Digitus, δακτυλος
ogus, dogu
Duo, ovo
Decem, δεκα
Dico, desxvodeon (doceo ?)

toe, E.; tá, A. S. : zeha, O. H. G.
tree, E.; triu, Goth.
two, E.; zwei, Germ.
ten, E.; taihun, Goth. ; zehn, Germ.
true, E.; (= firm, lasting)
teach, token, E. tæcan, tácn, A. S.; zeigen,

zeichen, G.
tame, E. zähmen, Ger.
tie, E.
timber, E, timrian, Goth. : zimmer, Germ.
tug, E. ; tiuhan, Goth.; ziehen, Germ.

Domo, δαμαω
δεμω, domus

idwe iągws, sudor Radix ödus (swādu, S.) Id Quid, quod Edo Sedeo onda (= Food) Rudo (rud, S.?)

water, E.
sweat, E.
root, E.
sweet, E.
it, E.
what, E.
eat, E.; itan, Goth.
sit, E. ; sitan, Goth.

wot, E. ; witan, Goth.

rout, Sc.
J = D, Gothic.

daughter. E.: tochter, Germ.
deer, E. ; thier, Germ.
door, E.; thor, thür, Germ.
dare, durst, E.
dry, E.
do, E.
doom, dempster, E.
die, death, E. ; dauthus, Goth.

[blocks in formation]

#fee (uber)

udder pes. Ju (mathu, S.)

mead, E. squadgos (ruber.)

ruddy, E.

F, Gothic. Pater

father, E. πυς

fire, E. ; fyr, A. S. Piscis

fish, E. Pinna

fin, E. πτερον (= πετερον)

feather, E.
Pes, pedis : T25, Todos : (padas, S.) foot, E.
Pugnus, avš: (Pest, Scl.). fist, E.; fyst, A. S.; faust, Germ. ?

fell, E. Pecu, (pecunia)

faihu, Goth. ; feoh, A. S. ; fee, E. Pullus, πωλος

foal, E. Porcus

farrow, (a litter of pigs,) E. ; fearh, A. S. (a pig) Porca

furrow, E. ;;furh, A. S. Pulex

flea, E.; flech, Sc. Pena, ποινη

fine, E.?

for, fore, E. παρα"

fra, frae, Sc. ; fram, A. S.; from E. sega, toega

far, E.; fairra, Goth. ; forth, E.

first, foremost, E. ; frumists, Goth. πεμπε)

five, E. ; fimf, Goth.; fünf, Germ. πολυς, πολυ

fele, fell, Sc. ; filu, Goth. πλεος, plenus

full, E. Pauci

few, E, ; fauai, Goth. Plex, thoos: simplex,* indoos, fold, E. ; falths, Goth. ; ainfalths, Goth. ; two-fold, duplex, dit hoos, &c.


Pro, προ

Primus, πρωτος



* Simplex is generally explained as being sine plica : but is it not rather as it were singu-plex, or from the root of semel, and thus corresponding to the Gothic ain-falths ? If simplex means sine plica, how comes the next step in the progression to be duplex? Compare the Greek ca 2005, which is aspirated, and not uwloos, as the negative would be.


flat, E.; flach, Germ.
fallow, E.;? “His hewe falwe and pale." Chau-


Pingais, Tiny
Pasco, Tokopedia
Pedo, ripon, (pard, S.)
Pango, mnyos

fat, E.; feitr, Icel.
feed, E.
feortan, A. S.
fay, fadge, E. ; ge-fegan, A. S.; fügen, Germ.

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seven, E. ; seofon, A. S. Vulpes, lupus ?

wolf, E. ; wulfs, Goth. UT YOS, somnus,

sopnus ?) sweven, O. E. swefn, A.S. 1905

Oven, E. υστερ,

over, E. ufar, Goth. எல்

leave, E.

