an end, did at least effect what regenerated Europe does not afford,—the protection of the weak against the strong. The flag of the Count of Bentheim Steinfurth was as respected as the union jack of Great Britain. The abbot of St. Émmeran, with no more land than might have been covered by the copes in his sacristy, was as sure of his possessions as the Prince-Archbishop of Maintz. Hamburgh and Bremen were not more inviolate than Kempten or Lindau ; and the Margrave of Anspach, whose sovereignty might have been included in Hammersmith parish, held his dominion by as good a title as the houses of Brandenburgh or Hapsburgh.

That the seeds of great political changes, and of changes more than political, are now germinating in northern Germany, is highly probable. Germany, the father land of gunpowder, printing, and Luther, may again convulse the world. But of one thing we are sure, and of one thing the French may be sure, that, whatever changes take place, there will be but one heart and mind in defending every hill or dale, every town or tower which bears the impress of German nationality. Dynasties may be raised or overturned ; you may have a German commonwealth or a German empire ; but on German ground the power of France is gone, and for ever. Let the standard of Arminius be unfurled, and every jealousy, every rivalry between king and king, state and state, people and people, will be appeased.

The National Confederation will be cemented by the blood of the enemy; and whenever the Welschen may be emboldened to the assault, all Germany will, with one voice, join in the chorus:

No, they shall never win it,
Our free, our German stream ;
No-though like starving ravens,
They Rhine-ward, Rhine-ward scream.

• Sie sollen ihn nicht haben

Den deutschen freien Rhein;
Ob sie wie gierige Raaben
Sich heiser darnach schrei'n.'


2 A



Art. II.-1. The Catechetic Lectures of St. Cyril, Archbishop of

Jerusalem. Translated, with Notes and Indices. (Library of

the Fathers, vol. ii.) Oxford. 1838. 2. A Help to Catechising. By James Beaven, M.A. London.

1842. 3. A Catechism for the Use of St. John's Chapel, Edinburgh. By

the Rev. E. B. Ramsay, M. A. London. 1841.

Edition.) 4. Hints on Scriptural Education and on Catechising : a Charge,

by E. Bather, M.A., Archdeacon of Salop. London. 1842.

(Second Edition.) 5. Documents and Authorities on Public Catechising. By the

Rev. J. Ley, M.A. London. 1840. THE great model of the Christian Catechesis is to be found in

the second chapter of St. Luke's Gospel ; where we are told that the child Jesus was · found in the temple, sitting in the midst of the doctors, both hearing them and asking them questions; and they were astonished at his understanding and answers.' These words of our version describe the process with sufficient clearness; but it may be noticed that, in the original, the same word (éntepwtāv, šnepurua) is here interpreted of questions, which, in St. Peter's 1st Epistle (iii. 21, speaking of the promises made in baptism *), is translated answer; comprehending, as in fact it does, the mutual questions and answers which make up the teaching in the one case, and the stipulation in the other.

Of course this part of the teaching, from its humble character and its necessary variety, is the part least likely to be preserved to after ages; so that we need not wonder if, in point of form, the Catechetic Lectures of St. Cyril differ but little from ordinary homilies. They rather accompanied the catechising than comprised it; their peculiarity being in the character of those to whom they were addressed, and the consequent choice of their subjects. They were delivered to those catechumens who, though still unbaptised, were to receive the sacrament of baptism immediately afterwards; and their subjects, consequently, lie between the ordinary instructions of the catechumen, and those which were reserved | for the edification of the baptised. The peculiar

* Compare St. Luke, iii. 10, 14. It was a legal term in stipulations.

+ In the controversy in which this word has become technical, much confusion on both sides would have been avoided, had the broad distinction been made clear between the absolute reserve used towards unbaptised catechumens, and the discretion with which the milk and strong meats of the Gospel were imparted to the Illuminated. The former part of the system has no parallel among us : the latter is what every clergyman must use; and the only question is, whether he does so consciously or unconsciously, systematically or empirically, well or ill.


position of these catechumens, at a time while the members of the Church were principally, or in great part, recruited from among the heathen, instead of growing up a seed of holy children' (1 Cor. vii. 14) under her fostering care, involved the need of peculiar details in their training, such as are not applicable to later times. And, for this reason, it is needless to plunge into a discussion of the various catechetic schools, at Alexandria (chiefly famous, indeed, for the Senior Theological Institute which was engrafted upon it, and appropriated its name), at Antioch, and elsewhere. Our purpose being chiefly practical, we will take leave to pass over the details of ecclesiastical antiquity; content to have indicated the foundation of the apostles and prophets on which the institution rests, and the essential oneness of its principle, whether the catechumens be a class of adults converted, but as yet unbaptised, or whether they be youths who, having received baptism in infancy, are now to be trained and instructed in the rudiments of their religion, according to the stipulation of the initiatory sacrament.*

It will be more interesting, and perhaps useful, to consider the subject of catechetic teaching practically, as one of our own Church's institutions in her prophetical character. Indeed, even thus, there is still some risk of seeming to fall into vague generalities in trying to investigate principles. The subject may, therefore, be limited yet more to the case of our rural population and parishes. It is probable, indeed, that much which may be said will be applicable to all alike: the main principles, if true at all, will be true everywhere: but there is no need to embarrass or complicate the question by taking into account the special necessities and difficulties arising from the confessedly peculiar character of a town-population. We leave such parishes out of the question, reserving our opinion as to what, in their case, is really impossible, or hazardous, or only difficult-that is, what should be unattempted, what should be carefully considered, and what should be energetically done.

