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of the gods. The composition of aλóos c. ous, as stated in the Lexicon, we must also disown, though we think that the Reviewer's remarks upon it, and some other adjectives, are more ingenious than solid. We are inclined to adopt Dr Blomfield's opinion concerning the derivation of it, and several other words of a similar formation, as being far more simple and intelligible.
pango, and differs only from any in
On the Reviewer's second division of his subject, viz. On the Existing Forms of Words in certain Authors, we have but a very few remarks to make. "A complete Lexicon of a language," says he, " would present us with those words only which are found in the authors that the Lexicon professes to explain." A Greek Lexicon, founded on this plan, would, we imagine, be very incomplete and unsatisfactory, as there are innumerable instances of words, having once been current in the language, that afterwards gave place to others; but from these obsolete words were derived many that were employed both in spoken and written language. We allude, in particular, to the tenses of verbs, which, in very few instances, were formed from the same Presents, or from Presents in use at a late stage of the language. There is a very material difference in this respect between the Greek and Latin verbs; the former having borrowed several of their tenses from their primitive usage in different dialects, while the latter derived theirs from one only. The construction, therefore, of a Greek and Latin Dictionary, must proceed upon different principles, though they may, and ought to be, more nearly approximated than they generally are. While we think then. Perhaps he would look with Reviewer has overlooked this very material distinction, we perfectly agree with him that obsolete primitives ought to be so pointed out as not to mislead learners. We admit that, in our Lexicon, whyw, which he has taken as an example of our reference to imaginary words, ought to have been marked as obsolete. But we cannot agree with him when he says that πήγω “is as regular as λέγω οι τύπ(τ)ω.” Surely the Reviewer has forgot that there is such a tense as iάyn, which cannot be immediately stuck upon πηγ Homer says, Il. x. 374-dougos ἀκωκὴ Ἐν γαίη ἐπάγη. Is it not from the Eolic way, the root of the Latin
astonishment when we still farther assert, that our Anglo-Saxon verb to be is the very same word, stripped of its suffix opa. If we have omitted to mark, in some instances, these primary forms, as having become obsolete, it was not because we were ignorant of the fact, but because we found it necessary to apply ourselves to more important matters. the Reviewer's remarks, it might be supposed that we had entirely neglected this branch of Lexicography. If he had examined our Dictionary with any other view than instituting negan's, he would have found many a comparison between it and Don
examples pointed out of obsolete forms of presents, as well as of other tenses, generally received in other Lexicons.
The Reviewer seems to be very well satisfied with the explanation he has given of the word puòs. He compares ours with Donnegan's, and both with his own. We will, no doubt, be accused of partiality, when we say that we consider our own to be the best, though somewhat defective in the natural arrangement. We would be glad to know in what Greek author ρυθμὸς signifes "the forming of an outline or figure? We know of none such; and we would also wish to know what definite idea the explanation of puòs, by "a term applicable to music, dancing, adjusting the dress, tranquillity of mind, &c." conveys ? What information would a student obtain from these very indefinite explanations, to enable him to translate the following passage from Xen. Cyr. Ι. ἐπεὶ ἀνασταίητε ορχησόμενοι, μὴ ὅπως χεῖσθαι ἐν ῥυθμῷ, ἀλλ ̓ οὐδ ̓ ορθοῦσθαι ἐδύο ads?-The whole is summed up by-" Stem pʊ.”. Now, we would ask, in sober earnest, what idea any one could form from being told, that the stem of puμòs is ju? "If he were to consult all the Greek Lexicons that were ever published, or if he should hunt after this fugitive particle through all the Greek authors that ever wrote, we doubt much if he would be able to get even a slight glance of it. We think that it may be observed in the equable flow of mighty streams, in the regular progression of time and of the seasons, and the uniform motion of the heavenly bodies. We connect it with the verb pé, to flow, and derive from it àμqipputos and regippuros, as in Odyss.
