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All this may, it is true, be mere appearance. ignominiously at anchor in the Bosphorus, expoThe Czar may know very well what he has to sed to the shame and mortification of hearing expect, and the Emperor Francis Joseph may that every fine day the Russian ships have issued have made up his mind precisely what he means from their fastness and reinforced or victualled to do. He may be merely waiting to advance their troops, while we could do nothing to aid and come into collision with his former savior ours. We believe we do not in the least esagsetill his new allies have crossed the Danube and rate the case. If there be a single harbor in the are prepared to support him. Still we do not Black Sea where our fleets could ride in safety quite understand why he should concentrate his during the winter, and be at hand to succor our troops at Orsova, two hundred miles from Bucha- land forces, except the great port of the Crimea, rest, the nearest Russian post, instead of availing it has not yet been discovered or made public. himself of those he possesses near Hermanstadt Now, to enable us to take that port — if indeed and Cronstadt, to pour down upon the Russian it be not impregnable — our troops now at Varrear and fank, and bring matters to a crisis. na and Adrianople must be set at liberty by AusBut probably the commanders of the allied forces tria undertaking bona fide to do their work, or all comprehend Austrian plans and tactics better hope of this must be at once abandoned, and than we can do ; and we are well aware that, in fresh forces must be immediately embarked for military operations, to criticise at a distance is the Crimea. We wish we could see any flaw in nearly always to criticise in the dark. We will, our argument; but at present we do not. The therefore, only draw attention to one point destruction of Cronstadt is no doubt important, the vital importance, namely, of knowing with and would be a brilliant and glorious exploit; out any further delay what active aid from Aus- but it would need that and more to gild over to tria can be counted upon, in order that we may the world or to the British public the deplorable be able to ascertain what the Anglo-French army necessity of allowing our Eastern fleet to pass can do and may attempt, and whether any more another inactive and inglorious winter in the detachments will be needed.

comfortable security of the Golden Horu. We must not forget that the original meaning All private accounts and published descriptions and object of the war has undergone consider- concur in representing Cronstadt, not as impregable change. We have not only now to drive nable perhaps, but as only assailable at an air. the invaders out of the Turkish territory - if that ful sacrifice of life and treasure. Some surveying were all, probably the forces of Turkey and of the steamers have lately reached to within two thouWestern Powers combined might suffice for suc- sand yards of the outer fort, and returned with ces in this campaign without Austrian aid confirmed impressions of the formidable nature though, as we have obscrved, in countries where of the task before them. It is admitted on all means of transport are so inadequate and roads hands that the only method of managing the en. so few and bad, it is more easy to repel an inva- terprise would be by destroying or taking the der, than to expel him when you have to march forts one by one. But there is no real night in two hundred miles through an exhausted terri- those latitudes during the open months, theretory to get at him. But we have also to cripple fore there can be no surprises; the case is not Russia, and to compel her to come to terms, or one for boat service, since ships cannot approach so to damage her as to make her stubbornness near enough to support their boats ; large rescomparatively unimportant. Now, for either pur- sels cannot come within two miles of the forts, pose, it is essential that the Anglo-French army therefore their broadsides could not produce much in the East should be set free for other enterpri- effect on stone walls, and the lower tiers of guns ses, or that another army should be sent to un- could not be elevated sufficiently to be brought dertake them. A glance at the map will show to bear on such distant objects; the guns of how enormously difficult it will be either to ex. steamers and vessels of smaller draught would pel the Russians from their position on the Sereth not be powerful or numerous enough for the mas. and the Lower Danube, or to provide for the sive fortifications they would have to batter down comforts, sustenance, or reinforcements of our and to face the fire of; and, finally, as all the own troops, unless we have, and keep, the com- batteries are casemated, shells would probably be mand of the Black Sea. That command we harmless. And even if all these difficulties were hare now, and shall have during the summer overcome, and Cronstadt were reduced to ashes, months; but without the possession of Sebastopol (or St. Petersburg would most likely be protected at least the entire destruction of the Russian by the shoal water which surrounds it, — the inficet harbored there), we cannot, as is well known, side sea being nowhere more than four fathoms, keep it beyond the end of October. The events of and generally not more than two deep. Of course last winter and spring proved this amply. There we feel perfectly satisfied that whatever skill and is not in the whole Black Sea a single port ex. valor can do will be done by Sir Charles Napier cept Sebastopol where our ships could shelter or in the Baltic; but we confess we should have prebe safely stationed. Sinope is quite open to the ferred a concentration of our forces and a transnorth and cast ; Odessa will only accommodate ference of desperate and daring enterprise to ana few vessels of large size (and Odessa, moreover, other quarter where brilliant success is probably is not yet ours); and the only other port (and much more attainable and certainly far more that lies on the Asiatic coast) can only admit needed. If Sebastopol were taken, Asia as well frigates and smaller ships. Unless, therefore, as Europe would be won;-a triumph in the Sebastopol is ours bofore October, our fleets Gulf of Finland would be scarcely heard of in must pass next winter as they passed the last, | Persia or Affghanistan.

