minutes I saw a body of them enter the coffee-house marching arm in arm, two by two, stamping on the ground with their feet in a kind of measure, and repeating in loud chorus as they walked round the spacious apartment, the following grisly stanza:

Que es lo que abaja por aquel cerro ? Ta ra ra.
Son los huesos de Quesada, que los trae un perro—Ta ra ta.".
[What comes a-clattering down the street ?

"Tis the bones of Quesada.-Dog's meat! dog's meat!) — . A huge bowl of coffee was then called for, which was placed upon a table, around which gathered the national soldiers. There was silence for a moment, which was interrupted by a voice roaring out " El panuelo!" A blue kerchief was forthwith produced: it was untied, and a gory hand and three or four dissevered fingers made their appearance; and with these the contents of the bowl were stirred up.. “Cups! cups!" cried the nationals. “Ho, ho, Don Jorge!" cried Baltasarito, " pray do me the favour to drink upon this glorious occasion." '-p. 301.

So much for Madrid and its Patriots in February, 1836. We perceive that we have filled our allotted space, and must therefore conclude abruptly with a page from Mr. Borrow's account of his first visit to Seville. It appears that the world contains one character more who has wandered as oddly as himself.

"I had returned from a walk in the country, on a glorious sunshiny morning of the Andalusian winter, and was directing my steps towards my lodging; as I was passing by the portal of a large gloomy house near the gate of Xeres, two individuals dressed in zamarras emerged from the archway, and were about to cross my path, when one, looking in my face, suddenly started back, exclaiming, in the purest and most melodious French-"What do I see? If my eyes do not deceive me—it is himself. Yes, the very same as I saw him first at Bayonne; then long subsequently beneath the brick wall at Novogorod; then beside the Bosphorus; and last at-at-oh, my respectable and cherished friend, where was it that I had last the felicity of seeing your well-remembered and most remarkable physiognomy?”

Myself.-It was in the south of Ireland, if I mistake not. Was it not there that I introduced you to the sorcerer who tamed the savage horses by a single whisper into their ear? But tell me what brings you to Spain and Andalusia, the last place where I should have expected to find you ?

Baron Taylor.And wherefore, my most respectable B** Is not Spain the land of the arts, and is not Andalusia of all Spain that portion which has produced the noblest monuments of artistic excellence and inspiration ? Come with me, and I will show you a Murillo, such

But first allow me to introduce you to your compatriot. My dear Monsieur W., turning to his companion (an English gentleman, from whom I subsequently experienced unbounded kindness at Seville), allow me to introduce to you my most cherished and respectable friend, one who is better acquainted with gipsy ways than the Chef des Bohemiens à Triana, one who is an expert whisperer and horse



sorcerer, and who, to his honour I say it, can wield hammer and tongs, and handle a horse-shoe, with the best of the smiths amongst the Alpujarras.'

'In the course of my travels I have formed various friendships, but no one has more interested me than Baron Taylor. To accomplishments of the highest order he unites a kindness of heart rarely to be met with. His manners are naturally to the highest degree courtly, yet he nevertheless possesses a disposition so pliable that he finds no difficulty in accommodating himself to all kinds of company. There is a mystery about him, which, wherever he goes, serves not a little to increase the sensation naturally created by his appearance and manner.

Who he is no one pretends to assert with downright positiveness: it is whispered, however, that he is a scion of royalty; and who can gaze for a moment upon that most graceful figure, that most intelligent but singularly moulded countenance, and those large and expressive eyes, without feeling as equally convinced that he is of no common lineage as that he is no common man? He has been employed by the illustrious house to which he is said to be related, in more than one delicate and important mission, both in the East and the West. He was now collecting masterpieces of the Spanish school of painting, which were destined to adorn the saloons of the Tuileries. Whenever he descries me, whether in the street or the desert, the brilliant hall or amongst Bedouin haimas, at Novogorod or Stambul, he flings up his armıs, and exclaims, “O ciel! I haye again the felicity of seeing my cherished and most respectable B * **"-p. 318.

We hope that we ourselves sliall soon see again in print our cherished and most respectable Borrow;' and meantime congratulate him sincerely on a work which must vastly increase and extend his reputation-which bespeaks everywhere a noble and generous heart-a large and vigorous nature, capable of sympathising with everything but what is bad—religious feel ings deep and intense, but neither gloomy nor narrow-a true eye for the picturesque, and a fund of real racy humour.

Art. VI.- Discourses on the Prophecies relating to Antichrist

in the Writings of Daniel and St. Paul ; preached before the University of Dublin at the Donnellan Lecture, 1838. By James Henthorn Todd, B.D., M.R.I.A., Fellow of Trinity College, and Treasurer of St. Patrick's Cathedral. Printed

at the University Press. Dublin. 1840. IN N placing Dr. Todd's lectures at the head of this article, we

have no intention of minutely examining his course of argument. The subject of Scripture prophecy is scarcely fitted for the pages of a Review; but the work exhibits a depth of learning


and research which may well command the attention of theological students, with a spirit of canclour and forbearance most important to be preserved in all religious controversy, but especially at the present day. The writer, not only one of the inost learned men of whom the University of Dublin can boast, but an earnest and consistent defender of the Church of England and opponent of Popery, has protested in it against the popular application to Popery of the Scripture prophecies of Antichrist; and it must have required as much courage as honesty to risk such a protest at a period of excitement like the present, and in a country, the circumstances of which must render the suggestion peculiarly startling to a large body within the church.