The first thing to be ascertained is the rule of our own Reformed Church on the subject; and we are abundantly furnished with this, text and comment, by Mr. Ley in his Documents and Authorities.

The following are some, out of many, of his quotations :--

The Rubric. The curate of every parish shall diligently, on Sundays and holidays, after the second lesson at Evening Prayer, openly in

* It is to be hoped, in further illustration of this point, that St. Augustine's Treatise de Catechizandis Rudibus will be included among the translations in the Library of the Fathers.' 2 A 2


the church, instruct and examine so many children of his parish, sent unto him, as he thinks convenient, in some parts of the Catechism.'*

Abp. Whitgift to the Bishops of his province, 1591.—'This mischief (that the youth, being as it were the frie and seminarie of the Commonwealth, are not trained up in the chief and necessary principles of the Christian religion) might wel in mine opinion be redressed by catechising and instructing in churches the youth of both sexes on the Sabbath dayes in the afternoon—and that (if it may be conveniently) before their parents and others, who thereby may take comfort and instruction also ... Give strait charge unto parents to come themselves, or at least to send their children, to the church at such times; and especially unto ministers, to expound unto them, and to examine the child in that little Catechism which is allowed by authority.'

King James I. to Abp. Abbot, 1622.—That no parson, etc., shall preach any sermon hereafter in the afternoon but upon the Catechism, or some text taken out of the Creed, Ten Commandments, or Lord's Prayer, and that those preachers be most encouraged and approved of who spend the afternoon's exercise in the examining of children in their Catechism, and in expounding of the several points and heads of it.'

King Charles I. to Abp. Laud, 1633.— That in all parishes the afternoon's sermons be turned into catechising by questions and answers, where and whensoever there is not some great cause apparent to break this ancient and laudable order.'

King Charles II. to Abp. Juxon, 1662.—' That where there is an afternoon's exercise it be especially spent in explaining some part of the Church Catechism, or in preaching on some such text of Scripture as will probably and naturally lead to the handling of something contained in it, or may conduce to the exposition of the liturgy and prayers of the Church.'

Such is the state of things amongst us at present that the citation of these documents will by many be looked upon as equivalent to an attack upon preaching ; and this because preaching has built itself a throne upon the ruins not only of catechising, but also of prayer and the sacraments. This is emphatically an age of preaching, in the most invidious sense of the word—the only sense in wbich catechising is opposed to it. And this has cut both ways: on the one hand, a belief in the pulpit has become the articulus stantis aut cadentis Ecclesiæ; and, on the other, those who have been moved to resist this monopoly have yielded to the temptation to decry that which has been overrated to choose an offensive instead of a defensive position ; and, through fear of the disparagement of sacraments, almost to deprive the

* The 59th Canon (1603) may seem to transfer this duty to the balf hour before Evening ayer. But the Canon cannot repeal the Rubric; and indeed the latter has, since that date, been as it were re-enacted as a law of the land. But both will be obeyed by clergymen who attend the Sunday school before the evening service, and during it catechise the children.


Christian flock of this portion of their instruction, as if it were not written that man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word that proceedeth out of the mouth of God.' The sober Churchman will scarcely agree with either.

I am not ignorant,' says the Bishop of Exeter in his Charge delivered last summer, that many good men have thought that the most valuable portion of public worship is the ordinance of preaching; and we are sometimes told, in a tone of sceming triumph, that the great work for which our holy office was appointed is “to preach the gospel." From the earliest days of the Reformation there have been two parties in our Church-each of them including many sincere and excellent men

- who are and have been more strongly distinguished by their feeling, if not their language, on this particular, than by almost any other differences whatever.

* On which side the voice of the Church has spoken I need not say. But let me ask, has not experience also spoken ? and is not its testimony with the Church? What are the results, the enduring results, of the most eloquent, the most fervent, the most successful preaching, if it be not kept in due subordination to the immediate and proper purpose for which the congregation is assembled in God's house -emphatically called by God himself “the House of Prayer”-humbly to acknowledge our sins before Godto render thanks to Him, to set forth His praise-to hear His Holy Word—to ask those things which He knows to be necessary as well for the body as the soul-above all, to feed together spiritually on the body and blood of our Blessed Redeemer ?...

. And, after all, what is it to preach the Gospel? Is it merely the delivery of oral discourses ? In proclaiming the Gospel to the heathen this may indeed be the best and only way; but in the instruction of those who have been already brought, by God's mercy, into the fold of Christ, can the same be truly said ? What is catechising? What the reading publicly in the congregation the written word of God? What the intelligent and devout use of our own admirable Liturgy ?' &c.

pp. 8, 9.

It may then, incolumi sobrietate, be inquired (and this concerns the present subject most nearly) what is preaching? For undoubtedly many things are contained in the scriptural meaning of this word besides the delivery of sermons from the pulpit. Not to expatiate on all the manifold preachings of the press, through which it has come to pass that, in ninety-nine cases out of a hundred, we read where the ancients listened-and not to distinguish the various senses which manifestly belong to the Word' in very many passages of Holy Writ, which are continually brought forward, one thing may be plainly laid down-that catechising is preaching, in every sense in which preaching is scriptural. The contrast, if a contrast must be drawn, is between one sort of preaching and another. The question is, whether one style is to


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