she may

THE PROUDEST LADY.

modern Mexican dollar is to the full of equal va

lue, that it contains as much pure silver, that so The Queen is proud on her throne,

far as coinage goes it is a more perfect manufacAnd proud are her Maids so fine;

ture - in spite of all, the Chinese have to this But the proudest lady that ever was known

day persisted in recciving the Carolus pillar dolIs a little lady of mine.

lar at 10, 15, and even 20 per cent. higher value And oh! she flouts me, she flouts me,

than the Mexican dollar, and in the same pro. And spurns and scorns and scouts me;

portion, or cven greater, than British silver or Though I drop on my knce and suc for grace, Indian rupees. At Shanghai, at one period last And beg and beseech, with the saddest face, year, the Carolus dollar, the intrinsic value of Still cver the same she doubts me.

which is 4s 2d, was worth 7s 8d. This preference

of the Chinese for this special coin has led to its She is seven, by the kalendar

being collected from every other part of the world A lily's almost as tall,

for that market. The countries in the MediterBut oh! this little lady's by far

ranean where this coin formerly was the chief The proudest lady of all."

currency, have been almost entirely swept of it It's her sport and pleasure to flout me,

for the East. The difficulty, therefore, which has To spurn and scorn and scout me:

attended the trade of China has been, that with But ah! I've a notion it's naught but play; - a constantly increasing demand for this coin, the And that say what she will and feign what market of supply was rapidly becoming exhaust

ed. She can't well do without me!

At length, however, the ingenuity of the Chi.

nesc seems to have discovered a solution to this When she rides on her nag away,

growing and increasing difficulty. A mint has By park and road and river,

been cstablished at Canton for coining Carolus In a little hat, so jaunty and gay,

pillar dollars of a date of 1778. And although, Oh! then she is prouder than erer!

no doubt, in one respect it is a fraud to coin á And oh! what faces, what faces!

foreign coin of the last century and of a king long What petulant, pert grimaces !

since gathered to his fathers, yet in respect to real Why the very pony prances and winks, intrinsic quality there is no fraud. In every roAnd tosses his head and plainly thinks

spect the Chinese Carolus pillar dollar is as much He may ape her airs and graces.

like the real dollar of Carolus the IIII. as those But at times, like a pleasant tune,

dollars are like each other. In intrinsic quality

they are precisely the same. It is true the keen A sweeter mood o'ertakes her;

eye of the China Schroff is alive to the distincOh! then she's sunny as skies of June,

tion, and we understand they only take them at And all her pride forsakes her. Oh! she dances round me so fairly!

10 per cent. discount upon the real ancient dol.

lar. This difference, however, is likely soon to Oh! her laugh rings out so rarely ! Oh! she coaxes and nestles and purrs and disappear

, and it is probable that this mint will

prove the solution of all the currency difficulties pries

of the East, and will lead to different coins beIn my puzzled face with her two great eyes, ing accepted at their real intrinsic value in pure And says, “I love you dearly!”

silver, in place of the arbitrary rates which they

now command. If so, the Canton mint will exOh! the Queen is proud on her throne,

ercise a powerful influence over the whole finan. And proud are her Maids so fine;

cial transactions of the East.-Economist.
But the proudest lady that ever was known
Is this little lady of mine.
Good lack! she flouts me, she flouts me,

PROPOSED CHANGES
And spurns and scorns and scouts me;
But ah! I've a notion it's naught but play: - that, at the very juncture when companies are

ANCE.-It is a somewhat curious coincidence And that say what she will and feign what making a merit of using iron sleepers, as well She can't well do without me!

