We hambly thank your Majesty.

Clicq. Draw sword against my bruz-in-law! (They help themselves. 2nd Chun.

Against Clicq. Peace!

[Drinks. Your Majesty's ncar kinsman, and besides, 1st and 2nd Coun. Peace!

The great support and prop of monarchy,

(They drink the toast. On rabid revolution, everywhere, Clicq. Pros't! - may the pledge avail the Enforcing loyal order. wished-for-end !


No, I won't. For which we strive, as yet, alas ! in vain, Angel of Peace, you know, he shaysh I am. That end what means were safest to pursue ? I can't, I mush'nt fight my bruz-in-law[Drinks. My poor dear bruz-in-law!

Cries. Ist Coun. If I might hazard speech

2nd Coun. And fighting him your Majesty Clica. Speak freely, man.

would fight (Slaps him on the shoulder. For Mahomet against the Christian side. 1st Coun. This counsel I would give your Ma- Clicq. MAHOMET is the false Prophet, and I jesty;

won't fight for MAHOMET. I am a Chrish'n At once with Austria and the Western Powers and I hope to be shaved. I won't take Maho. Make common cause, and lead the Intellect, Met's part – hangfiwill! (Drinks.) The Science, and the Morals, and the Art 1st Coun. But Russia, as your Majesty well Of Germany against the barbarism

knows, And brutish force of savage Muscovy:

The Greek corrupt religion doth profess, Clicq. Why that's well said — that's well and Not the confession evangelical bravely said –

[Drinks. Of MARTIN LUTHER. Extremely well and very properly said,

Clicq. Why, that alters sha cascagain (Drinks). There is the Physical and Psychical

MARNLUTHER I look upon as a Posh'l.' MARNAnd there is Russia that's one element LUTHER's sh' only truo shysht'm of theology. And Prussia — that's another element

True sheology's sha bashish of eveshingAntagonistic forces.

(Drinks. æshecks and evshing elsh ! (Drinks.) 2nd Coun. Pardon, Sire :

2nd Coun. What course then doth your MajesBut is it not of Nature found the law That force should with opposing force combine ? Clicq. Lemmy turnitover immymind. Famous Acid with alkali; and oxygen

doctorhewas! Doctor MARNLUTHER. Sings Or chlorine with a metal : positive

DOCMARNLUTHER's song. With negative in electricity ?

1st and 2nd Coun. What song, an't like your Clicg. That's true o' the other hand - that's gracious Majesty ? also true

Clicq. Song DOCMARNLUTHER used to sing. Acid with alkali makes a neutral salt,

You know And that suggests a neutral policy.

1st and 2nd Coun. Full many a goodly song 'Sides, talk o' chemical affinity, [Drinks. puissant liege. Rec'lect that Nic'las ish my bruz-in-law. Did Doctor MARTIN LUTHER use to sing. 1st Coun. Yet let your Majesty this truth per- Clicq. Ay; but zshish was a cap'l song. Tsh! pend,

whatamem'ry I have, be sure! 1 Who lovesh not Light is the opposite to darkness, still,

wine." Thash ish! (drinks). “ Who loves not Light doth the shades of darkness chase away ; wine" (trying to sing, breaks down). No - I can't Then champion Fatherland's enlightenment shing! I've qui' lost myvoice — quilostmyvoice Against the advance of Russia's night.

talkinsmuch 'bout this confound East'n Clicq.

I will ! quest'n. Shall soon have no voice atall left. I'm I'll be sha champions of our Fazerland. very tired — essessively tired – (drinks) — zhenRussia shall not eclipsh sha Human Mind tl'm'n helpyaselves an' dowmineme (nods). Dashifsheshall !

1st and 2nd Coun. But, Sire, your answer to the I'll give in my adhesion to sh'allies,

Western Powers. And Prussia shall march in she van o' European And Austria ? shivilishash'n

(Drinks Clicg. Talkaboutthattomorra ! 2nd Coun. Then, Sire, against your august re- (Falls asleep. COUNCILLORS raise their hands, lative,

turn up their eyes, and shrug their shoulders; and Your Majesty resolves to draw the sword ? the SCENE closes.

ty elect?

