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whereas if it belonged to coral, it might be ex-I bread-fruit tree: but now it is changed. The pected to appear at other places; unless it belongs moss is clean off the trunk, the branches are to some particular kind of coral, only found at all covered with green leaves, and they are those places where the Palolo appears; of the ex- laden with fine fruit. How changed ! how istence of which, however, there is no evidence. beautiful! You look underireath, and you Secondly, The animal, when complete, termi- see an . aloe.' When the bread-fruit tree had nates rounded at both ends, having no tenta- been found to be in a state of decay, the owner cula with which the coral building Polypifera planted an aloe-plant near its roots, and in a are possessed to operate round the mouth of very short time the influence of the aloe-plant their cells.
checked the decay, and caused it to revive, to The natives calculate with great certainty flourish, and to bring forth fruit. the day the Palolo appears, and are never Now," said the warrior chief to the mismistaken in their calculations. They go out sionary, “while you have been speaking, I in their canoes, each person having a basket, have been thinking we very much, just now, and with this he skims up the animal as it resemble the decaying, dying, worthless breadswims on the surface. It is cooked, and es- fruit tree; but God has sent you with his teemed a great dainty. Those natives fortu- Word, and he has planted you near to our nate enough to secure it, carry it to their side. Now, do not be soon discouraged, -do friends round the island, who live where it not fear. Very soon we shall revive,-we does not appear.
From the day of its appear-shall flourish and bring forth good fruit." ance the natives begin the six months which I have related this anecdote, to introduce they call Vae Palolo, or winter season. We to your notice the fact that an aloe planted have no instance on any of the other islands near the withering bread-fruit tree causes it to of this animal being found; yet on most of revive. It is a beautiful fact, and, generally the land in the east the winter season is called known, might lead some learned in botany to Palolo er Paroro.
inquire into the causes, etc.
THE ALOE, AND THE BREAD FRUIT
HAND-BELLS AT FUNERALS. -- A few years TREE.
ago I happened to arrive at the small sea.port of
Roscoff, near the ancient cathedral town of St. Communicated by the Rev. Mr. Gill.
Pol de Leon in Britanny, on the day appointed A MISSIONARY on one of the Samoa islands, for the funeral of one of the members of a family during a time of war, went to visit a part of of very old standing in that neighborhood. My the enemies' tribe in one of their strongholds. attention was attracted by a number of boys runThe tribe, with their chief
, listened very at- ning about the streets with small hand-belis, with tentively to the address given by the mission- quiring of a friend of mine, a native of the place,
which they kept up a perpetual tinkling. On inary. At its close the chief arose to reply. what this meant, he informed me that it was an Profound silence prevailed ; and with great old custom in Britanny- but one which in politeness the old warrior addressed the mis- the present day had almost fallen into disuse sionary in the following terms :
to send boys round from door to door with bells We take it very kindly that you have to announce when a death had occurred, and to been at so much trouble to come so far and so give notice of the day and the hour at which the difficult a road to exhort us to-day. Many funeral was to take place, begging at the same thanks to you for your kindness. We have time the prayers of the faithful for the soul of listened with attention to your address ; and the deceased. The boys selected for this office all that you have said is true, especially that the day of the funeral, receive cloaks of coarse
are taken from the most indigent classes, and, on which you have said respecting our wicked- black cloth as an alms : thus attired, they attend ness. We are indeed very bad, --we feel it to the funeral procession, tinkling their bells as they be so; and you have not said half that might go along.
Notes and Queries. be said respecting it.".
Pausing a little and looking round on the valley below, he said,—“ You Bave now been Epitaph on a child in Morwenstow church living some time in our country, and in your yard : travels, you have often seen a bread-fruit tree
Those whom God love die young! withered, dying, all but dead, moss covering They see no evil days; its trunk, no leaves on its branches, no fruit.
No falschood taints their tongue, You have thought,-alas! alas ! this once fine
No wickedness their ways ! tree is now only fit to be cut down and cast into the fire.