IN

INLAND

CONVEY

as of adding to the strength of their rails, a proT. WESTWOOD.

ject should be submitted for public considera

tion by which iron is to be banished from rail. Athenceum.

way construction. According to Mr. Daft's prospectus of his infant invention, not only are

sleepers to continue to be made of wood, but CHINESE CURRENCY.

wheels, a xles, springs, and all their complexities

and combinations, are to be abolished, and carTHE CANTON MINT AND THE PILLAR DOLLAR. riages made to glide by a glass groove upon a

tri-edged wooden rail. This, however, is a mere Those who are best acquainted with the trade adjunct to the invention itself, the chief innovaof the East, best know the singular preference tion of which consists in making the enginewhich the Chinese people have always shown, and wheels of brass, and strongly coating them with continue to the present day to show, for the old vulcanized India rubber, the tenacity of which Carolus pillar dollar. In this passion they have is strikingly exemplified on the model, on which defied all principle of self-interest and of intrin. they remain stationary at any gradient, even sic value. In vain it has been shown that the li in 8.-Railway Times.

she may,

From Chambers's Journal.

to the latter, and the latter the oxygen essential CUSTOMS AND MANNERS UNDER THE to the former-is already known to our readers;

and we have only to add, that the desired por WATER.

tion of the sea, with its animals, plants, rocks,

and sand, is contained in a glass tank, and that Science has become intimate with animal life thus the philosopher has nothing to do but to sit on the land-even with those creatures that are down in his night-gown and slippers, and watch too minute to be seen with the naked eye; but, the goings on, and pry into the family secretstill recently, the ocean appeared to baffle its re- using his lens when necessary—of the inhabitants searches, and in its turn to say to man in the of the deep. hollow and mysterious voice that threatens as

To preserve the transparency of the tank would well as charms : “ Thus far shalt thou go and no seem a difficult matter, from the floating myriads farther!” But all was in vain. Science, which of spores or seeds of the algæ that are constantexplores the further heavens, was not to be ar. ly finding a resting-place on the glass, and tryrested in its progress by the waters; and moving ing to curtain the whole from the water's edge to steadily onwards in this new direction, it has the bottom. To avert this danger, we employ, a now invaded the depths of the sea, and examin- couple of little slavies, the common periwink, ed, with its calm, observant eye, the forms and and as common top (Trochus); and these creamanners of its inhabitants. This has not been tures go constantly about, shearing away the ten. accomplished by means of perilous adventure der growth of vegetation as soon as it is formed, and, indeed, no perilous adventure could have and taking the crop in lieu of wages. Mr. Gosse achieved the feat. The French zoologist who watched, through his pocket-lens, a top at his proposed, some time ago, to pay a domestic work; and this was the modus operandi : “ At visit to the fishes of the Mediterranean, provided very regular intervals, the proboscis-a tube with with a water-tight dress and a breathing-tube, thick fleshy walls—is rapidly turned inside out to would have come back doubtless well able to fur- a certain extent, until a surface is brought into nish a pleasing superficial sketch, but quite ig: contact with the glass having a silky lustre: this norant of those minute details of individual life is the tongue. It is moved with a short sweep, which form the materials of natural history.

and then the tubular proboscis infolds its walls This is well illustrated in a beautiful little work again, the tongue disappearing, and every filanow before us, in which the author declares that ment of conferva being carried up into the intethe records of animals which form the founda- rior from the little area which had been swept tion of all our correct generalization, are strictly The next instant-the foot meanwhile having biographical.* He traces an idiosyncrasy in the made a small advance—the proboscis unfolds lower orders of creation somewhat akin to that again, the tongue makes another sweep, and of man; remarking that the shepherd recognizes again the whole is withdrawn; and this proceeds every sheep of his flock by its face—that the with

great regularity. I can compare the action groom is a physiognomist in horses-—and that he to nothing so well as to the manner in which the himself comprehends the expression of birds. tongue of an ox licks up the grass of the field, or By this alone he was able, while in Jamaica, to to the action of a mower cutting down swath after tell one from another the wild doves in his cages, swath as he marches along. The tongue with which although they were perfectly alike in color. the confervoid plants are swept away is a curious "Shakspeare and Scott,” adds Mr. Gosse, who instrument: “It is, in reality, an excessively detreat of man as an individual, are not inferior, in licate ribbon of transparent cartillaginous subtheir walk of science, to Reid and Stewart, who stance or membrane, on which are set spinoas describe him as a species."