From the Examiner, 15th July. Coronni for this purpose, and that the Austrian OUR GERMAN FRIENDS.

legions were already on their march for the fron.

tier. Nevertheless we ventured (for reasons not LOUD was the exultation, last week, with which thought altogether without weight by those who those who have advocated diplomacy and the con- know more of Austria than can be learnt by a currence of the German Powers, as the best means residence in Vienna) to express a doubt whether of bringing Russia to reason, hailed the announce the assurances of Count Buol were entitled to ment that Austria would certainly enter Walla. that full reliance accorded to them by some of chia on the 6th July, - that Francis Joseph had our contemporaries, and whether, considering the issued positive orders to General Hess and Count unprotected stato of her Galician frontier, the

lemper of the Hungarian nation, and the dis- | south of Germany. If"order" was for a moment astrous condition of the Imperial finances, Aus- endangered -- if the people demanded some slight tria would dare to strike any scrious blow at lier voice in the management of their own affairs, it great patron and protector, the Emperor of Rus- was to Russia that the eyes of the great powers sia.

(as they are facetiously termed) of Germany, no The ink was scarcely dry with which our ob- less than the little powers of the Bamberg conservations were written, when the tone of cxulta- ference, were turned for assistance. That in the tion was exchanged for one of doubt and despon hour of danger it wonld not be refused they dency. The Austrians were ready enough to knew, because they well knew the eager desire follow, as long as the Russians were retreating; of the Russian Government to interfere in the but the latter unfortunately faced about at Bucha- domestic concerns of Germany. The sound part rest in consequence of their rear being threat of the nation, those who desire to see Germany encd by the advancing Turkish army. And the something more than a name, have long writhed instant the Russians pause in their retreat, the under the curse of the degradation to which they approaching host of Austria, which was to work are doomed. But they are termed democrats and such wonders, halls also. The Austrian steam- revolutionists — and possibly the treatment they ers on the Danube are fired upon by the Cos. have received may have made them such. Can sacks, but even this by no means incites the they, then, be expected to fight for a prince whose 'stern and resolute” young Emperor. He who word they have trusted only to be betrayed ? was so ready to “ occupy. is not prepared to Suppose that the nation should take up arins fight. He discovers that his frontier is unguard- against Russia at the call of Frederick William ed and his dominions moro menaced than those - and so exposed is the Prussian frontier that of Turkey.

a levy en masse would probably be necessary His friends now say that great allowances are what security is there that some panic in the to be made for him, and we have said so all along. Royal mind, some qualm of conscience or indiHe is admitted to be in a very critical position : gestion, might not produce a change of policy, but why was this not found out before? Why and that the King might not direct a massacre were important military operations deferred, why of his German lieges, as he did of the Posen was time for preparations given to an enemy in peasants who at his summons took up arms order to conciliate a Power, which, when the against the Russians in 1848, and manifested a pinch comes, finds out that it is itself in greater little hesitation in laying them down again at danger than the State it promised to assist. For the first indication of change in the Royal counthe convenience of this irresolute Power, four cils ? months have been employed in moving troops to In one respect we are happy to agree with the point which was obviously the best that could those of our contemporaries who have hitherto bebe selected for at once protecting Constantino. lieved that the concurrence of the neutralized Gerple and annoying the Russians. The Himalaya man Powers in protocols and conferences would, conveyed a regiment from Cork to Varna in ra- by some mysterious agency, drive the Russian ther less than twelve days. Whatever may be army out of the Principalities. They now disthe conduct of Austria for the future, she has cover what we all along have steadfastly maincertainly done much, by thus retarding the oper- tained, that Russia will recede only before the ations of the French and English, towards repay-T energetic hostility of France and England. Rus. ing the debt she owes the Czar for his disinter-sia has been much too well informed to dread ested services in Hungary.