Baptized, and so made sure
'i'o win their blest abode; A few months after you have returned What could we pray for more ? that way, you have looked again on that They die, and are with God!
From Chambers's Journal.
impossible to land them on higher ground withA LAUDATION OF TRASH.
out using that as a stepping-stone.
It is vain to talk of the higher class of periodi. It is not many years since Chambers's Edin- cals competing with the low; they cannot do so burgh Journal was the only extensive distributer, without changing their character and becoming throughout the country, of wholesome knowledge low themselves. Ir the demand had been for and as wholesome entertainment. The case is high-class literature at a cheaper rate, it would very different now. Whether that work created a have been met in spite of the paper-duty; but taste, or merely supplied a want, is of little con. the demand was for low-class literature, and that sequence ; the great fact is, that the demand did alone ; and if the price of all kinds were equal. increase, gradually but steadily, and in that brief ized, the very same relative circulation would be interval has been answered by the appearance of maintained that exists to-day. And why? other journals, variously modified, which, without Because readers whose minds are in the earlier diminishing the popularity of the magna purens, stages of development are, and probably always have more than doubled the circulation of this will be, by far the most numerous class. The kind of literature. The importance of the fact, hostility of the better journals to Trash is unfair taken by itself, no one will question ; it stands and ungrateful; for the latter is their grand reincontrovertibly thus — that there are at present cruiting-field. Without this training seminary, at l ist double the number of persons who seek, it could be only by slow and painful efforts they in ti cheap periodicals, interesting information would gain over a single man. They might reand refined amusement than there were a few main as steady as the journal mentoined at the years ago. This increase is not accounted for by beginning of this article did for many years; but any cline in the sale of «xpensive books: they could not increase and multiply as they even if such existed, it woulil be much more than have done, and they would not now spring forcompens:tcil, so far as the number of readers is ward individually as some of us are doing. concerneal, by the popular libraries and reprints, Trasli is .ot bought because it is cheap. The whose name is Legion.
cheapness merely brings it within the reach of We have heard it saiil that the progress thus those who will buy it because it is trash, and distinctly markerl is comterlalanced in another who would buy nothing of a better kind at any way: that the new demand for wholesome litera- price. Literature, in so far as the demand and ture is not a title of the new demand for what is supply are concerneil. is subject to the ordinary cither positively pernicious, or at best valgar and laws of political economy. It finds its own trashy. Now, as for the positively pernicious, it channel. and will not vield to force; but it is does not fairly come, we think, into a question unlike material commodities in this, that it has of this kind ; for its existence is attributable within itself a principle which insensibly elevates solely to the supineness of Government in not the character of the demand. The reader rises enforcing the laws it has made, or to its stolidity above the lower quality unconsciously to himin so constructing the laws as to make the en self; he exhausts the nutrition it affords; and, forcement impossible. But with regard to the to appease the continuing hunger and thirst of immense body of literature distinguisheıl merely the soul, he at length seeks a new and richer by bad taste and low intelligenre, we have some. pabulum. thing more to say ; for we hold that the demand The real competition is among works of the it ineets is as indubitably a step in advance as better class; and this competition, when its obthe demand for wholsesome literature.
