was nece

ples which are pursued in respect to means as adopted in the material and light and shade obtain ; individuality sensuous art of the Venetians, which, and accident are its primary laws. in their varied combinations, are the

In addition to their adoption of these instruments through which that char. portions of the means which, as here acter is kept up, in connexion with employed, are in distinct subserviency an extensive range of subjects; and (as to the purpose of their art, the Vene frequently takes place in the instance tians in their practice present a pe

of the other schools) it must be seen culiarity intimately connected with to result, that the idea or the senti. that purpose, which was first and ment of the subjects of their pictures most distinctly exemplified by them. cessarily very often not at This is the signification of variety of sustained, or even attempted. Each surface and texture, which the pros looks from his own point of view tocesses adopted in the practice of Ves wards the horizon which bounded his netian painting afforded superior facis domain, beyond which he was appalities towards carrying into effect, and rently either indifferent in respect to which was eminently adapted to assist what existed, or unapprehensive of it. in the expression of its distinctive Thus Titian, in carrying to its highcharacter.

est consummation that particular refeBut, as before adverted to, each of rence which constitutes the characterthese elements, or means of the art, istic of the school to which he belongs, on particular occasions, hold a station is frequently altogether at variance in the productions of this school which with the just expression demanded by is distinct, being altogether dependent the subjects of his pictures.* But the upon its material character. In nus character of his time admitted, and merous instances colours, facts of light even very much favoured the predoand shade, individualities of form, and minance of those qualities which he detail of decoration or ornament, be. was most adapted to express, in addicome the field of its expression. They tion to their generally insinuating naare recognised to be identical with the ture. Indeed, after a certain period, most thorough signification of its in- throughout all Italian art, there is a tention—the final end to be gained decided preponderance towards renthe mete of its purpose. The pecu. dering ideas, which have their existliarity of a colour, a texture, or a kind ence only in the mind, by substantive or effect of light, in this instance, realities of an ordinary and unelevated becomes an ultimate fact, beyond character. It is this, but in a refined which there is no connected significa application, which led to the deviation tion, it being directly and wholly re- from an ideal representation, and dicimpressive of the object or the idea tated the substitution of moral beauty, intended to be referred to. Thus the signified in the Madonnas of Raphael, expression of either of these frequente in which there is no attempt to quit ly, but most often that of colour, the region of human feeling ; their which alone characterises many objects elevation consisting in the strength of to vision, becomes ultimate, in con- their sentiment, not in its being of a nexion with that intimation of material superhuman nature, which may, in and physical qualities which is here most respects, be considered to have pursued. On occasions, they separate been their proper sphere. In the same ly become one with the distinctive subject, which, in the hands of his nature of this range of painting—the predecessor and master, Giovanni Bellaw of its law.



lini, still retained a mythic character Such are the wider features of the to a considerable degree, Titian be


gether. As far as mere correctness is concerned, within a certain sphere which does not embrace science or selection, the design of Venetian painting has been more objected to than it merits. But this has arisen from its reference or purpose not having been recognised,

* Here has arisen another of those stumbling-blocks in the way of judgment on art, which have led to preposterous results. The expression of the figure of the Christ crowned with Thorns, in the gallery of the Louvre, one of the greatest of the works of Titian, has been commended as divine, because he was known to be one of the most eminent painters; while in reality it is the reverse of that, in every respect, in countea nance and action.


comes altogether earthly. His Ma.

cause of its engrossing influence, be. donnas are certainly womanly, and come apparent. The elevated relafull of animal vigour ; but it was the tion of the works of Michael Angelo worshipped head of canonized holiness, and Raphael (for their distinction is represented by the mistress of the such, that unless in particulars it can. painter. Without, however, in the not be expected to be common to any present instance, entering into a refe- class or school) is of necessity generrence to particular works, it may be ally admitted ; but individually, in observed, that it has been seen, that most instances, as the more permanent in the attempt to characterise the or operating law, it is only nominally. works of Titian, different qualities The sensible world surrounds the conhave been brought forward, and dif. sciousness of every one. In it, it may ferent appellations bestowed upon ' be said almost entirely, the many move them, which, from their nature, may and have their being. But, amidst separately be resolved into the more the less vital manifestation of the extensive and ultimate grounds of dis- beautiful in intellect and in human retinction that have been recognised ; lation-morals, still none can be within which the cause of that deficiency out their moments, although the genof meutal signification and intercom. eral rule of their action is not under munion, which has always been brought such influence, when the soul or mind against this school, becomes fully ap- recognises its proper being in rejoicing parent. has been noticed, that col- energy, and in these-the confession our and ornament have been singly and triumph of its final relation-the considered to present the distinctive distinction of humanity is sustained, quality of Venetian painting; while, throughout all; but which, existent in it must be observed, that the nature of an eminent degree, constitutes the its light and shade, design, composi- source of human dignity, giving birth tion, and varied surface, have been to the great and good in contemplation left without being referred to any and in action, through intellectual and cause. But it is impossible that dif- moral power. Truly to touch the ferent qualities can alike essentially heart-strings by either, is an inheritdistinguish one subject; and it is no ance of fame. It is this which has less so, that those qualities which have enkindled a pharos-light from humble remained without being taken into deeds, and made the voice of the poet consideration, should be entirely with thunder.* But all effort is not alike out any connexion or originating borne upwards by this strength. The source of those particular features range of human consciousness may be which they present. This we have figured as a segment of the circle of endeavoured to supply: but, in sepa- being, the angle of which meets the rately considering the individual works centre, or intelligence, whence existof this school, while the essential cha- ence proceeds; and its basement, the racteristic which most strikingly dis- widest and most extended and outward tinguishes them is recognised, it must portion of its quantity, reaches that disbe recollected that such is only a part, tance from the centre, beyond which though the most distinct part, of their humanity is lost, and mere animal life whole combination; and their great1