The Reviewer has found fault with our translation of dinn, which we have stated to be, the decision of a judge. Surely," says he, "the decision of a judge is not that from which our notions of right and justice are necessarily derived." We shall remit him to Westminster Hall for the decision of this knotty point, to take "the opinion of the Judges there upon his demurrer" We have some doubts as to our own correctness, but none at all that he is ἕκατον στάδια away from the true meaning; dien, we imagine to be, a charge on parole evidence, rgaon, a charge on written
evidence. Hence, sirays dienv eis rò dog. We think that it is nearly allied to the Latin verb dico; and bears a very close resemblance, in some of its applications, to the Latin noun ritu; xuvòs dienv - Eschyl.; cetera fluminis ritu feruntur.-Horace.
We might extend our remarks to various other comparisons which the Reviewer has made between our Lexicon and Dr Donnegan's, and to several of his own opinions, regarding the correct explanation of certain words, but we imagine we have said enough to convince every impartial reader that he has a theory of his own which he is endeavouring to support, and that many of his definitions, founded on that theory, are very questionable. We might, perhaps, complain that, while he has frequently compared Donnegan with Schneider, and us with both, he did not examine the work on which our
Lexicon was founded, and point out some of the more important additións, alterations, and improvements we have introduced. To the etymological part of our Lexicon, and the arrangement of the meanings of words, as primary and secondary, less attention was given than they certainly deserve, in consequence of the deficiencies that were to be supplied in other more important departments. They form, however, the most difficult part of a well constructed dictionary, and require a thorough knowledge of the language from its very infancy, of its different dialects, of the changes it underwent from time to time from various causes, of the natural scenery of the country, the customs, laws, pursuits, and occupations of the inhabitants, and also the sagacity to trace the operations of all these, and many more circumstances, in forming and extending the speech of a people such as that of the Greeks. Our chief object was to furnish young men with a manual, to enable them to read and understand most of the Greek authors, and to give them those explanations only which seemed best calculated for this purpose. One part of our labours, which we considered of no small importance, but which has been entirely overlooked by the Reviewer, was, to introduce as many quotations as our limits would allow, from the classical Greek authors, in support of our explanations. The omission
of these is a defect in most Greek Lexicons that we have consulted. When a student has authorities before him on which he can rely for such and such explanations, he knows that he is proceeding upon sure grounds, and is not left to find his way through a mass of translations, very often of synonymous import, and generally extremely vague. We might also feel disappointed that the Reviewer has taken no notice of one feature in our Lexicon, which we consider of the utmost importance to junior students in particular, viz. the marking the quantities of most of the doubtful vowels. When learners are left without such a guide, particularly when their knowledge of the prosody of the language is defective, they are perpetually get ting into blunders, and acquire a vicious pronunciation which they seldom get entirely rid of, We imagine the Reviewer could hardly fail to approve of this additional aid to students; and yet in comparing our Lexicon with Dr Donnegan's, which exhibits nothing of the kind, he has not taken the slightest notice of it.
He tells his readers towards the conclusion of his review, that "Professor Dunbar's Lexicon contains, at the end, an English and Greek Lexicon, intended to aid students in writing Greek. We have not examined it." Now, although this Lexicon is by no means either so full or so accurate as we intended it to have been, we yet think that it is an important addition to a Greek Dictionary, and may, when enlarged with many more words, with various references and idiomatic expressions, prove of great service to the more advanced students in composing Greek exercises and themes, To supply these shall be our endeavour in preparing for a second edition of the work. In the mean time, we desire those who may be influenced by the opinions of the reviewers, to compare this part of our Lexicon with any other of a similar nature, with Grove's, or Dr Maltby's, at the end of his "Greek Gradus," and we
think, if they are not deeply prejudiced indeed, they will find ours immeasurably superior, even in its present defective state, to any of them,
In conclusion, we beg leave to express our obligations to the learned Reviewer, not only for any favourable expressions that may have escaped him towards our work, but also for the criticisms he has bestowed upon it, as they will put us in the way of correcting several errors that had formerly escaped our notice. We trust that we shall be always ready to avail ourselves of remarks upon any of our publications, when they are made in the language and style befitting a gentleman to use, and not, as we have lately witnessed, for the purpose of gratifying a malignant disposition. We allude to an article in the last number of the Westminster Review, upon the "State of Greek Literature in Scotland." The author of this article is understood to be a Mr George Milligan,* a private teacher in this city, a licentiate of the Church of Scotland, and a writer of some notoriety in newspapers and magazines. This person has given various proofs of an inveterate hostility towards one of us, by petulant censures, gross misrepresentations, and offensive sneers. A few years ago he published, in the Edinburgh Evening Post, a series of articles on the State of Greek Literature in this country, and the mode of teaching it in our Universities; and at the very commencement of his undertaking, thought fit to libel the whole body of the clergy of Scotland, by asserting that few or none of them were capable of reading the Greek Testament. But the principal objects of his attack were the Professors of Greek in the Universities of Edinburgh and Glasgow, particularly the former. Not content, however, with endangering, as he imagined, their characters as scholars, his ambition aimed at greater objects, the demolition and reconstruction of our highest Literary Establishments. His theories were broached at the time
*It is with very considerable reluctance that we take notice of this person at all; and we certainly would never have done so, had he not figured away in his usual style of flippancy and malignity in so respectable a periodical as the Westminster ReHow such a pitiful article should have got admission there, has created some surprise. It could only have been in consequence of the zeal he has manifested in the destruction of ancient establishments. It is necessary to observe, that Mr Barker is no party to the following remarks.-G. D.
