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Lord Derby held nearly the same language. | are not to be united in arms for an insignificant He declared that, little as Englishmen like war, result. We must all be agreed that repression they would like a dishonorable peace still less; will only postpone the danger, and that safety and that that would be a dishonorable peace alone can be sought in curtailing a power which which should leave Russia in possession of her menances the peace of Europe and the cause of recent conquests and able again to disturb progress and civilization. the tranquillity of Europe, or which should leave the tribes of the Caucasus exposed to her vengeance, and the Danube a receptacle for her filth. Lord Clarendon, as became his official position, was somewhat less specific, but not one whit less clear and decisive in his language. He declared that, whatever might be the ostensible language of notes and protocols, neither Austria nor the Western Powers had entered into any engagement to respect the integrity of Russia, and that neither she nor we would allow Nicholas to escape with no worse punishment than simple failure.

The independent politician, the opposition leader, and the responsible Minister, then, all agree in affirming that Russia must be effectually weakened; that she must not only prom ise to do right in future, but must be made in capable of doing wrong; that to neglect this opportunity of securing that result would be a folly and a crime; and that to lay down our arms without having secured it would be eqivalent to a defeat. We cannot conceal the gratification, the comfort, with which we have read these declarations. For the first time since the commencement of the war we breathe

freely. We are no longer afraid of profitless campaigns, feeble negotiations, and a dishonorable peace. We perceive that our statesmen have grasped the magnitude of the ques tion and the splendor of the opportunity, and though the struggle may not have brought forth all the fruits which at one time we hoped from it, of better days for European freedom, been struck by the humiliation of the mightiest yet the first great blow at despotism will have

Under these circumstances I think that we may have some confidence in the assurances Austria has given us, that her objects and views are the same as ours, and that in the prosecution of those objects and views we shall always find her with us. Nor can I believe that, after the knowledge which Austria has acquired of Russian diplomacy-after the experience she has had of the utter disregard of Austrian interests-after the vast expense she has now incurred, and the great risks to which she may be exposed-I cannot believe, as the noble Lord would almost of despots. Our exertions and our sacrifices seem to infer, that Austria would be so wanting will not have been in vain. to her interests and dignity as to conclude a peace We must not, however, indulge in prema such as that to which he has referred. Such a ture pæans. Success has so far attended the peace would be nothing but a short and hollow righteous cause, but that success is still only truce, to which England and France could be no imperfect, and the cause is not yet won. parties-a peace which would afford no guaran-"Much has been done, but more remains to tees for the future, which would be indeed a tri- do." The enemy may have been driven back umph to Russia, and would leave Austria hereafter more than ever exposed to the pernicious influence and aggressive policy of Russia. There was another point in reference to the terms in which the peace should be made. I cannot say, nor do I think any of your Lordships would undertake to say, on what terms peace can be made, because those terms must depend on the chances and contingences of the war; and, indeed, if I did know on what terms we should be prepared to make peace, I am sure your Lordships would agree with me that it would be imprudent at this three new foes, each singly more powerful moment to divulge them. We may have our than the old one. The odds are desperate! own opinions as to what may be desirable in that respect, but none of us can tell what may be but we should probably be dangerously de possible. This we know, however, that the poli- ceived if we imagined that the Czar has any cy and power of Russia are dangerous to the intention of yielding. On the contrary, it peace and well-being of Europe, and that they appears probable that he is concentrating his are dangerous to the cause of progress and civil- forces on the Moldavian frontier with the pur ization. We must all of us know that the object pose of a decisive struggle with Austria, if that and the interests of Europe must be to curtail that power and to check that policy, and that if him. He is preparing for that defensive game power should actually take the field against this opportunity be neglected of doing that, it within his own dominions which we long ago would be vain to hope that such a thing would

brudscha may again fall into Turkish power across the Danube, and fortresses of the Do It is, too, a great thing that all the victories hitherto won, and all the great aggressive en terprises baffled, have been due solely to the Ottoman armies. The prestige of Russian invincibility is destroyed forever. Russia has been met, checked, and defeated with severe loss in nearly every engagement by the Turks alone. She has now to make head against

ever occur again. My Lords, all Europe is not pointed out as the safest for him and the most But if our allies are true to be disturbed-great interests are not to be dis-dang rous for us. located-great commercial and social risks are to, and if we are true to ourselves, we may not to be run, and the greatest powers of Europe feel confident of prompt and brilliant success.