ject is mere circulation, is not of a wholesome The half-million, or more, readers of such kind. All such works are valuable ; and all anworks had no existence a small number of years swer a positive demand, and address themselves ago. Their minds had not begin to awaken, and to a distinctive class. Some are light and gay, they had not yet entered upon that course of pro- some serious and earnest; some impart informgression which is the natural state of human be, ation, as if they wished it to penetrate to the ings. The first stirrings of their untutored mind; others give it through the menstruum of thought, when these at length began, found no a joke. as gooil-natured doctors exhibit medicine sympathy in the higher class of literature. They to children, wrapped in sweetmeats; some min. yearned 'instinctively for something they could ister specially to tastes of one kind, some to feel and comprehendi ; and the something came. tastes of another kind; but all supply a demand, It came in a form of thought just higher than and all represent, respectively, the individual their own, in a play of fancy their humble taste status of particular portions of the community. could appreciate, in romantic fiction that coulil Competition among such works should not neg. be delightedly enjoyed by minds which had not lect circulation, for that would strike at the root opened to a conception of the artistical. and had of utility as well as profit ; but it should take no higher standards of comparison. The thing the character of a generous rivalry, as to which that came is pronounced by the supercilious to competitor, without compromising its populari. be Trash. Be it so ; that name will do as well ty, should do the most to inform, enlighten, and as an' ther. But we have a profound respect for refine. this Trash ; since it has cnabled vast masses of But our present business is with Trashthe people to enter upon a course of progress, praiseworthy and respectable Trash. Let it not and has commenced a development of their grudge the recruits it educates and turns over to moral and intellectual powers which nothing can a higher service, for this loss will be more than stop. It is as impossible to prevent its readers compensated by a daily addition to its own from rising beyond Trash, as it would have been numbers rising from the denser and darker
masses of the people. It will never be other. but of the arts—the education considered newise than a great and powerful estate in litera- cessary not being that of the mind, but that of ture, so long as there are children of men born the eye. in ignorance and misery, and impelled by the We end as we began. Trash is one of the instincts of their nature to grope after light and great facts of the age; and we trust that its halfknowledge. It is true, there are powerful influ- million patrons may increase rather than diminences at work against it; for the connection be-ish. They cannot increase from the higher ranks tween taste and virtue has been recognized even of intelligence-that is impossible; for the spirit by government, and, so far as material objects of man ascends as the sparks fly upwards. are concerned, there are now schools of design Teach a little gamin merely to read and write, throughout the country, in which refinement is and he takes to Trash as naturally as a duck taught as a matter of policy. This, no doubt, ling takes to the ditch; but, unlike the duckwill cventually contribute towards the general ling, he is by and by hungered upon the nutri. elevation of the people; but it is comfortable ment he finds in it-his taste expands, his aspifor Trash to think that the process will be so rations soar, he becomes ambitious of the pond slow as to be hardly perceptible, the new move- —then of the lake-then of the ocean.
Vicant ment not being in the direction of literaturc, Frivola !
We have received a copy of " Langstroth on current of air is drawn out from one, an equal the Hive and the Honey Bec,—a Beekeepers' current will force its way into the other, and the Manual, by the Rev. L. L. Langstroth,-publish- lamp will burn until the oil is exhausted.
It is precisely on this principle, of maintaining ed by Hopkins, Bridgman & Company, North- a double current by artificial incans, that the bees ampton."
ventilate their crowded habitations. A body of This work is not only practical and interest- active ventilators stands inside of the hive, as
well as outside, all with their heads turned tow. ing for its special purpose—bö* contains matters ards the entrance, and by the rapid fanning of relating to the well being of other people besides their wings, a current of air is blown briskly out Bees. Read the following chapter on the
of the hive, and an equal current drawn in. This
important office is one which requires great phy. VENTILATION OF THE BEE HIVE.
