TINE, and the Archduchess, were the other day be guided by the decision of his Imperial as near capture and transmission to England as it is possible to be without having actually in- Majesty Louis Napoleon. The Times leaves curred such a catastrophe. Such is life and his-him out of the question. What a pretty little tory—such a strange mixture of chances and end to the war it would have made for him! improbabilities! What an end to the Russian How much popularity it would have gained him war; and to think, in all soberness of thought, that it might really have come to pass, had the in France ! After all the Russian talk about captain of a little English steamer known who Moscow! and more especially after Louis Napowere on board the little Russian steamer the leon's proposal for a Princess had been frowned other day off Cronstadt !

down by Nicholas. Looking at the matter in [“Make him comfortable!” See the Russian this light we are exceedingly sorry that a pen. leaning of the Times ! We would make him dant could not have been provided for the last as comfortable as we could, but at Saint years of Napoleon.- Liv. Age.]

From The Athenæum, 29 July. taken—torn, in many instances from their rich MANNSCRIPTS OF THE POET GRAY. bindings,—and are now about to be offered,

in their native simplicity, to the public under NINE years ago the autograph of the poet the hammer of Messrs. Sotheby & Wilkinson. Gray was one of the scarcest autographs of It is not our custom to announce all sales the great men of England in the century in beforehand; but there are cases and such which he flourished. The possession of a we consider this to be—when it is our duty letter in the handwriting of Gray was either to call attention to such scatterings of properthe pride or the envy of collectors

. Then ty interesting to the public. When, in 1845, came a change—what coin collectors call a Mr. Penn gave 1001. for the “ Elegy,” Eton “ find;" and the once rare autograph became College was a competitor with Mr. Penn. comparatively common. Our readers will Public bodies move slowly; and we think it recollect the "find” to which we allude :- our duty to point out to the College this rea sale at Messrs. Evans's, in December 1845, newed opportunity for the acquisition of a of the original MS. of the “ Elegy in a Coun- literary treasure. The precious MS. could try Church Yard,” and many unpublished let- hardly be placed in a more appropriate localiters addressed to Mason and to the Principal ty. Cambridge, too, might not inappropriateof Pembroke College. The sale was duly ly become a bidder. We should like to see chronicled in our columns [Athen. No. 945), Gray's “ Elegy” lying by the side of Milton's and a portion of the new knowledge thus" Lycidas” in the library of Trinity College. opened up to us has since been published by The importance of the MS. of the Elegy" the Rev. John Mitford.

to be sold on the 4th of next month is not sufAt the sale in 1845 the leviathan purchaser ficiently understood. It is full of verbal alwas Mr. Penn, of Stoke Pogeis. He bought terations,—is the only copy known to exist, the “ Elegy” for 1001., and the Odes for 100 and is evidently Gray's first grouping together guineas,—indeed, he may be said to have of the stanzas as a whole. As the®“ Elegy.' bought more than the cream of the collection. is known by heart to nearly every EnglishHe was proud of his purchase, --so proud, in- man, and we believe American, we shall give deed, that Messrs. Clarke & Bedford were em- some of the hitherto unpublished readings. ployed to inlay them on fine paper, bind them The established text we print in Roman type, up in volumes of richly-tooled olive morocco, -the MS. readings in italics.with silk linings, and finally enclose each volume in a case of plain purple morocco. The Of such as wandering near her midnight bower order was carefully carried out, and the vol

stray too ames were deposited at Stoke Pogeis in the The rude forefathers of the hamlet sleep great house adjoining the grave of Gray.

village Either whim or necessity induced Mr. The breezy call of incense-breathing morn, Penn, two years ago, to offer his valuable ac- For ever sleep; the breezy call of quisition for sale by public auction. A few The cock's shrill clarion, or the echoing hora lots came to the hammer; but they were all Or Chanticleer so shrill or bought in.