teeth of glassy texture and brilliancy. They are To visit the inhabitants of the sea, in the con- perfectly regular, and arranged in three rows, of strained manner that would have been compul- which the middle ones are three-pointed, while sory in a being formed like man, would have in each of the outer rows, a three-pointed tooth been of little use as regards biographical details. alternates with a larger curved one, somewhat What, then, was to be done? To bring them to boat-like in form. All the teeth project from the as, to be sure, since we could not go comfortably surface of the tongue in hooked curves, and all to them—to have them up in a witness-box and point in the same direction. The action of this make them give an account of themselves. But

sort of tongue is that of a rasp, the projecting it was necessary to do this in a particnlar way, teeth abrading the surface of the plants on which for fish are no more at their ease out of the wa- the animal feeds, just as the lion is said to act ter, than we are under it; it was necessary to with the horny pupillæ of his tongue on the flesh bring a portion of their element with them, and of his victim. to have all their little comforts about them, such

Among the strange animals described by our as stones, sand, mud, and marine-plants; it was author as inhabiting his Aquarium, is the cephanecessary, in short, for the purposes of science, lopod called the Sepiola vulgaris; a curious little to have a piece of the sea laid upon our table: and, creature, which, when first taken from its native being necessary, this was done. The principle haunts, betrays much agitation, but finally susopon which the Aquarium is constructed the pends itself in mid water,“ like a brown moth mutual dependance of animal and vegetable life, hovering over a flower," with its protuberant eyes the former supplying the carbonic acid essential gazing on either side. “ While thus hovering mo

* The Aquarium: an Unveiling of the Wonders tionless in the water, the sepiola presents i fair of the Deep Sea. By Philip Henry Gosse, A. L. S., opportunity for observing its curious transitions etc. London: John Van Voorst, 1854.

of color, which are great and sudden. We can

scarcely assign any hue proper to it. Now it is We usually see it in the morning perched on the nearly white, or pellucid, with a faint band of brown summit of some one of the more bushy weeds in specks along the back, through which the internal the Aquarium, as the Chondrus or Phyllophora viscera glisten like silver ; in an instant the specks rubens, where it has taken its station during the become spots, that come and go, and change their night, the season of its chief activity, as of most dimensions and their forms, and appear and dis- other crustacea. It interested me much to see appear momentarily. The whole body arms, it climb: seizing the twigs above it by stretching fins, and all-the parts which before appeared out its long arms alternately, it dragged up its free, display the spots, which, when looked at at- body from branch to branch, mounting to the tentively, are seen to play about in the most sin- top of the plant deliberately, but with ease. gular manner, having the appearance of a colored While watching it, I was strongly reminded of Huid, injected with constantly varying force into the ourang-ontang at the Zoological Gardens : cavities in the substance of the skin, of ever the manner in which each of these very dissichanging dimensions. Now the spots become milar animals performed the same feat was so rings, like the markings of a panther's skin; and closely alike as to create an agreeable feeling of as the little creature moves slightly, either side surprise." bencath the fin is seen to glow with metallic lus- Every page of this fascinating work is quotatre, like that of gold-leaf seen through horn. ble; but perhaps nothing will be read with more Again the rings unite and coalesce, and form a pleasure than the account of the Aphrodite, or beautiful netted pattern of brown; which color sea-mouse. "In the Aquarium the sea-mouse increasing, leaves the interspaces a series of crawls restlessly to and fro, and round the marwhite spots on the rich dark ground. These and gin of the bottom; once or twice I have seen it other phases are every instant interchanging, and essay to burrow under the fine gravel, but genepassing suddenly and momentarily into each rally it lives exposed. It is uninteresting in its other with the atmost irregularity. But here is manners, though the brilliance of its changing a change! One is hovering in quiescence, his co- colors will always attract admiration. Perhaps lor pale, almost white; one of his fellows shoots it is most beautiful by candle-light, when red and along just over him: with the quickness of orange reflections predominate; by day, pearly thought, the alarmed creature turns from white greens and blues prevail. This difference is owto a uniform deep brown, the rich full color suf- ing to the position of the light, and the angle at fusing the skin in a second, like a blush on a which it is reflected. Thus, if the eye glance young maiden's face. The hue is very beautiful; along the bristles towards the light, which is reit is the fine, deep sienna-tint of tortoise-shell ; a flected at an obtuse angle, the reflected rays will substance which, indeed, the mingling clouds of be lilac, passing into ultramarine ; if the angle brown and pellucid horn closely resemble in the of reflection be a right angle, the rays will be intermediate phases of color.