that hostility hitherto, because she has known It must not be forgotten, too, that no further that the Western Powers were waiting for the back than the autumn, confidence equal to that Germans, and that she could exercise, either last week expressed for Austria was placed in the through fear or favor, sufficient influence over the assurances of Prussia. Prussia, it was then posi- latter to prevent them from concluding with the tively averred, would throw her sword into the former any other than a hollow and fruitless al. scale of the Western Alliance; and to secure her liance. If the only two really grcat Powers in support no delay was thought too long, no con- Europe, instead of waiting for these decrepid and cession was considered too great. To the con- halting states, had thrown at once upon the tumelies now heaped on the unfortunate monarch shores of the Crimea the forces wbich have been of that country by his former admirers we have employed for months in digging ditches at Gal. no wish to add, because we believe that for him, lipoli, and parading at Scutari, they might have as well as for the Kaiserlein at Vienna, great al. marched, almost without opposition, down the lowances are to be made. Neither potentate can high street of Sebastopol, and the war would trust his own subjects.

probably already have terminated, which, as far Under the hypocritical cry of "order," the rule as the land forces of the allies are concerned, can of the sword has been established as the law in scarcely be said to have begun. the north, almost to as great an extent as in the

On the fly-leaf of Sir Roger Twysden's copy of Stow's Annales are the following lines, dated 1643 :

Knaves devise, and fools believe;

Help, Lord! and now stand to us,
Or fools and knaves will quite undo us.
Or knaves and fools will quite undo us."

« Wise men labor, good men grieve,

From Chambers's Journal.

friend is a little bladder full of fluid. On this THE RADICAL MEMBER OF SOCIETY. account, he has been named by scientific spon

sors a vesicle, and very appropriate is the denomiThe radical member of society, unlike his nation : vesicula is the Latin word for a little namesake of the senate, is a very unobtrusive bladder. Many people prefer to speak of the personage. He was made before Adam, and his subject of our consideration as a cell: cella is a race has been multiplying on the face of the chamber where valuables may be stored away. earth ever since the creation ; yet, two centuries A cellar, for instance, is a place where we pack ago, men had but just become acquainted with our wine; but a cellar may be a hole hollowed the fact of his presence among them. He dwells out in the ground, or it may be a structure built familiarly in the midst of us, and yet ninety-nine up of walls. Now, our friend is not a holow in every hundred of us go down to our graves space, excavated in a lump of continuous subwithout knowing that he is there. He is essen- stance : he is really a structure made of walls tial, too, to our being. We cannot do without that have been built up regularly of smaller him, even for an instant. He ministers to our parts. In each of the twenty millions of bodies physical wants, renders himself subservient to that can repose together upon a shilling, there our enjoyments, and even charges himself with are myriads of little atoms, as they are termed, the superintendence of our mental operations. fixed and fitted together, as bricks are fitted in Simple in his habits, and humble in his bearing, common buildings. When our vesicle is strengthhe is, nevertheless, a mighty potentate in his ened and stiffened by outer coatings, or thickway. If the Emperor of All the Russias.were ened by inner deposits, it may be convenient to to prove his fitness to sit in a high place, by speak of it as a cell; but the term must then be blowing a generation of his fellow-men into understood to comprise both the walls and condust, our little patient friend would quietly ply tents, as well as the chamber or cavity in which his craft

, and by the time the autocrat had join the latter are held. ed the smoke of his own explosion, and had be

But a bladder is no person : it is only a thing; come ashes with ashes, a new generation of living hence it may be urged we have not at present human forms would fill the vacant place. established any good and sufficient ground for

The radical member of society is not given to speaking of our vesicular acquaintance in the the adornment of his person with factitious de- language we have employed. Our answer is

, coration, neither does he stand six feet without that we have yet more to tell. The cbject of his boots. This, indeed, is why he is so com our allusions is really a living vesicle, and has an monly overlooked, even when in the act of ren- absolute personal individuality of its own. He dering important service to the 'state. If the grows from infantile into mature age, arranges truth must be told, he is but a pigmy in stature the matters of his own internal economy, trans-so small, indeed, that unless when he chances acts his own business, and even brings up a to have outgrown the ordinary standard of his family, and manages to get his descendants off race, he cannot be discerned by unaided human in the world at an appropriate time. To make eyes. He is, in fact, microscopical as well as rad. all this as evident to our readers as it is to ourical. Until the ingenious Robert Hooke had put selves, we will drop in upon our friend in one of his apparatus of magnifying-lenses together, to his favorite places of resort, and spy out his do

pry into all things”-as it has been judicially: ings by means of our microscope. We need enbut not very reverentially expressed-it was not tertain no scruples in committing the act of possible that he should be seen. So minute are espial, for he will be altogether unconscious of his dimensions, that a clever hand might put a our operations: he has no telescope to turn million of his little bodies to bed, side by side, upon us. upon the face of a shilling. As many as twenty