Mr. Penn found the public un- Or climb his knees the envied kiss to share willing to pay for Messrs. Clarke & Bedford's

coming binding, and the precious volumes were re

doubiful turned, we believe, to the warehouse of the Let not ambition mock their useful toil, Pantechnicon ; from whence they have been


Their homely joys

Hard by yon wood, now smiling as in scorn rustic

With gestures quaint Nor you, ye proud, impute to these the fault Muttering his wayward fancies he would rove Forgive, ye proud, th' involuntary fault

fond conceits he wont to Can honor's voice provoke the silent dust Along the heath and near his favorite tree awake

By the heath side Chill penary repress'd their noble rage The next with dirges due in sad array had damp'd

meet Some mute inglorious Milton here may rest, Grav'd on the stone beneath yon aged thom Tully Wrote

that Some Cromwell


Large was his bounty and his soul sincere
Their growing virtues, but their crimes confin'd

heart struggling

Or drew his frailties from their dread abode

Nor seck to draw them They kept the noiseless tenor of their way silent

There they alike in trembling hope repose Ev'n in our ashes live their wonted fires

His frailties there And buried ashes glow with social

Here is the art of word-painting carried Brushing with hasty steps the dews away With hasty footsteps brush

to perfection. Who does not feel with Waller ? There at the foot of yonder nodding beech of

Poets lose half the praise they should have got, hoary

Could it be known what thcy discreetly blot. spreading

From The Spectator. any living knowledge of his subject. The LEATHER STOCKING AND SILK* is an book has not been suggested by his own ob American tale, designed to illustrate country servation, but by the works of Washington life in Virginia at the beginning of this cen- Irving. The best descriptions recall the style tury, when the old Anglo-Colonial manners of that writer, and even seem occasionally to were encountering the habits and ideas of smack of Europe as well as of America. The young America. The story is in the main picture of the town of Martinsburg, where one of misconception between two rivals, who, the scene is chiefly laid, is English or German it turns out, are not in love with the same in many points; at least the manner of the lady: but story is subordinate to charac- artist recalls descriptions of England and Gerters and manners. The incidents are rather many. for what they show than for what they lead to. The exhibition is that of an old hunter, with There was about the town in those days & his simplicity and strong natural affections, thoughtful, slumbrous quietude, which was very surrounded by a new state of society, which striking to such travellers as stopped there; he is getting too old to leave behind him for more especially is among such travellers there the forest, as he once would have done. In All day long the atmosphere brooded like a

were any artists armed with their sketch-books. conjunction with him are some old settlers, dreamless slumber upon the quiet borough, and and contrasted with these are the rising gen- the only sound that never died away was the eration, as well as several foreigners, who sighing of the willows, which, stretching down have come to cultivate the minds or bodies of their long arms to the stream, unceasingly comthe Virginians.

plained to the waves. All day long the air was There is a perception of the “prisca fides” stirred by no other sound, unless it were the sudand the domestic affections in the writer, as den roar of the rock-blaster's mine echoing along well as some power of pleasant description : the stone fenced valley. No stranger, except at but the idea of the book is better than the long intervals, made the stony street resound execution. The topics and the dialogues are

with hoof-strokes; no cur ran barking at the in many cases too minute in subject and weak pedestrian's heels. Such horsemen and pedestriin style to sustain even curiosity; the bulk of of practice.

ans were seldom seen, and the curs had got ont

The cloud-shadows floated across Leather Stocking and Silk is in fact linsey- the streets, the tall old willows sighed and ruswoolsey.

tled, the corn tassels waved their silky fibres in It is probable, too, that the writer has not the gentle lazy breeze; and Martinsburg might

have sat for a sketch of Drowsyland. * Leather Stocking and Silk ; or Hunter John Our story relates to this old Martinsburg--this Myers and his Times. A Story of the Valley of land of the dolce far niente--which is so comVirginia. Published by Low, Son, and Co.

Ipletely a thing of the past. But not wholly.

