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into one kind of nourishment for itself- another for the common brood, a third for the royal--glue for its carpentry--wax for its cells-poison for its enemies-honey for its master--with a proboscis almost as long as the body itself, microscopic in its several parts, telescopic in its mode of action-with a sting so infinitely sharp, that, were it magnified by the same glass which makes a needle's point seem a quarter of an inch, it would yet itself be invisible, and this too a hollow tube-that all these varied operations and contrivances should be enclosed within half an inch of length and two grains of matter, while in the same 'small room' the • large heart of at least thirty* distinct instincts is contained—is surely enough to crush all thoughts of atheism and materialism, without calling in the aid of twelve heavy volumes of Bridgewater Treatises. · But we must hasten to end this too long paper. Its readers generally will be above that class to whom profit, immediate or remote, from bee-keeping can be of any serious moment—though indeed the profit lies in saving the bees, not in killing them. But many prejudices have to be done away, and greater care bestowed, and a better knowledge of their habits acquired, before the murdering system can be eradicated from the poor. It is for the higher classes to set the example by presents of cheap and simple but better-constructed hives— by personal interest taken in their bee-management-by supplying them with the best-written bookst on the subject-above all, by adopting the merciful system in their own gardens, and intrusting their hives to the especial care of one of the under-gardeners, whose office it should be, not only to diligently tend and watch his master's stock, but also to instruct the neighbouring cottagers in the most improved management. It would be an excellent plan to attach a stall of bees to the south wall of a gardener's cotlage or lodge, with a glass side towards the interior, so that the operations of the bees might be watched from within. The custom of placing them within an arched recess in the wall of the house was one of old Rome, and is still observed in some countries. We look upon this as a very pretty suggestion for a fancy cottage in any style of architecture. Perhaps the directors of our normal schools would find no better way of teaching their pupilschoolmasters how to benefit and gain an influence among the parents of the children they will have to instruct, than to put them in the proper way of making and managing the new kinds of cottage-hives, of taking honey, joining stocks, and hybernating the bees. We spoke in a late article of Gardening being a common * Kirby and Spence. Introd. to Ent., ii. 504.

† Let no one be misled by the title of Mr. Smith's book, which advocates all the atrocities of the old system,

E 2

ground

ground for the rich and poor.

We would mark this difference with regard to Bees, that we consider them especially the Poor man's stock.' No wealthy man should keep large colonies of them for profit, in a neighbourhood where there are cottagers ready to avail themselves of the advantage. A hive or two in the garden-good old-fashioned straw-hives--for the sake of their pleasing appearance and kindly associations, and for the good of the flowers- is only what every gentleman would delight to have; or, if he has time to devote to their history, an observatory-hive for study and experiment; but beyond this we think he should not go, -else he is certainly robbing his poorer neighbours. The gentleman-bee-master, like the gentleman-farmer, should only keep stock enough for encouragement and experiment, and leave the practical and the profitable to the cottager and the tenant. But the squire's hive and implements should be of the best construction, for example’s sake; and, keep he bees or beasts, he should be a merciful man' to them. And surely the feeling mind will pause a little at the destruction of a whole nation the demolition of a whole city, with all its buildings, streets and thoroughfares, its palaces, its Queen, and all! What an earthquake to them must be the moving of the hive! What a tempest of fire and brimstone must the deadly fumes appear! All their instincts, their senses, their habits plead for them to our humanity; and, even if we allege their sting against them, they may reply with scarcely an alteration in the Jew's words— Hath not a Bee eyes? hath not a Bee organs, dimensions, senses, affections, passions? fed with the same food, hurt with the same weapons, subject to the same diseases, healed by the same means, warmed and cooled by the same winter and summer, as a Christian is? If you prick us, do we not bleed? if you tickle us, do we not laugh? if you poison us, do we not die ? and if you wrong us, shall we not revenge? If we are like you in the rest, we will resemble you in that.'*

* The subjects of hyhernating bees and of joining swarms are so very important in good bee-keeping, that, being connected with one another, we must say a word, though a short one, upon them. Though the opposite opimion has been stoutly maintained, it is now generally admitted that a united stock does not consume so much honey in the winter as the two swarms separately would have done. But in order to save the consumption of honey at this time, the bees must be kept as torpid as possible, and this is best done by placing them in a cold, dark, but dry room. If you have not this convenience, move the doors from the north of your bee-house to the south, so that the winter sun, being prevented from shining on the entrance side, will not enliven and draw out the bees when the snow is on the ground. This most fatal circumstance it is most essential to guard against. However, the most general and the shortest rule is, send your bees off to sleep in good condition in the autumn (i. e. supply them with plenty of food then), for all hybernating animals are fat at the beginning of their torpidity, and it is fat people who fall fastest to sleep after dinner-keep them torpid, by even coolness and dryness, as long as you can. No bee-master will ever be successful who does not take pains of some sort to effect these objects.