The argument from prophecy has long been adopted as one of the strongest and easiest modes of condemning the errors of Popery. It has been drawn out by high authorities, and presents, at the first sight, a singular array of probabilities; and confidence in the strength of this position having perhaps led to a neglect of others, the mere thought that it is untenable must naturally alarm those who are thus threatened with being left defenceless in the face of a formidable antagonist. It must probably take some little time for this alarm to subside, and with it the misrepresentations to which it has given rise. But after calm consideration the question will take its place on the wide neutral ground of private opinion, carefully fenced off from the great summaries of Christian faith which contain the truths necessary to salvation, and from the outlines of doctrine which the Church has drawn up for her own teachers—that ground on which doubt may be admitted without sin, and even opposite conclusions may meet in peace. Meantime, in the same spirit which those who differ from the author of the Lectures, ought, as Christians, to exercise towards him, he, we are assured, will permit us to differ in some points from himself.

In one point we entirely agree with Dr. Todd.

• The labours and learning of our Protestant theologians have been expended in the vain attempt to reconcile a large and mysterious branch of prophecy to a preconceived interpretation, the offspring of controversial rancour and polemical debate ; the sacred text has been handled in the belligerent spirit that counts all artifices lawful, all means of victory justifiable and right; historical facts have been misrepresented, the words of Scripture have been allegorized and irreverently explained away; and in the attempt to exaggerate the Papal errors, in order to bring them more apparently within the terms of the prediction, their true character has been overlooked, and the legitimate arguments, which can alone silence or convince the advocates of them, have been forgotten or abandoned.'-Lect. v. p. 28.


What these arguments are Dr. Todd has alluded to in a quotation from an admirable work to which we gladly refer.*

"The Papacy,' says Mr. Palmer, 'is a grievous evil to the Christian Church. The continuance of errors and corruptions, the decay of wholesome discipline, the divided state of Christendom, are all, in a great measure, attributable to the usurpations and ambition of the Roman see. But God forbid that we should rest our arguments against the errors of Rome on so sandy a foundation as these modern interpretations of the prophecies. We have a much simpler and surer way in proving that those errors are unauthorized by the word of God, and inconsistent with it; that they are mere human inventions, and productive of consequences practically which are injurious to Christian faith and piety.'

If it is asked why prophecy must be a sandy foundation of argument against Rome, one answer may be drawn from the very nature of prophecy. The Church is placed by Providence to find its way through a valley of darkness, beset with temptations and enemies. That she may not be fascinated by the one nor dismayed by the other—that when evils are gathering near, her faith may not be shaken—that she may be able throughout to recognize one great overruling hand stretched over and protecting her, and behold all things subdued to one will-for these, and it may be, for other reasons, God has been pleased to provide her, as it were, with a faint chart and outline of her own history. She bears a lamp which' throws a light dimly before her (for she must walk by a light within the light of faith), but less dimly at her side, and strongly on her track behind. As each fearful shape in her destiny comes and glares close upon her, she may discern sufficient to be assured that it has been in some degree anticipated in the description previously given. But that which presses close on the senses can seldom be seen in its true proportion and magnitude. To assume these, it must be contemplated in a certain focus, at a given distance; and not till it is past, and has fallen into the ranks of by-gone events, is it possible to compare it accurately with the words of that prophecy, which sees all things in their relations to the whole course of time, and as linked together by a chain of causation thoroughly discernible only by that Eye, to which the past, present, and future are all alike co-existent.

Again, in strict analogy, as the prophecy of reason in the 'natural world enables us to penetrate so far only into the future as to discern its general outline, without enabling us to fix the limits of either times, or localities, or circumstances—to foresee, for instance, that evil will spring from evil, and good from good, and

* Supplement to the Treatise on the Church by the Rev. W. Palmer, Worcester College, Oxford, pp. 23, 24.


to determine this unerringly, though the dates, and seasons, and inodes, and degrees of retribution are kept in another band-in the same manner, and, it may be, for the same reason, the prophecy of revelation is content to call up the shadows of coming events without definitely pourtraying them. The shadow is sufficient to warn, or to encourage, or to console : the definite pourtraiture would overawe or overjoy, and would stifle that freedom of moral action which can move only in an atmosphere of uncertainty.

Again, in the events themselves of the world there is a striking similarity of appearance. All things move in a circle. Human nature is throughout the same, and produces and reproduces the same forins in succession; and if a difference is observable in these forms, it is rather in their magnitude and degree than in their kind. The human will is struggling against the rule of its maker in the first century as in the nineteenth. Human reason is sys: tematizing and scrutinizing among the Gnostics as in the Socinians. Human ambition is the same, whether it assumes the disguise of a monk, of a pope, of a demagogue, or of a Jesuit. The laws within which it works are the same, except that as the world becomes old they seem to grow old with it, to be permitted to lose their strength, and to give way beneath the repeated attacks made on them by rebellious man. And it is the same in the various resus, citations of good whichr at intervals occur in the world. The final evil may be worse than the first : the last good more perfect than the earlier; but the evil and the good themselves must appear in somewhat the same shape

---Thy hair,
Thou other gold-bound brow, is like the first :

A third is like the former' and the line, lengthened as it is, 'stretches to the crack of doom. And thus the voice of prophecy must be uncertain, when it is brought to decide on a particular event; unless, indeed, that event

so marked out that it cannot be repeated. It may pronounce, satisfactorily and indisputably, on the arrival of the Christian dis. pensation, because but one fulfilment of this could take place, and the facts of the fulfilment have been so constructed as to render mistake to an honest mind morally impossible. And the appear. ance of the great and final Antichrist' also can have but one perfect fulfilment; but this is marked out by the date in the last days, and which are the last days can scarcely be known until they are come to an end.

It therefore involves no opinion that Popery is not Antichrist, even if a writer remonstrates against the use of prophecy to substantiate the charge. Nor does it impugn the soundness of Dr.


« ElőzőTovább »