green; if the light be between the observer and The Black Goby is a ferocious little cannibal, the animal—not directly, but obliquely, so as to about three inches long. Like other robbers and make the angle of reflection more or less acute murderers, he loves the dark, lurking at the bot- -the reflections will take yellow, orange, scarlet, tom under the shelter of rocks and weeds. If and crimson hues." very hungry, however, he will dart up even to The most curious part of the sea-mouse is the the surface to seize his prey; but turning in- expiratory machinery. “As it crawls, the Aphra stantly, he will dive down again into his lair. A dite usually elevates the tail, which is so folded youngster of the same tribe, but of a different together as to form a deep groove beneath. By family, was put into the tank, and unfortunately watching this, we see now and then ejected a caught the eye of the skulking goby, who at once stream of water, with considerable force. I found madc dash at him, and caught him by the tail, that the jet occurred once in twenty-five seconds, ingulfing it in his capacious throat. " The with punctual regularity. This is a respiratory Blackie glared like a demon, as with dilated head, act. The grooved orifice through which the jet he held fast his victim, clatching further and fur- is poured is not the termination of the intestine, ther holds by repeated jerks : the delicate pellucid as we may at first suppose, but the exit of a cahead of the unfortunate prey, projecting from pacious chamber, which is external to the body, the cavernous mouth, panted and rolled its eyes though concealed. A very marvellous and quite in pain, but there was no escape; for now noth- unparalled structure here comes into view. If we ing was visible but the head, when the ferocious take a sea-mouse into our hand, we see the victor shot under an umbrageous weed, and on my whole breadth of the back occupied by a woolly next sight of him all trace of his meal was gone." substance, closely resembling felt

, and formed by Among the denizens of the Aquarium was the interlacing of fine hairs. If we insert a penrather a rare animal, the strawberry-crab, so knife into the tail-groove, and slit up this feltcalled from its being studded with pink tubercles like cover, we expose an ample cavity running on a white ground; and between this creature the whole length of the animal, the floor of which and the ourang-outang, Mr. Gosse traces a some- is the true skin of the back, on which are set what striking analogy. The straw-berry crab," two rows of large overlapping plates, or mem. says he,“ is a climber. If it were a terrestrial ani. branous scales (elytra). The dense tissue of inmal, I should say its babits are arboreal. True, terwoven hair resembling felt acts as a filter for it now and then wanders over the bottom of its the water to be respired, straining off the earthly abode with slow and painful march, the hind particles held in it, which thus accumulate in its feet held up at an angle above the lerel of the substance, and impart that pecaliar dirty appear. back; bat generally it seeks an elevated position. ance which it possesses. The scales, according to Dr. Williams, are periodically elevated and ments, aware, probably, by the vibrations of its depressed. In the former action, the water per. huge fellow-tenant's body, that feeding was going meates the felt and fills the vacuum formed be- on. The mode and the place of the worm's aptween them and the back. As soon as it is pearance were the same in every case, and it in. full, they collapse, and the filtered fluid, now de- variably glided to the crab's mouth between the prived of its oxygen, is forcibly expelled at the two left foot-jaws. I was surprised to observe anal groove."