sical exertion on the part of those to whom it is
entrusted ; and if their proceedings are carefully If a populous hive is examined on a warm watched, it will be found that the exhausted ven. Summer day, a considerable number of bees will tilators, are, from time to time, relieved by fresh be found standing on the alighting board, with detachments. If the interior of the hive will adtheir heads turned towards the entrance, the ex- mit of inspection, in very hot weather. large numtremity of their bodies slightly clevated and their bers of these ventilators will be found in regular wings in such rapid motion that they are almost files, in various parts of the hive, all busily enga. as indistinct as the spokes of a wheel, in swift ged in their laborious employment. If the enrotation on its axis. A brisk current of air may trance at any time is contracted, a speedy accesbe felt proceeding from the hivc, and if a small sion will be made to the numbers, both inside piece of down be suspended by a thread, it will and outside ; and if it is closed entirely, the heat be blown out from one part of the entrance, and of the hive will quickly increase the whole colodrawn in at another. What are these bees ex- ny will commence a rapid vibration of their pecting to accomplish, that they appear so deep-wings, and in a few moments will drop lifeless ly absorbed in their fanning occupation, while from the combs, for want of air. busy numbers are constantly crowding in and out It has been proved by careful experiments that of the hive? and what is the meaning of this pure air is necessary not only for the respiration double current of air ? To Huber we owe the of the mature bees, but that without it, neither first satisfactory explanation of these curious the eggs can be hatched, nor the larva developed. phenomena. These bees plying their rapid wings A fine netting of air-vessels covers the eggs; and in such a singular attitude, are performing the the cells of the larvæ are sealed over with a cov. important business of rentilating the hive; and cring which is full of air holes. In Winter, as this double current is composed of pure air rush. has been stated in the Chapter on Protection, ing in at one part, to supply the place of the foul bees, if kept in the dark, and neither too warm air forced out at another. By a scries of the nor too cold, are almost dormant, and seem to most careful and beautiful experiments, Huber require but a small allowance of sir; but even ascertained that the air of a crowded hive is al- under such circumstances, they cannot live enmost, if not quite, as pure as the atmosphere by entirely without air; and if they are excited by which it is surrounded. Now, as the entrance to being exposed to atmospheric changes, or by besuch a hive is often, (more especially in a state ing disturbed, a very loud humming may be of nature), very small, the interior air cannot be heard in the interior of their hives, and they need renewed without resort to some artificial means. quite as much air as in warm weather. If a lamp is put into a close vessel with only one If at any time, by moving their hives, or in small orifice, it will soon exhaust all the oxygen, any other way, bees are greatly disturbed, it will and go out. If another small orifice is made, the be unsafe to confine them, especially in warm same result will follow; but if by some device a' weather, unless a very free admission of air is given to them, and even then, the air ought to stituents of atmosphere, and to decide how large be admitted above, as well as below the mass of a proportion of oxygen is essential to the support bees, or the ventilators may become clogged with of life, and how rapidly the process of breathing dead bees, and the swarm may perish. Under converts this important clement into a deadly close confinement, the bees becoine excessively poison. It has not, like Leibių, been able to heated, and the combs are often melted down. demonstrate that God has set the animal and When bees are confined to a close atmosphere, vegetalle world, the one over against the other; especially if dampness is added to its injurious so that the carbonic acid produced by the breathinfluences, they are sure to become discased ; and ing of the one, furnishes the aliment of the other; large numbers, if not the whole colony, perish which, in turn, gives out its oxygen for the sup; from dysentery. Is it not under circumstances port of animal life; and that, in this wonderful precisely similar, that cholera and dysentery prove manner, God has provided that the atmosphere most fatal to human beings? lluiv often do the shall, through all ages, le as pure as when it first filthy, damp and unventilated abodes of the ab- caine from llis creating hand. But shamc upon
ject poor, become perfect lazar-livuses to their us! that with all our intelligencc, the most of us wretched inmates ?
live as though puri air was of little or no imI examined, last Summer, the bees of a new portance: while the bee ventilates with a scienswarm which had been suffocated for want of tific precision and thoroughness, that puts to the air, and found their bodies distended with ir yel- blush our criminal neglect. low and noisonic substancı, just as thepigh they To this it may be replied that ventilation in had perishıcsl frim dysentery. A few were still our case, cannot be had, withont considerable alive, anil instead of huney, their bodies were expensc. Can it be liad for nothiing, by the infilled with this samc lisgusting fluidl; though the dustrious bees? Those busy insects, which are bces la nuit beun shut up, more than two so indefatigably plying their wings, aru not en. hours.
gaged in idlu musu ment; nor inight thuy, as In a mcdical point of view, I consider these some would-be utilit:ıriun may imagine, be better facts as highly inter sting; showing as they do, empleyed in gathering honcy, or in superintend under what circumstances, and how speedily, ing some other department in the uconomy of discase may be prluccl.