The town was at the period when these veritable, grandmothers took such delight, was slowly disevents occurred in the transition state. The appearing : stages had commenced running behabitudes and fashions—in costume, modes of tween the towns, thereby realizing the long thought, everything—were changing. The close dreamed of luxury of a weekly mail: and Mar shaven and prim expression of our own day and tinsburg with her sister boroughs was enlivened generation had already begun to take the place from time to time by “professors ” of music, of the bluff and joyous bearing of the elder time. dancing, fencing, drawing, all the accomplishPowdered heads were going out of fashion with ments, in a word, which are thought necessary fair-top boots and shoe-buckles and silken hose : parts of education by the inhabitants of a thrivthe minuet, that stately divertisement in which ing country town." those honest old folks our grandfathers and

From The Spectator. to the gallant struggles which seem to have THE RUSSIAN CONQUEST OF FIN- taken place, nor are particular deeds of merit LAND. #

altogether overlooked. Portions of the cam

paign are subjected to a critical examination ; This narrative of the conquest of Finland and the reader is introduced to a physical by the Russians, in 1808–9, was drawn up view of the country, salient and comprehenmany years since, by a Russian officer of rank, sive in its features, without the dry minutenow deceased ; who printed the book for pri-ness which frequently characterizes military vate circulation, although it never was pub- topography. As any attempt to restore Finlished. A copy was given, by the author, to land to Sweden would involve a land-camGen. Monteith of the Madras Engineers. paign, the sketch of the country has a present Present circumstances have induced its ap- value beyond its graphic quality. pearance, under the superintendence of the General ; and although its popular interest The aspect of the Eastern part of the country arises from the possibility that an allied army does not differ materially from that of the portion may be engaged in Finland, as our fleets are of Finland anciently belonging to Russia. After already operating upon its shores, the book is passing. Wiborg, the mountains are more considworthy of publication, as well for its subject as erable in size, and enormous masses of rock are for its intrinsic merit.

heaped upon each other in every direction. In From the nature of the country, the climate, some places, the quantity of flints and of granite and the coast, a war in Finland will always be stones is so considerable that it would be difficult

to find an unencumbered space, even of a few of a peculiar character, in which broad stra

yards square.
The roads are

narrow and tegical objects must be combined with a de- crooked, but tolerably firm, the forests dark, and gree of independence in particular officers ; the general appearance of the country savage the scanty resources of the country render and gloomy. The numerous sheets of water with communication by sea indispensable to every which it is intersected, were at that time conarmy save a Russian ; and the singular forma- verted into solid plains of ice, capable of bearing tion of the coast necessitates a peculiar flotilla. not only troops of every description, but even the Unless we are much mistaken, the book will heaviest artillery. be found a useful addition to military litera- * ture, illustrating by its narrative some princi- Another observation, which is perhaps worth ples of warfare in a difficult country; for making, concerns the manner in which the Rusalthough the difficulties are chiefly owing to sian army was broken up into small divisions ; water in some form — lakes, torrents, and for it must have been remarked, that from the marshes — the similar difficulty of interrupted very beginning of the invasion, in spite of the communication would arise from mountains or

paucity of their numbers, the troops were spread forests. The narrative itself is what is called between the Lakes of Upper Finland and the

over the considerable extent of country comprised “ military ;” dealing with operations as a Gulf which washes the shores of its Southern exmathematical problem, rather than as a pic-tremity. This apparent dissemination is rendered ture of actions. The problems, for the most necessary by the very nature of the country, part, are clearly worked out to the attentive Although cut up and intersected in every direcreader; the narrative is rapid ; and though tion by lakes, marshes, rocks, and forests, the events are not described with the broad and means of communication are far from rare, and vivid pencilling of a Napier, full justice is done may all lead to results of greater or less impor

They may serve to protect a post, to * Narrative of the Conquest of Finland by the transmit supplies to it, or to expose it to danger. Russians, in the years 1808-'09. From an Un- These roads are constructed upon a firm and published Work by a Russian Officer of Rank. solid foundation, and are a noble trophy of the Edited by General Monteith, K. L. S., F. R. S., industry of man. They very seldom give way, Madras Engineers. Published by Booth. and are almost always practicable for troops;




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