what a cavern opened beneath the pointed head Mr. Gosse throws much new light upon the of the nereis when it seized the morsel, and with manners of the soldier-crab, a creature destitute what force comparatively large pieces were torn of the usual defensive armor of his tribe, but off and swallowed, and how firmly the throatmaking up for the want by courage and address. jaws held the piece when it would not yield. OcHe seizes upon any empty shell of suitable size, casionally, it was dragged quite away from the and makes it his habitation ; and it is curious to crab's jaws, and quickly carried into the recesses observe him in the Aquarium becoming discon- of the shell: sometimes, in this case, he put in tented with his house, and looking out for a new one of his claws, and recovered his morsel: at one. This process, however, has been frequently others, he gave a sudden start at missing his described ; but it is less known that the soldier grasp, which frightened the worm, and made it has generally a fellow-lodger inside, while the let go and retreat; but sometimes the latter made roof of his dwelling, the spire of the shell, is good his foray, and enjoyed his plunder in secret. often the chosen abode of an anemone. This ex- The worm is itself a striking and even handtraordinary creature is a parasite, although it has some animal; and there is in its colors and their been known to exercise some volition in choosing distribution-two bright white lines running its site. When displaced from a shell, it will through the whole length on a light red ground plant itself on a stone by means of its suckers; - curious similarity to the coloring of the but of its own good-will, it would always get crab.” This worm, we may add, is much prized upon the roof of another individual's wagon, by fishermen as bait; and so commonly is it and so enjoy the pleasure of being carried. The found in the companionship above described, anemone resembles a tall, thick pillar surmount- that at Weymouth they always break the shells ed by a fringe of tentacles, that wave gallantly tenanted by the soldier-crab to look for it. at every motion of the Sinbad chosen for his The common cockle one would think, has not porter by this Old Man of the Mountain. The much more facility of voluntary motion than the companion who chums inside with the soldier is anemone; but in reality its gymnastic feats are a worm-but we will allow our naturalist to in- of some note. The tuberculated cockle, howtroduce him :“While I was feeding one of my ever, the giant of the tribe, is quite a formidable soldiers by giving him a fragment of cooked vaulter; and when a number of them are thrown meat, which he, having seized with one claw, had into a heap, they seem to defy the riot act. Our transferred to the foot-jaws, and was munching, author once turned out some of these creatures I saw protrude from between the body of the into a dish, as he knew they liked the air somecrab and the whelk-shell, the head of a beautiful times; but by and by when the family were quietly worm (Nereis bilineuta), which rapidly glided out reading, an awful uproar commenced among round the crab's right check, and, passing be. them, as if a crowd of flint-stones were battling tween the upper and lower foot jaws, seized and rattling over one another. We must now the morsel of food, and retreating, forcibly have done, however; many of our readers will dragged it from the crab's very mouth. I beheld doubtless get the volume for themselves, and, inthis with amazement, admiring that, though the dependently of its other merits, they will find it crab sought to recover his hold, he manifested a fitting ornament for the drawing-room table, not the least sign of anger at the actions of the on account of the gorgeous chromo-lithographs worm. I had afterwards many opportunities of with which it is illustrated. Some will likewise seeing this scene enacted over again ; indeed, on find it important to be able to obtain in so agreeevery occasion that I fed the crab, and watched able a way, full instructions for forming a marine its eating, the worm appeared after a few mo- aquarium, with the cost of the different sizes.

From Chambers's Journal.

ing, beautiful, still beautiful; and with a word CHANGE FOR GOLD.

I could have crushed her heart and turned

her brown hair gray. To myself, I seem to No man knoweth me, whence I come, or have two separate beings: my first existence who I am. My brother met me yesternoon, still is in my every thought, and usurps heart and brushed my shoulder; I looked into his and brain; my second self—my presenteyes, and he into mine, and we walked on dwells in my frame alone, rules my mere out our diverse ways like strangers; my mother ward action, and is loathsome and contemptimourns her dear son yet, that died twelve ble to my whole soul. I write this life for years agone, and yet he lives, and has been more than common eyes, for an end, too, ) in her company, and shaken friendly hands yet half dread to contemplate, so fearful, nay, with her not six months back. My wife, so fatal, may be its consequences. But to who, since I married her, has become the the general reader, shocked at my strange widow of another man—I saw this very morn- narration, and disbelieving in its awful truth,

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