when the Commissioners for visiting the Universities of Scotland were in full career of examining all and sundry who had any pretensions to propose plans of reform in our Colleges; and great must have been his disappointment in not having been summoned before these dignified personages to develope plans prepared for their special approbation. It might be supposed, that a person, who takes it upon him, without the least hesitation or apology, to censure others in the most petulant and offensive manner, would be particularly distinguished for extensive knowledge in literature, and great skill in the art of instruction. If unparalleled impudence and gross abuse raise men to eminence, then the name of Milligan will be as illustrious as those of his great prototypes, Zoilus and Dennis. If commonplace observations, puerile and petulant criticisms, insufferable arrogance, and great contempt for all others who may rank above Mr George Milligan, constitute a supereminent literary character, then this person is fully entitled to such a high distinction. From the dictatorial manner in which he has delivered his opinions respecting the system of education pursued in the literary classes of our Universities, we might have expected that he was a thorough master of the subject, both in theory and practice. If, however, we should enquire what proofs he has given of his ability as a public instructor, we shall be told that, when officiating as assistant in one of his classes to the late Professor of Humanity in the University of Glasgow, the students under his charge broke out into open rebellion against his authority, and set at nought his instructions; Jag ἄσπου δος καὶ ἀκήρυκτος αὐτῷ πρὸς τοὺς παιδευομένους πόλεμος, ὑφ ̓ ὧν τὰ πολλὰ ὀνείδη εἰληφώς, εἰκότως τοὺς ἀπείρους τῶν τοιούτων, ὡς ἀμαθεὶς σκώπτει. We have taken the liberty to make some slight changes upon the original to accommodate the description to this modern cʊxopavens. And if he should, at any future period, provoke us to give a translation of the passage, we shall accompany it with a commentary furnished us by an eye and ear witness of his inglorious campaign in the University of Glasgow.
We cannot imagine what inconceivable folly has induced this person to assume the character of an Eng
lish scholar, in order to vilify the literary establishments of his country. Does he suppose that there is a member of the University, either of Oxford or Cambridge, who would not think himself degraded in being supposed the author of such a despicable production as that to which we have alluded in the Westminster Review? There may be narrowminded and prejudiced men among them, but few, indeed, who do not in their conduct and writings maintain the tone and character of gentlemen: scarcely one, who would be such a renegade as to defame the institutions of his own country.
Εἰ δ ̓ ἦσθα μὴ κάκιστος, οὔποτ ̓ ἂν πατραν Τὴν σὴν ἀτίζων, τὴνδ ̓ ἂν εὐλόγεις πόλιν ̔Ως ἐν γὲ μοι κρίνοιτ' ἂν οὐ καλῶς φρονέν Οστις πατρῷας γῆς ἀτιμάζων ὅρους, Αλλην ἐπαινει, καὶ τρόποισιν ἥδεται.