In pools of still water-especially if on open millions, indeed, have been known to be com- moory ground—a layer of greenish, half-fluid, fortably accommodated within the same area, cloudy-looking substance nearly always collects when the individuals happened to be only dwarf at the bottom. If a portion of this be carefully specimens of the race.

raised by the hand, or by a net of fine muslin The radical member of society has been plan- insinuated along the mud beneath, and be then ned with a view to convenient package, as well examined by the microscope, it will be found as to fitness for active work; hence he is with that it is occupied by swarms of minute objects, out any kind of awkward incumbrance. He has possessing an immense variety of appearance, neither arms, legs, nor head : he is all body, and and yet agreeing together in certain essential this body is generally as compact as a dump. particulars. Some look like little balls; others ling; so that it may be rolled freely about when are elliptical or boat shaped; others cylindrical, engaged in locomotive operations, or, even when quadrangular, or even triangular. Some resemnot so employed, be stored up, as Dutch cheeses ble flat circular disks, and are covered by syinare packed away in cellars. He is, nevertheless, metrical patterns worked in lines and dots. very cunningly and beautifully made. His com- Many are beautiful crescents, or yet more gracepact body is composed of an exquisitely delicate ful spindles, lengthened out and bent opposite film of skin, covering a reservoir of rich liquid. ways at the extremities, with a sort of segmoid Sometimes this skin is defended by a rigid coat- curve. All of them are, however, hollow cases of-mail

, spread over it externally; at other times, of thin membrane, and contain inside a clear it is strengthened by a stout lining attached to liquid, in which numerous small granular specks, the inside. In either case, the radical fact, often of a bright green color, float. Now, if povertheless, still remains-that our radical some of these curious objects be carefully watch

ed for a little time, it will be noticed that they horny plates, or by flinty shields and mail-pieces do not remain altogether stationary where they applicd closely to their external surfaces. These have been placed ; all at once, they get restless, uncovered spaces, for purposes of imbibition, are and advance by a series of little jerking starts only left along the margins of the plates, or unin one direction—then they stop and return upon der holes bored through their dense substance. their previous course with the same halting gait. When this is the case, it occasionally chances, Occasionally, some very brisk individual of the that the insetting or outflowing current of liquid community will, in this fashion, make a journey becomes so strong in one direction, that the light an inch long in a few minutes : the more cir- vesicle is suddenly pushed before it, just as it has cumspect travellers take a day to accomplish the been recently proposed to propel steam-boats by same distance.

jetting water out from pipes, instead of by the But if the observation be carried on for a suf- revolution of paddle-wheels and threaded screws. ficient length of time, it will be seen that these The jerking movements of these rudimentary fitful creatures grow as well as move. They get resicles are now generally conceived to be, not larger and larger, in some cases by puffing out properly locomotive acts, but simply hints of this their sides ; in others, by extending their length. nature thrown out to our mechanicians, to show All the while this is going on, a strange commo- them how to set about their work. tion is taking place in their insides : legions of Microscopic living cells of this kind do not granular specks hurry now this way and now dwell in placid pools alone; they love the fresh that, until at length a result of all the bustle be- water which is still and clear to the bottom, and gins to appear. A thin partition commences to that allows the genial sunshine to penetrate to form all round the inside of the case, and creeps its utmost depths. But they also abound in all onward, step by step, until at last it has divided moist situations: they cover the surface of rocks the original chamber into two perfectly isolated in the sea; they cling to the submerged parts of parts. The partition then thickens, and finally aquatic plants, both marine and fresh; they clussplits into two distinct layers, of which the one ter in ditches; and wherever running-streams attaches itself to one cavity, and the other to its lag by the way, they assemble in crowds. In neighbor; and thus the case itself tumbles into every trough or cistern where water is allowed to halves. Each half then grows, until it attains stand, their presence may be easily detected by the mature dimensions of the parent, and after skilful seekers. Scientific men have called these this deposits its partitions, and falls to pieces; and omnipresent multitudes of self-multipliers by the so, individual after individual, and generation name of diatoms, the epithet being a reflection after generation, are formed.