commences. To this wider or more ness in other respects (but which come diffused range outward being belongs, upon a ground common to different while mental existence may be said to schools and masters) must be distinct- reach, by different gradations, to a ly kept in view.

nearer approximation to the centre.t From the nature of the painting of But the angle narrows as it advances. Titian, and his immediate predeces- While all are necessarily existent in sors and followers, as it has now been the outward-proceeding, the participastated, its particular tendency, and the tion in the inward-proceeding is limit

* Some of those poems, usually denominated minor, in virtue derived from this source, become the Lares and Penates of the mind; and, were there one general language, would far outwie in effect or influence the destruction of a navy, or the burning of a capital, the means of the animal assertion of the right-war. Every word of Gray's Elegy, vainly criticised as it may be, is worth thousands of carronades and bayonets. † The gods, demons, and heroes of the Greeks, might supply a filling up or completion of an analogy of this kind.

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ed. Here, then, we are landed on the occasions, it does not,) their separate area of conflicting preferences-of fix- or distinct reference holds its place in ed and of temporary reputation-of that portion of the human constitution, ultimate value, or that which is con- which is immediately constitutive of tingent-of permanency and fashion, sensible existence, and which is withof worth and worthlessness.

But at out direct reflex operation. It prothe same time we recognise their divi.


unvarying necessity of sion and separateness ; and, in recog. exterior life, and descends in its appeals nising this division, an immediate stan. to that circle of perception where the dard of judgment is supplied, by which union of the human with the merely the station and reference of the differ- animal nature takes place. It has not ent objects of human exertion must be a part in the distinction of humanity. assigned.

This is the degradation of the genius Judged by this standard, the influ- of Titian. Its elevation consists in the ence of the works of the head of the width of the circle to which his works Venetian painters are found to take belong, and in their being exemplifia station which is subordinate and cations of an intention or object, conunelevated. Still, keeping in view summated to a degree which places their necessity in painting, and im- them among the most eminent in. portance as one of the greatest ex- stances of human exertion :-not that emplifications of the re-production of it is meant to be implied that this inthe constituent, or condition of the ope. tention was adopted and effected ration of all knowledge and art, sensible through a premeditated purpose, but images, (although that had even limit that such is the result by different ed their intention, which, on many steps arrived at, in Venetian painting.



and see

'Twill be a wild rough night upon the Moor :
And hark! though three miles off, the sullen roar
Of that deep-booming surge. God's mercy keep
The wayfarer, and wanderer on the deep.
The moon's but young--she'll give no help to-night:
Look out, my boys ! iť Beacon-head burns bright ;
And, lads ! take Carter Joe with
All snug about the place; more 'specially
At the new Penfold—and dun Peggy, too,
Give her and her sick foal a passing view
Old Mark away, I've lost my right-hand man;
You must replace him.”-

Off the striplings ran,
Proud happy boys ! forth rushing in their haste,
Ere well the words their father's lips had pass'd ;
The elder's arm, with loving roughness, thrown
Round his young brother's neck-the fair-hair’d one.
- God bless the lads! and keep them ever so,
Hand in hand brothers, wheresoe'er they go,"
Eyeing them tenderly, the father said
As the door closed upon them: Then his head,
Sighing, let fall on his supporting palm,
And, like the pausing tempest, all was calm.