"If you were not a thorough mis creant, you would not, slighting your native country, have eulogized another state; as, in my opinion, that man could not be judged to entertain honourable sentiments, who, vilifying his native land, praises another, and is delighted with its manners." Mr Milligan strongly reminds us of the ass in the fable, who clothed himself with the lion's skin, in order that he might obtain a more dignified place among his fellow brutes. The stubborn animal as surely betrayed him self, by his braying, to be an ass, as our opponent by his criticisms, under the assumed garb of a graduate of Oxford or Cambridge. They are mere "crambe recocta," collected from newspapers and magazines, and served up in a new dish, the Westminster Review, to tempt the appetites of radicals and reformers.
If we have been silent upon the repeated and disgusting attacks of this person for so long a time, it was because we saw him labouring in the only vocation for which he seemed to have a natural aptitude, to support himself and his family. Now that better prospects, as we understand, have opened up to him, in a profession most alien to the indulgence of malevolent passions, we trust that he will henceforth devote his talents to better purposes than uncharitable censures on the public conduct and characters of men, who, however they may have failed, have at least endeavoured to deserve well of their country. We are, &c.
G. D. & E. H. B.
THE WEST INDIA QUESTION.
NOTWITHSTANDING the large portion of our Miscellany which, for the last year, has been devoted to political subjects, changes the most momentous to the British empire are going forward, on which we have hitherto hardly bestowed an article. While all eyes have been fixed on that dreadful malady which has ravaged the heart of the empire, its extremities have gradually been growing cold; and while yet stunned by the shock arising from the destruction of the constitution, we are doomed to witness, to all human appearance, the dismemberment and dissolution of the empire.
Ireland, so long a burden and a source of anxiety to Great Britain, is rapidly approaching either a civil war, or a separation from this island. In the relaxation of government, and the general confusion arising from the demolition and reconstruction of the constitution, in presence of an audacious and insatiable democratic foe, the bonds of authority over that powerful part of the empire have been entirely lost. By allowing the Great Agitator, whose arts have so long desolated his country, to escape unpunished after he had pleaded guilty; by permitting agitation of the most furious kind to go on unrestrained for a whole year; by promoting, rewarding, flattering, and indulging the leader of these turbulent movements, after they had publicly denounced him as an enemy to the public weal-Ministers have brought that unhappy island into such a state, tha. it seems hardly possible that either a civil war or a separation can be avoided. All that the Duke of Wellington unwisely did to pacify, has been obliterated by what our present rulers have done to agitate it; the Protestants, roused to a sense of the imminent peril which threatens them, are resolved, like brave men, to maintain their lives and properties, or perish in the attempt; the Catholics, encouraged by the experienced impunity of former tumults, and the public rewards of their author, have resolved to extirpate all the traces even of the established institutions of the country; and England, wearied with
the incessant disturbances of its peopled neighbour, would view its separation without regret, were it not that it would assuredly lead to the dismemberment and fall of the em
Events of an equally perilous and fatal kind threaten us in the southern possessions of Great Britain. Its vast and splendid colonial possessions, encircling the globe with their stations, and nourishing its commerce by their productions, are menaced with destruction. The government of the West India colonies, embracing so many wealthy and important islands, consuming annually L.12,000,000, worth of British manufactures, containing L.130,000,000 of British capital, employing 250,000 tons of British shipping, is silently slipping from our hands. Should the present system continue much longer, it is more than doubtful whether, in a few years, the British flag will wave on any of the Antilles. The empire of the Atlantic, and with it the wooden walls of England, the great bulwark of our freedom, will have passed to another people.
To shew that these apprehensions are not exaggerated, we transcribe the following article from the Jamaica Courant of Nov. 1, 1831 :
"The period has at length arri-> ved, when the representatives of an oppressed and deeply injured people have met in council, to deliberate on the civil and political economy; and, like pilots in a storm, to consult on the means most advisable to conduct the tempest-tost bark through the billows of an agitated ocean. Looking at the conduct of the mother country to her colonies, we dare hardly give expression to our feelings on the occasion. What have we in return from England for the immense duties received upon our produce-the vast benefits derived of her industrious artisans from the almost exclusive supply of British manufactures-the nursery afforded her for seamen, that form the bulwark of her national existence, besides the wealth drawn from the wealth of the colony, to be spent in Britain by our absentee proprietors