upon their origin — the word is taken from two These little multiplying vesicles—for such the Greek terms that signify cut through.' Some bodies are-acquire the substance that is used in of the microscopic community that possess anthe augmentation of their own dimensions, and gular forms, show a little inclination to cling toin the formation of their partitions, from the gether by their corners; these are especially liquid in which they are immersed. There are classed as desmidiæ, a word derived from the ao perceptible openings in their delicate mem- Greek for a chain. braneous walls; but those walls are, nevertheless, There is one curious fact regarding the confull of inconceivably minute pores, through stitution of the true diatoms: 80 soon as their which liquids can slowly infiltrate. Water will delicate membranes are fully formed, and freely not run through a piece of bladder; but the exposed to the influence of the water in which bladder will, notwithstanding this, soak water they float, they collect from that fluid minute parup into its substance, and get thoroughly wet ticles of hard flint, and out of these fashion for throughout. Under this soaking power, if sirup themselves solid shields or shells, which they at be tied up in a bladder, and the bladder be tossed tach to the outside of their bodies, merely leavinto a pail of pure water, the water will be drunk ing narrow grooves and dots of the membrane in and mingled with the sirup, rendering it thin- free from the dense investment, that the liquid ner and more diluto in consequence of the ad- nourishment may there still flow through. These mixture. Just in the same way, the living vesi- Ainty shields are so indestructible that they may cles under consideration, imbibe the thin Aaids be boiled in aquafortis, and will come out from in which they float, and mingle the same with the ordeal only the more perfect and clear. Time the thick rieh matters they contain within. They seems to possess scarcely any power over their then select from the imbibed Auid, principles that forms, for beds of them many feet thick are are useful for their constructive work, and reject found' lying where they must have been depositthe rest. This is what the restless movements ed by lakes that have been dried up for thonof the granular specks alluded to above mean. sands of years. Many of them are embossed and Those little floating masses are necessarily car- worked over by very beautiful ridges, arranged ried to and fro .by the arriving and departing in symmetrical patterns. There are shields of carrents. In this way, then, our radical mem- some of the diatoms known as naviculæ, which ber manages to feed himself without either head are quite invisible to the unaided eye, and which or hands. He is mouths all over his skin, and is appear only as thin films, without any discernalways swimming about in a reservoir of natri- able tracings upon them, when magnified 150,000 tjons liquid, which he can appropriate at need. times. But when the magnifying power is in

Every vesicle that falls under observation is creased to some million and a half of times, the not, however, equally fortunate in this respect. film is seen to be entirely hatched over by obSome of the little flattened or lengthened cells liquely crossing lines, like those which engravers have their skins defended by large impervious execute in prodacing shadows apon their work. When the amplifying power is raised to four of duck-weed growing in turbid water, instead millions of times — for the instruments of mo- of in the clear pools in which the diatoms dern days can accomplish even this wonderful abound, a small speck of transparent jelly-like feat when wielded by skilful hands - those lines substance may often be detected clinging to the themselves are resolved into rows of projecting surface of the green leaves. When this speck is beads ranged side by side, each separate from its submitted to microscopic scrutiny, it is found to neighbor, and each distinctly raised from the consist of a little bag of limp membrane, congeneral surface of the silicious film. But each taining a quantity of Auid inside. It is, in fact, onc of these beads must be formed of myriad a vesicle, but it is a vesicle of a very curious particles, in their turn quite invisible, even when kind. Instead of being rigid, and wearing a fixed increased by optical power to four millions of form, like the diatoms already considered, it is times more than their proper dimensions. There soft and yielding everywhere, and it is every mo is an infinity in littleness as well as in vastness, ment altering its shape. Now, it looks like a at least so far as the capacities of the human len- round ball; now, a little projection is pushed ses are concerned.