the hive. They are at great expense of time In very hot weather, if thin hives are exposcd ind labor, supplying the rest of the culiny with to the sun's rays, the liccs il excessively an- pure air, so conducive in cvery way, to thcir noyc.l by the intense heat, and have recourse to health and prosperity. the most powerful ventilation, n:vt merely to I trust that I shall be permitted to digress, for ker, the air of the hive pure, but to carry it, as a short time, from becs t' men, anl that the much as possible, its internal warmth. They remarks which I shall offer on the subject of venoften leave the interi: is if the hiv', almost in a tilation in human dwellings, may make a deeper boily, :und in thick masses, cluster in the outside, impression, in cinnection with the wise arangenot simply to escape the close heat within, but ments of the bee, than they woull, if presented to guar I th ir comlis against the danger of baing in the shape of a inere scientific discussion; and dissolved. At such times they are particularly that some who have been in the habit of considcareful neitt luster in the combs containing cring all air, except in the particular of temperascalcıl in y; for as most of these combs have ture, as about alike, may be thoroughly convinced not been lineal with the c coons f the larvæ, they of their mistake. arc, fir this reas 11, as well as on acc int of the Recent statistics prove that consumption and extra am unt of wax uscil for their covers, much its kindred diseases are most fearfully on the inmore liable to be melted, than the breeding crease, in the Northern, and more especially in the cells.
New-England States; and that the general inortalApiarians havr often noticed the fact, that as ity of Massachusetts exceeds that of almost evea general thing, the bees leave the honey cells ry other State in the Union. In thesc States, almost entirely barc, as soon as they have sealed the tendency of increasing attention to manufacthem ver; but it seems to have escaped their turing and mechanical pursuits, is to compel a obscrvation, that in hot weather, there is often larger and larger proportion of the population to an alsoluto necessity for such a course. In cool lead an in-door life, and to breathe an atmosphere weather, on the contrary, the bees may often be more or less vitiated, and thus untit for the full found clustered among the scaled honcy.combs, development of vigorous health. The importance because there is then 10 danger of their melting of pure air can hardly be over-estimated; indeed, down.
the quality of the air wc breathe, seems to exert Few things in the range of their wonderful an influence much more powerful, and hardly less instincts, are so well fitted to impress the mind direct, than the mere quality of our food. 'l'hose with their admirable sagacity, as the truly scien- who, by active exercise in the open air, keep their tific devicc, by which these wise little inscets lungs saturated as it were with the pure eleme t, ventilate their dwellings. I was on the point of can cat almost anything with impunity ; while saying that is was almost like human reason, those who breathe the sorry apology for air when the painful and mortifying reflection pre- which is to be found in so many habitations sented itself to my mind that in respect to venti- although they may live upon the most nutritious lation, the bec is immensely in advance of the diet, and avoid the least excess, are incessantly great mass of those who consider themselves as troubled with head-ache, dyspepsia, and various rational beings. It has, to be sure, no ability to mental as well as physical sufferings. Well may make an elaborate analysis of the chemical con- such persons, as they witness the healthy forms and happy faces of so many of the hardy sons of necessary to the support of life, he could not toil, exclaim with the old Latin poet
have lived there an hour without suffocation; I
have frequently thought that if the occupants of Oh dura messorum illia!