If Austria should enter into the strife in earn- the hostile designs of Austria are beyond est, we may leave to her and Turkey combined doubt, to carry the war across the frontier inthe task of driving him out of the Principali- to Transylvania, and trust to an Hungarian ties and fortifying them against future inva- insurrection in his favor. If, unhappily, that sion. The English and French troops will should take place, it would unquestionably then be set at liberty for the grand coup of the place England in a very embarrassing position. campaign the destruction of Sebastopol, and Austria, by joining our alliance, would in that possibly the conquest of the Crimea. This case have brought upon herself not only a may be a difficult achievement, but it is still foreign but a domestic enemy. Her foreign more difficult to believe that 50,000 of the foe is ours also; her domestic foe is one of her best soldiers in Europe, aided by the most own making, with whose wrongs we heartily powerful fleets ever sent to sea, cannot accom- sympathize-her treatment of whom our na plish it. That done, the liberation of the tion execrates, and even our Government disCaucasus and the independence of Georgia approves. She may appeal to us for aid. It must soon follow. Whether Russia may then is simply impossible that we could give it in sue for peace, or resolve on an obstinate pros- Hungary or against Hungarians. No British ecution of the war, will be a matter of very Ministry could perpetrate such a crime. The small importance. Such fleets and armies as British nation would never permit such a cruel may be necessary for the retention of the Cri- insult, both to its character and feelings. We mea and the blockade of the Baltic, may be should, however, by a vigorous prosecution permanently kept there without any great bur- of hostilities against Russia in the Crimea and den on our resources. The object of the war the Principalities, be virtually thwarting the will be gained, whether peace be signed or Hungarian movement. That would be inevitable, and Hungary would have brought it on herself. But it would be a matter for deep regret and grief if, in our just efforts to baffle one injustice, we were thus compelled to be

not.

One contingency alone gives us any anxiety. It is that to which we have alluded at the commencement of our remarks. As far as we can guess at Russian movements by the uncer- reluctant agents in facilitating the perpetratain light of telegraphic information, it seems tion of another. Let us hope that the dilemma not unlikely that Nicholas intends, as soon as may be averted.

KNOW YOURSELF.-It is a very wise rule in the conduct of the understanding, to acquire early a correct notion of your own peculiar constitution of mind, and to become well acquainted, as a physician would say, with your idiosyncrasy, Are you an acute man, and see sharply for small distances? or are you a comprehensive man, and able to take in wide and extensive views into your mind? Does your mind turn its ideas into wit? or are you apt to take a common-sense view of the objects presented to you? Have you an exuberant imagination, or a correct judgment? Are you quick, or slow? accurate, or hasty? a great reader, or a great thinker? It is a prodigious point gained if any man can find out where his powers lie, and what are his deficiences-if he can contrive to ascertain what nature intended him for: and such are the changes and chances of the world, and so difficult is it to ascertain our own understandings, or those of others, that most things are done by persons who could have done something else better. If you choose to represent the various parts in life by holes upon a table, of different shapes-some circular, some triangular, some square, some oblong-and the persons acting these parts by bits of wood of similar shapes, we shall generally find that the triangular person has got into the square hole, the oblong into the triangular, and a square person has squeezed himself into the round hole. The officer and the office, the doer and the thing done, seldom fit so exactly, that we can say they were almost made for each other.

There is one circumstance I would preach up morning, noon, and night, to young persons, for the management of their understanding. Whatever you are from nature, keep to it; never desert your own line of talent. If Providence only intended you to write posies for rings, or mottoes for twelfth-cakes, keep to posies and mottoes: a good motto for a twelfth-cake is more respectable than a villanous epic poem in twelve books. Be what nature intended you for, and you will succeed; be anything else, and you will be ten thou sand times worse than nothing.—Sidney Smith.

INSTANTANEOUS FLOWERING OF PLANTS.THE plants selected-a group of geraniums and a rose-tree-were planted in two rather deep boxes of garden mould, previously prepared with some chemical manure, and were then covered with glass-shades. Mr. Herbert proceeded to pour over the roots, from a small watering-pot, a chemical mixture which caused a great heat, as was shown by an intense steam of vapor evolved within the shades, and allowed to some extent to escape through a small hole in the top, which at first was kept closed. The effect upon the geraniums was almost instantaneous, the buds beginning to burst in five or six minutes, and the plants being in full bloom within ten minutes, when the blossoms were gathered by Mr. Herbert, and distributed amongst the ladies pres ent.-Year-book of Facts.

From The Spectator.