out on one side, like the finger of a glove - the These surprising little objects discovered by ball rolls after this, and a new finger points in microscopical research at the bottom of still another direction, and the ball is resolved into pools of water, and in other convenient situa- an altogether grotesque and indescribable object, tions, are, then, really living creatures, as won- unlike any other creature discoverable beneath derfully perfect after their kind as lordly man is the sun. This very odd concern 'is called the after his kind. Each one is an organ or instru- amæba (the always changing,' from the Greek ment, accomplishing important work by the word for to change '). It also is really a living transformation of dead matter into its own living vesicle ; it is a single-celled organism, like the structure, and by the production of generations diatoms, but it is unlike the diatoms or the desof bodies like to itself, which are to take its midiæ in this particular : it possesses the power place in the scheme of nature, when its frame has of bending, and folding, and rolling its own thin been swept away from the scene ; hence these membrane about, which they never do. It moves lowly receptacles of life are termed organisms; about, indeed, habitually in search of its food, and still further to distinguish them from inore and it carrics on its search in this way: it sets up complex efforts of creation, they are expressive- a current or stream of liquid in its inside, in some ly designated single-celled organisms. As each definite direction, and before this current its thin cell or vesicle is an organism, so each organ is membrane is pouched out; the body then falls complete in a single cell. But having deter- over after the pouch, and yet another pouch mined the fact, that these simple bodies are liv. projects. If, during this progress, the point of ing organisms, there still remains for considera- the pouch gets at any time into contact with a tion the question of what kind the life is that they morsel of appropriate substance fit to serve as possess. · Are they merely single-celled plants food, the limp membrane folds itself completely vegetating in the water? or are they single-celled round it, and thus forms a sort of interior suc. animals, endowed with the higher privileges of It makes, in fact, an extemporanсons stomach, vitality ? This problem has proved a somewhat and in this the morsel is digested or dissolved. knotty one to solve. The observers who have The dissolved material is then absorbed through studied the diatoms and desmidiæ the most carc- the membrane, as any other liquid might be ; fully during the last few years, have waged a and the stomach, having accomplished its work, fierce war over their unconscious forms. Ehren is unfolded to become skin again. Thus the berg, with a small band of gallant allies, has, on ameba furnishes the curious spectacle of a liv. the one hand, claimed them on behalf of the an- ing creature rolled along in search of its food, by imal tribes, only conceding that they may be de- means of internal streams that push its limp skin signated animalcules on account of their micros- before them. It is, in fact, a living vesicle, fur. copic dimensions. He maintains that he has nished with locomotive powers, and travelling about seen them put forth and draw back retractile in search of food, instead of merely absorbing limbs; that he has watched them while perform what chances to come into contact with its skin, ing distinct acts of locomotion ; and that he has as is the case with the diatoms. Ņow, this lo fed them with indigo, and noticed the food dis- comotive cell is unquestionably an animal organappearing into open mouths. Nageli and Siebold, ism: it certainly belongs to Ehrenberg's animalon the other hand, with a more imposing array cule tribe. It is in the scale of animate creaof supporters, insist that they are not even ani- tion what, in all probability, the diatoms and malcules, but only plants; and that the retractile their congeners are in the vegetable creation. It limbs and swallowing-mouths of Ehrenberg are is the radical member of society in his animated merely extraneous particles of solid matter quiv- garb, as the diatom is in his vegetative form. ering before the alternating currents of liquid, The primitive organism of animal life is a limp, setting into and out from the permeable tracts restless, changeable structure. The primitive orof absorbing membrane. Before we attempt, ganism of vegetable life is a rigid, changelegs, Jovelike, to hold the scales for these contending and immovable structure. The soft, unarmed beroes, we purpose to shift our position a little, amæba is the type of one, and the stiff, mailed in order that we may perform the service circum- diatom is the type of the other. Free mobility spectly, and with a firm and safe support beneath in the membrane of the vesicle, at once marks it oar feet. It will not do, in this iron age, for an as belonging to the animal domain. The mere arbiter of destiny to stand upon the clouds. power of moving from place to placo is not suit

If a careful search is made among the fronde cient for the purpose, for vegetable cells often do

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