We

We said, if any man would keep bees, he must make them bis friends ;- nay, that is a cold word-he must love them. De Gelien makes the remark,—which we have heard before of figs, and olives, and medlars, and truffles, or of an equivocal dish recommended by a host,—that you must either like them very much or not at all. Beaucoup de gens aiment les abeilles : je n'ai vu personne qui les aima médiocrement; on se passionne pour elles ! It was this love we suppose that led Mahomet to make an exception in their favour when all other flies were condemned ;—that made Napoleon, who laughed at the English as a nation of shopkeepers, select this emblem of industry, in place of the idle lily,

That tasks not one laborious hour.' And Urban VIII, and Louis XII, adopted them as the device on their coat of arms; and Camdeo, the Cupid of Budhism, strung his bow with bees! The Athenians ranked the introduction of the Bee among their great national blessings, tracing it up to Cecrops, the friend of man,'—the Attic Alfred; and such regard is still paid to them in inany parts of the south of England, that no death, or birth, or marriage takes place in the family without its being communicated to the bees, whose hive is covered in the first case with a piece of black cloth, in the two latter with red. The 10th of August is considered their day of Jubilee, and those who are seen working on that day are called Quakers, Omens were wont to be taken from their swarming; and their settling on the mouths of Plato and Pindar was taken as a sure presage of the sweetness of their future eloquence and poetry; though these legends are somewhat spoiled, by the same event being related of the infancy of Lucan and of St. Ambrose, called, as was Vives afterwards, the Mellifluous Doctor. We all know of Nestor's honeyed' words, and Xenophon,'cujus sermo est melle dulcior.' Bees have not only dispersed a mob, but defeated an Amurath with his Janissaries ;* but it would be quite impossible in a sketch like this to attempt to give anything like a full account of their many honours and achievements, and of the extraordinary instinct displayed by them in every operation of their manifold works. Our object in these remarks has been rather to stimulate the novice in this subject than to give any complete history of their habits, or to put forth any new discovery or system of our own. We have introduced our little friends with our best

• The Abbé della Rocca relates that, when Amurath, the Turkish emperor, during a certain siege, had battered down part of the wall, and was about to take the town by assault, be found the breach defended by bees, many bives of which the iubabitants had stationed on the ruins. The Janissaries, although the bravest soldiers in the Ottoman empire, durst not encounter this formidable line of defence, and refused to advance.'

grace,

grace, and must leave them now to make the best of their way with our readers.

So work the Honey Bees:
Creatures that, by a rule in nature, teach
The art of order to a peopled kingdom.
They have a king, and officers of sorts :
Where some, like magistrates, correct at home;
Others, like merchants, venture trade abroad;
Others, like soldiers, armed in their stings,
Make boot upon the summer's velvet buds;
Which pillage they with merry march bring home
To the tent royal of their emperor:
Who, busied in his majesty, surveys
The singing masons building roofs of gold;
The civil citizens kneading up the honey;
The poor mechanic porters crowding in
Their lieavy burdens at his narrow gate ;
The sad-eyed justice, with his surly hum,
Delivering o'er to executors pale
The lazy yawning drone.'

Henry V. a. 1, s. 2. Who would not affirm, from this and other incidental allusions, that Shakspeare had a hive of his own? Dr. Bowring has only been able to discover in them ‘ galleries of art and schools of industry, and professors teaching eloquent lessons ;' perhaps our friend means Mechanics’ Institutes, and travelling lecturers.

Art. II.-1. The Child's Book on the Soul, with Questions

adapted to the Use of Schools and Infant Schools. By the

Rev. T. H. Gallaudet. London. 1842. 2. The Youth's Book on Natural Theology, illustrated in Fami

liar Dialogues. By the Rev. T. H. Gallaudet. Published by

the American Tract Society. 1840. 3. Peter Parley's Farewell. New York. 4. Peter Parley's Magazine. New York. 5. Abbott's Little Philosopher, for Schools and Families. London. 6. Abbott's Child at Home. 7. Abbott's Rollo at Work, and Rollo at Play, &c. London. COULD the shade of a great-grandmother be recalled to

earth, we can imagine no object in this age of wonders so likely to astonish her venerable mind as her little descendants' abundance of books. In her days children were not looked upon as reading beings: the key of the little glass-fronted bookcase was as carefully kept from them as that of the sweetmeat

cupboard.

cupboard. Free access to books was considered of very questionable benefit to a young mind, and decidedly injurious to the eyesight; for it is an amusing fact that in those days of curious needlework, the ancient samples of which make us equally admire our grandmothers' patience and pity their eyes, a consideration for that organ should have been made one of the principal excuses for denying a child the pleasure of reading. Certain it is, that as soon as the scanty portion of elementary books was laid aside for the day most children did not read at all, while those who had intellectual desires cultivated their minds almost by stealth ; and the little girl of nearly a century ago, who thirsted for knowledge above her fellows, has been known to hide a new book in her capacious pocket, and read it through the pocket-hole! Nor were her stolen pleasures such as most modern parents would have cared, or perhaps even permitted, their children to share. Between the formalities of real life and the exaggerations of fiction there was little alternative,-- from the fairy tales and marvellous histories, terminating in the old version of the Arabian Nights,'—the few wonderful voyages and adventures centering in Robinson Crusoe,'—and the little tales of a moral tendency, generally the histories of some little paragon of goodness, or monster of naughtiness, whose dispositions were at once comprehensively announced in their patronymics,-between such works as these, and that better class to which the · Vicar of Wakefield' and papers of the Spectator' might be considered as introductory, there was a wide gap. No wonder, then, with the increase of population, and the changes in education, which marked the latter end of the last century, that the age soon began to demand something more and something better. The only real question is, whether the improvement in children's books has been equally in quality as in quantity, and whether a better understanding of a child's real capacities for instruction, edification, and amusement bas kept pace with the varied and additional modes of addressing them.

The first changes in a juvenile library were no less in what are termed school-books than in those of a lighter description. Parents and teachers had discovered that not only the system of education might be simplified and its stores increased, but that the love of reading which showed itself in many a child's leisure hours might be made the handle for turning various little mills of indirect acquirement. What, in short, they themselves had groaned under or longed for in their own young days, they now sought to amend or supply for their children. To aid the former, much of the monotonous repetition of spelling-book, dictionary, and grammar, in which children's minds had been kept, as it were,

only

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