Facing her husband, sate a Matron fair,
Plying her sempstress task. A shade of care
Darkend her soft blue eyes, as to his face
(Drawn by that sigh) they wander’d, quick to trace
The unseen, by sympathy's unerring sight-
Reading his heart's thoughts by her own heart's light,

Ten years twice told had pass’d, since Helen Græme
For Walter Hay's exchanged her virgin name,
Of life's viscissitudes they'd had their share,
Sunshine and shade; yet in his eyes as fair,
And dearer far than the young blooming Bride
Was she, the long-tried partner; who espied
No change in him, but such as gave a cast
More tender to the love would time outlast.
They had rejoiced together at the birth
Of six fair infants : Sorrowing, to the earth
(With mutual sorrow, but submissive heart)
Committed three. Hard trial 'twas to part
(Young parents !) with their first-born bud of bliss ;
And they who follow'd !-with the last cold kiss
Their hearts seem'd breaking, that on each they press'd.
But He so will'd it " who doth all things best.”
Out of their sight they hid their early dead,
And wept together and were comforted.
And of their loved ones, now a lovely three
Were left, that well a parent's boast might be.
Those two bold, blithesome boys, of stature near,
(Their ages differing only by a year,)
Walter and William named in reminiscence dear,
And a small sister, like a green-hill Fay,
Younger by eight-a little Helen Hay,
The household darling. To her father's ear,
'Twas ever music that sweet name to hear,
And now she sate, as still as still could be,
Her little stool drawn close beside his knee;
Her paly ringlets so profusely shed,
In the warm hearth-glow gleaming golden red,
As o'er the book upon her lap she bent,
On Jack the Giant-killer's feats intent.

Fit subject for some limnèr's skill had been
That quiet, tender-toned, heart-soothing scene,
All in fine keeping! The old spacious room,
Half hall, half kitchen, dark’ning into gloom,
As it receded from that cavern vast-
The open hearth ; whence blazing oak logs cast
Rich, ruddy beams on rafter, beam, and wall,
'Twixt monstrous shadows that fantastic fall.
And all around, in picturesque array,
Hung rustic implements for use and play,
For manly sport and boyish holiday.
Basket, and net, and rifle, rod, and

Coil'd lines, and weather-season'd fishing gear,
And bills and hedging gloves ; and, modelld neat,
A little schooner, (Willy's proudest feat,)
Matching a mimic plough, with graver thought
" On improved principles," by Walter wrought-
Proud folk the parents of those works, I wot!
And tatter'd straw hats, plaited once so white
And neat, in leisurely long winter night,
By the boy brothers; while their father read
From one of those brown volumes overhead,
(No mindless untaught churl was Walter Hay,)
Some pleasant theme, instructive, grave, or gay :
His list’ning household, men, and maids, and all,
Assembled round him in his rustic hall;
Together closing the laborious day,

As in the good old time, the good old way.

There stood a spinning-wheel, whose humming sound
Accompanied the reader's voice, not drown'd.
There hung a half-done cabbage-net ; and there,
Nursing her kitten in the old stuff”d chair,
Purr'd a grave Tabby ; while a faithful friend,
A worn-out Sheep-Dog, to his long life's end
Fast hastening, slumber'd at his master's feet.
It was a pleasant picture !_very sweet
To look upon, its beautiful repose-
One earthly scene, undimm’d by human woes.

Alas! was ever spot on earth so bless'd,
Where human hearts in perfect peace might rest?
One bosom sorrow, one corroding thought,
(The dark thread with his woof of life enwrought)
Help'd on the work of time with Walter Hay,
Stole half the brightness of his smile away,
And streak'd in manhood's prime his dark curl'd locks with gray.
A hasty quarrel--an intemperate cup,
A hard word spoken when the blood was up,
A blow as madly dealt, but not in hate,
Repented soon and sorely, but too late-
Too late !-Ah! simple words of solemn sense,
Avenging disregarded Providence !

Remembrance of these things, and what ensued,
It was, that clouded oft his sunniest mood,
Casting a dark cold shadow o'er the life
Perhaps too prosperous else. His gentle wife
Whose wife-like tenderness could scarce descry
A fault in him she honour'd, oft would try
To pluck away the thorn he sternly press'd
(Severe in self-infliction) to his breast.

Not yours alone," she soothingly would say,
“ The blame of what befell that luckless day;
You had borne much, my husband! well I know,
Much before anger overcame you so:
And both of you that night had made too free
(Alas! that youth should so unthinking be!)
With the good ale in careless company.
How could you bear such taunts before them all,
As he--unjust and violent-let fall?
He knew your heart, to him so warm and kind,
That passion could but for a moment blind ;
Passion, that love as suddenly would check,
And cast you, all-repentant, on his neck:
But he was gone before a word could

Gone in his furious mood, before the glass
Ceased ringing, where he dash'd it on the floor
With that rash oath-to see thy face no more !"


or But I-but I--that ever it should be
Betwixt us so !-had told him bitterly
I never more desired his face to see.
I prosperous_He, a disappointed man-
Quick temper’d, spirit vex'd. Say what you can,
Dear comforter! you cannot take away
The stinging mem'ry of that fatal day."
Thus soothingly, a thousand times before
The loving wife had utter'd o'er and o'er
Mild consolation ; on his heart that fell
Balmy, though there no settled peace might dwell:
And thus again, that night whereof I teli,

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