KNIGHT'S OLD PRINTER AND MOD-
ERN PRESS.*

to assist the attraction of cheap letterpress. What the Useful Knowledge Society and Constable really did in the way of novelty, was to introduce copyright books into cheap literature. Constable's books, indeed, were generally slight, sometimes perhaps trashy; and indeed much of our present boasting is reducible to books that cannot be got rid of at a higher figure. The Society's copyrights were original; often ponderous and heavy,

ONE half of this volume is the result of half a life's research, reflection, experience, and struggle. The "Old Printer" is the revised biography of Caxton, originally published in the Weekly Volume. The "Modern Press' is an historical sketch of the numbers, prices, and circulation of books, from the invention with occasionally a sort of dull prosiness of printing to the present time; in fact, the about them that militated against a popular story of cheapening and cheap literature. In success. A greater stimulus was given about this survey, Mr. Knight may possibly overrate the same time by the accident of Cooper's the literary character and importance of the earliest and raciest novels being without copyUseful Knowledge Society; and, as we shall right; cheap editions of which indicated that show presently there are omissions in his there was a large public ready to buy new sketch. The whole, however, is a remarkable books whose first or fashionable attraction was contribution to literary history; exhibiting past, if they were brought within their means. great research and great practical knowledge, Bentley and Colburn acted upon this idea full of curious facts and sound remarks as well in their libraries of fiction; the misfortunes of as of their useful application. Scott and the partial expiration of Byron's After a brief notice of the earliest of printed copyrights worked together in the same books, the various editions of the Bible, and direction; but the ne plus ultra of copyright the enterprise of the Alduses, Stephenses, and cheapness, or at least of low price, was not Plantins, in issuing cheap volumes of the Clas- attained till Messrs. Simms and M'Intyre besics, Mr. Knight rapidly traces the story of gan to publish copyright novels in their Parincreasing demand and diminishing cost, till lor Library at a shilling. The truest cheaphe reaches Bell's edition of the Poets, com- ness, we believe, will be found in Longman's menced between seventy and eighty years Traveller's Library or works of the same form, ago; from this he passes to the Circulating and in some of Murray's and Moxon's publiLibrary, and then to the Society for promoting cations. Whether much sound or solid inforUseful Knowledge. There was much doing, mation can be imparted by the bulk of the however, between Bell and the Society. Cooke cheap books that are now circulated by milpublished a more popular selection of the lions, or whether they can contribute to form Poets than Bell's; to which he added Novel- a literary taste, or that still lower thing called ists, and such miscellaneous works as the a "taste for reading." is very doubtful. In"Spectator;" while by means of two editions, formation or critical perception cannot be aca fine paper and a common paper, he supplied quired by running through" amusing" books, standard books at a really cheap rate. Walker or inflated, exciting, flashy novels, at a speed sent forth his "Classics," comprising some of almost as rapid as the railway carriage in which the best works in English belles lettres, in a the reader sits. It is possible that the gain large Elzevir form; and he had several re- upon this class of books profits the publisher spectable followers or imitators. When allow- as little as the reader. Hear the opinion of ance is made for the difference of taste, the Mr. Knight upon the matter. greater cheapness of paper and of wages now, with the introduction of steam and roller- "In addition to the collections just enumerprinting, it is a question whether our presentated, we have the new Libraries, whether known cheapness has gone very much beyond Walk- as Cheap Series, Parlor Library, Pocket Libraer's Classics, regard being had to the whole of ry, Railway Library, or Readable Books. These the circumstances. Editions of popular plays, are, for he most part, devoted to novels, old and under various titles, were quite as cheap as new, and to American reprints. In this form now, the same regard being had to circum- Uncle Tom's Cabin' rushed into a circulation stances; for cheapness beyond the actual cost which no book with the exception of Bible and and the usual rate of profit cannot go on for Prayer-book, and perhaps some spelling-book, long. Before either Constable or the Society Lytton is to reach a popularity which no novelist had taken any practical steps towards cheap ever before reached; and to be paid the extrav Literature, Limbird in the Mirror, and in agant sum of 20,000l. for the exclusive sale of his several standard or popular works, had ap- works for the next ten years, as we are assured pealed to the masses, and applied wood-cuts in the Times. We hear of enormous profits made, and fortunes realized, by these books They meet the eye on every railway stall and in every stationer's window, glittering in green and

ever before attained. Here Sir Edward Bulwer

The Old Printer and the Modern Press. By Charles Knight. Published by Murray.