the rooms I have been describing, could only
know as much, they would be in almost similar It is with the human family very much as it is danger. with the vegetable kingdom : take a plant or tree, Bad air, one would think, is bad enough : but and shut it out from the pure air and the invigo- when it is heated and dried to an excessive derating light, and though you may supply it with gree, all its original vileness is stimulated to an abundance of water, and the very soil which, greater activity, and thus made doubly injurious by the strictest chemical analysis, is found to by this new element of evil. Not only our pricontain all the elements that arc essential to its vate houses, but our churches and school-rooms, vigorous growth, it will still be a puny thing, our railroad cars, and all our places of public asrendy to droop if exposed to a summer's sun, or semblage are, to a most lamentable degree, either to be prostrated by the first visitation of a vin- unprovided with any means of ventilation, or, to ter's blast. Compare, now, this wretched abortion a great extent, supplied with those which are so with an oak or maple which has grown upon the wretchedly deficient that they comparatively sterile mountain-pasture, and whose branches, in summer, are the pleasant re- Keep the word of promise to our ear, sort of the happy songsters, while, under its
And break it to our hope.” mighty shade, the panting herds drink in a refreshing coolness. In winter it laughs at the mighty That ultimate degeneracy must surely follow storms which wildly toss its giant branches in the such entire disregard of the laws of health canair, and which serve only to exercise the limbs not be doubted; and those who imagine that the of the sturdy tree, whose roots, deep intertwined physical stamina of a peoole can be undermined, among its native rocks, enable it to bid defiance and yet that their intellectual, moral and religito anyrhing short of a whirlwind or tornado. gious hcalth will suffer no eclipse or decay, know
To a population who. for more than two-thirds very little of the intimate connection between of the year, are compelled to breathe an atmos- tody and mind, which the Creator has seen fit to phere heated by artificial means. the question how establish. can this air be made, at a moderate expense, to The men may, to a certain extent, resist the resemble as far as possible the purest ether of the injurious influences of foul air; as their employ skies, is (or, as I should rather say, ought to be)ments usually compel them to live much more out a question of the utmost interest. When open of doors : but alas, alas ! for the poor women! Iu fires were used, there was no lack of purc air, the very land where women are treated with whatever else might have been deficient. A ca- more universal deference and respect than in any pacious chimney carried up, through its insatia. other, and where they so well deserve it, there ble throat, immense volumes of air, to be re- often, no provision is made to furnish them with placed by the pure element, whistling in glee, that great element of health, cheerfulness and through every crack, crevice, and key-hole. beausy, heaven's pure, fresh air. Now, the house-builder and stove-maker, with In Southern climes, where doors and windows but few exceptions,* seem to have joined hands may be safely kept open for a large part of the in waging a most effectual warfare against the year, pure air is cheap enough, and can be obunwelcome intruder. By labor-saving machinery, tained without any special effort: but in Norththey contrive to make the one, the joints of his ern latitudes, where heated air must be used for wood-work, and the other, those of his iron-work, nearly three quarters of the year, the neglect of tighter and tighter, and if it were possible for ventilation is fast causing the health and beauty them to accomplish fully their manifest design, of our women to disappear. The pallid cheek, they would be able to furnish rooms almost as fa. or the hectic flush, the angular form and distorttal to life as “ the Black Hole of Calcutta.” But ed spine, the debilitated appearance of a large in spite of all that they can do, the materials will portion of our females, which to a stranger, shrink, and no fuel has yet been found, which would seem to indicate that they were just rewill burn without any air, so that sufficient venti- covering from a long illness, all these indications lation is kept up, to prevent such deadly occur of the lamentable absence of physical health, to rences. Still they are tolerably successful in keep say nothing of the anxious care-worn faces and ing out the unfriendly element; and by the use premature wrinkles, proclaim in sorrowful voices, of huge cooking-stoves with towering ovens and our violation of God's physical laws, and the other salamander-contrivances, the little air that arcadful penalty with which He visits our transcan find its way in, is almost as thoroughly gressions. cooked as are the various delicacies destined for
Our people must, and I have no doubt that the table.
eventually they will he most thoroughly aroused On reading an account of a runaway slave, to the necessity of a vital reform on this imporwho was for a considerable time, closely boxed tant subject. Open stoves, and cheerful grates up, a gentleman remarked that if the poor fellow and fire-places will again be in vogue with the had only known that a renewal of the air was mass of the people, unless some better mode of * The beautiful open or Franklin-stoves, manu
warming shall be devised, which, at less expense, factured by Messrs. Jagger, Treadwell, & Perry, of shall make still more ample provision for the Albany, deserve the highest cominendation: they constant introduction of fresh air. Houses will economizo fuel as well as life and health.
be constructed, which, although more expensive