crimson. But we also sometimes hear of large such a thorough acquaintance with the history stocks of unsaleable ventures, and of consequent of publication, and so much sensible and evil fortune, in spite of one or two profitable original thought on all which relates to the undertakings. We have great confidence in the literature as well as the business of cheap largest sales of the cheapest edition of an attrac-books. tive book by an author of reputation; but we The durable and costly materials of many have no confidence in the large individual sale of a great number of such distinct books, each manuscripts, coupled with the labor and artistjostling the other in the race for popularity. We ical skill bestowed upon them, raised them believe that the sale of many such works has above the caprices of fashion into the class of been much exaggerated. We hear that the art. It is probable that time rather increased margin of profit, as commercial men say, is very than diminished the value of most manuscripts. narrow, and leaves little surplus to cover risk. With the invention of printing, or at least after Of one thing we are clear. Whatever sum may Aldus had discarded the folio and quarto for be paid for a great name, the natural sale of the handier forms, cheap books were attainable books of this class can afford very little for the by the poor scholar as second-hand books. payment of copyright in ordinary cases. The paper, machine-work, and binding, we are in- Death, extravagance, fashion, sent stores of formed, of one of the shilling volumes, will cost, learning to the stalls; and though the process for an impression of 10,000, about 2201., and the might be slow, it was quicker than we imagine. trade expenses and advertising will raise that cost By the seventeenth century books were turned to 250l. This is 6d. per copy. They are sold to even viler uses. The "trunkmaker" or wholesale at 8s. for 13 copies; which leaves a surplus of about 60%. But the setting up the types and the stereotyping will cost about 401. There is 20. then left for the publisher upon 10,000. If he sells 20,000 there is 80. Where is the fund for the payment of authorship? Is it to be assumed that a sale of 40,000 or 50,000 copies may at present be attained for such works under ordinary conditions? If not, is the cheapest supply of reading for these kingdoms to be kept up by piracies from America or republications of expired copyrights? We doubt if this trade generally is in a healthy position at any rate, we fear that we must scarcely look to this class of books for making "cheap literature" And this reduction or degradation, or whatwhat it might be made by judicious manage-ever we may call it, must of necessity be the ment-an instrument of great public good."

66

case, from the vast number of failures in authorship. The surviving authors of Charles the Second's time can almost be reckoned on the fingers, and there was then hardly a general reading public at all; yet Mr. Knight tells us that new books averaged nearly one hundred a year.

wrapping-paper" was a common jest against had writers, and the Augustan age witnessed more varied uses. Cibber, in his depression, thus apostrophizes the manuscripts he is about

to burn

"Ye shall not beg, like gratis-given Bland,
Sent with a pass, and vagrant through the land;
Nor sail with Ward, to ape and monkey climes,
Where vile Mundungus trucks for viler rhymes:
Not sulphur-tipt emblaze an alehouse fire;
Not wrap up oranges, to pelt your sire!"

That this cheap reading is better than the indecent or immoral stuff which still circulates though in a less degree than formerly, not at a lower price but in the cheaper-looking mode of numbers, cannot be disputed. We conceive it to be very doubtful whether the rage for cheap copyrights is of much benefit. The "The earliest Catalogue of Books published best class of works will not be printed in that in this country contains a list of all the books way, for the reason just assigned by Mr. Knight. printed in England since the dreadful fire, 1666, We believe that cheap reprints of expired to the end of Trinity term, 1680.' The statisticopyrights which must have stood the test of a cal results of this catalogue of productions of the generation, furnished and still furnish more press for fourteen years have been ascertained by wholesome food to the popular mind than in-us. The whole number of books printed was different translations of foreign romances, or 3550; of which 947 were divinity, 420 law, and reprints of third-rate English and American subjects of geography and navigation, including 153 physic; 397 were school-books, and 253 on maps. About one-half of these books were single sermons and tracts. Deducting the reprints, pamphlets, single sermons, and maps, we have estimated that, upon an average, 100 new books were produced in each year.'

fictions.

27

The chasm left between Bell in 1777 and the Useful Knowledge Society in 1826 is an omission in a narrative of the progress of cheap publications, even on the broad scale on which Mr. Knight treats it; and (as is but natural) he ascribes, as we have said, more merit to the Society than it is strictly entitled to. These, however, are very small blemishes Contrary to what would have been supposed, in a book displaying so extensive a knowledge there were fewer new books published than of minute and curious facts largely presented, in Charles the Second's reign.

We close with a continuation of the same subject during the first half of the last century.

"The Complete Catalogue of Modern Books, curious advertisements of books, sales by the published from the beginning of the Century to candle, cordial elixirs, lotteries, and bohea tea at 1756, contains 5280 new works. In this cata- 24s. a pound. Whitelocke's Memorials,' folio, logue' all pamphlets and other tracts' are ex-is advertised at 12s.; Rowe's edition of Shakcluded. We can scarcely, therefore, compare speare, 8vo., is 5s. per volume; The Peerage of this period, as to the number of books published, England,' 8vo. 6s.; Shakspeare's Poems, 12mo. with that of 1680. The average number of the 1s. 6d. The Monthly Amusements,' each numfirst fifty-seven years of the eighteenth century ber containing a complete novel, is 18.; Sermons was 93 new works each year. At the beginning are 2d. each. We learn from other sources, that of the century, the price of a folio or quarto vol- the first edition of The Dunciad' was a sixpenume ranged from 10s. to 12s.; an octavo from 5s. ny pamphlet; whilst The Governor of Cyprus, to 6s.; and a duodecimo from 2s. 6d. to 3s. We a Novél,' and The Wanton Fryar, a Novel, have the original 'Tatler' before us, with its were each 12s."

6

·

From The Press.

the will has power; all involuntary actions Psychological Inquries. In a Series of Essays. are continued through our resting as well as London: Longmans. waking hours. Sleep" accumulates the nervous force, which is gradually exhausted" during the day; but these are words only, for

A SERIES of essays on psychology, from the pen of Sir Benjamin Brodie (for we believe who can define or explain the " nervous that the authorship of this work is not secret), force"? Darwin's axiom, "that the essential necessarily commands attention. The fasci- part of sleep is the suspension of volition," nation which surrounds that most mysterious still holds good, and is accepted as satisfactory. of all subjects, the connection of body and Talking and moving in sleep, though appamind, invites the speculations of quackery, rently phenomena irreconcilable with this thewhence the sensation of a distinguished name, ory, are not so in reality; for there are deguaranteeing in some sort the soundness of grees of sleep, and these things only occur the writer's deductions, becomes doubly im- where the slumber is imperfect. It may be portant. Nor is this all. Nobody cares to urged, again, that the mere absence of volition know what Mr. A. or Mr. B. may have to say would not produce that insensibility to sight about the signs of approaching death; but Sir and sound which is the characteristic of the Benjamin Brodie's assertions on such a sub- sleeper. But few persons are aware how ject, confirmed by the experience of many much the will is concerned in the reception thousand cases, carry with them the weight of impressions on the senses. One who is and stamp of authority. The following are absorbed in reading or writing will not hear his most important statements:-"The mind words addressed to him in the ordinary tone, is often, perhaps usually, active up to the though their physical effect on the ear must moment of dissolution, even where the bodily be the same as usual. Dreams are inexpliappearances presented are those of complete cable: Lord Brougham suggested that they stupor." Drowning persons, afterwards brought took place only in the momentary state of to life, have affirmed that their whole previous transition from sleep to waking; but facts conexistence seemed to pass before them in an tradict this theory, since persons will mutter instant of time. Death by drowning is not a to themselves, and utter inarticulate sounds, painful process: the memory of those who indicative of dreaming, at intervals of several have been saved seldom retains any un-minutes. The common puzzle as to how pleasant impression. One patient declared dreams apparently long can pass in a moment that the last thing he remembered was look- of time presents no difficulty to the psycholoing at the pebbles and weeds at the bottom of gist. Life is not measured by hours and the river, with little or no fear of what was days, but by the number of new impressions about to happen, and no bodily suffering." received; and the limit to these is in the With the exception of a few complaints, such world without us, not in the constitution of as hydrophobia and delirium tremens, this our minds. To a child, whose imagination is general rule of painless dissolution holds good. constantly excited by new objects, twelve Some have fallen asleep in extreme old age, months seem a much longer period than to a and never awaked, thus passing away in man. As we advance in life, time flies faster. apparent unconsciousness of their end. It The butterfly, living for a single season, may would seem that in the last moments of life really enjoy a longer existence than the torneither religious nor any other influences are toise, whose years exceed a century. Even usually strong. between the busy and the idle among human beings there exists a similar difference, though less strongly marked.

Sir Benjamin, if we may assume the opinion expressed by his interlocutors to be his own,

Dreams are next discussed, as also the problem, "What is sleep?" which our author declares insoluble. The sense of weariness appears confined to those functions over which

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