B, Gothic, Frater, (bhrātr', s.)

brother, E.; brothar, Goth. Fagus, onyos

beech, E. ; bêce, A. S. Frons, o-ogus, (bhrú, s.)

brow, E. Far

bear, Sc.; baris, Goth. Follis

bellows, E. balgs, Goth. Fero, Øegw, (bhr', s.)

bear, E. Flo, flare, flatus

blow, blast, E.; blawan, A. S. Floreo, flos

blow, bloom, E.; blómå, Goth. Fui, Quw, (bhű, S.)

be, E. Findo, fidi, (bhid, s.)

bite, E. Frango, fregi, fragilis

break, E. ; brickle, O. E. ; brikár, brak, Goth. Fruor, fructus

bruik, Sc.; brucan, A. S. Foro

bore, E. These lists could be greatly en- parched,

Tegotiv; thahan, to be si. larged if we were to add the words lent, - tacere; thanyan, to stretch, illustrating the rule which exist in TEIVEiv ; thragyan, to run,

786XEI; other or older Teutonic languages, wairthan, to become, verti. but which have not been preserved We believe that the same thing among ourselves. It may not be un. might be done in all the other early interesting to give a few of the most languages to a very remarkable exstriking examples of Gothic words, tent. which are more or less in this situa- Considerable additions even might tion.

be made to the catalogue on a less Aigan, to possess, to own, = xev; abstruse principle, if we were to give ahwa, a stream, aqua; ga-filhan, those words which, in their proper to bury,=se-pelire; hafyan, to lift, form, possessed features exhibiting a

,, capere; haitan, to call, =citare; haihs, compliance with the rule, but which

= cæcus; hlifan, to their modern condition has lost. Thus steal, hliftus, a thief, xsaTu, many English words beginning with ? ,

κλεφτειν xhew tm$ ; hraiws, flesh, xgsas; andr, had, in Gothic and Anglo-Saxon, hramyan, to hang, = xpsucuv; mizdó, an initial 1 before those liquids, which a reward, meed, usofos ; steigan, to represented an initial x in Greek or go, to climb, OT:17819; swaihra, a

Latin. of this change the following father-in-law,

socer; taihswó, the examples may be given. right hand, = doğuere ; thairsan, to be Corpus, (kerefs, Zend.)

hrif, A. S.; mid-riff, E. Circus

hring, A. S. ; ring, E. Cribrum

hriddel, A. S. ; riddel, Sc. Corvus

hráefn, A. S.; raven, E. ρυμος

hrîm, A. S. ; rime, Sc. Crudus

hreau, A. S.; raw, E. κλυω, κλυτος

hlud, A. S. loud, É.; hlistan, Å. Š., listen, É. κλινω

hlinian, A. S. lean, E. κλειω, claudo

hlidan, A. S. ; whence, lid, E. The manifestation of the law is still individual derivatives in the different more striking and important in refer- languages diverge widely in form from ence to the affinity of roots, in their each other. This is a large and delisimplest character, even where the cate subject, on which we have neither

blind of an eye,


room nor disposition to enter at pre- ought to be a primary object of interest sent; but we may advert to one or among us to study, in all their expantwo illustrations of it, for which our sions, its affinities to those sources of previous examples will have served as copiousness and beauty which have a preparation.

made it what it is. Our social and 1. The large class of particles which political position, and our national in the ancient languages denote oppo. history, lead to the same result. We sition, ante-position, or some kindred are the mixed descendants of some idea, and which are characterised by of the most brave, virtuous, and cultithe radical letters PR, as wupu, wea,

vated of the Teutonic tribes.

We præ, præter, porro, &c., appear uni- have long made the systematic study formly, and to an equal extent, in the of classical learning the charter of our Gothic tongues with the characteris- freedom, liberality, and civilisation. tics of FR.

Within the seas that wash our own 2. The characteristic, in Latin, shores, we have at least two of the of the relative and interrogative pro- most important forms of Celtic speech noun and its derivatives is QU=KW, yet living; and we possess, within the which agrees with the corresponding limits of our Oriental empire, the Gothic root HW, or irregularly as in venerable and mysterious treasures of English WH.

Indian antiquity.

If any nation is 3. In like manner, the demonstra- called to these studies, both by duty tive pronoun with its relative particles and by opportunity, it is ourselves. is distinguished in the ancient lan- Classical, and Saxon, and Sanscrit guages by T, and in the Gothic by scholars we can already show of the TH.

very highest eminence. There has It is impossible, on the one hand, been no want of successful labourers to suppose that these coincidences are in individual portions of the field. accidental, or, on the other, to doubt But in the peculiar department of that words of such primitive significa- comparative philology, little has as tion must be of the highest antiquity yet been done by us, as contrasted with in all of the languages where they what might and ought to have been appear, and must, at a very early accomplished. We hope and believe period, have been separated by the that, in this respect, a better era is inexplicable, though systematic diver- rapidly approaching, and that, while sity which they now present.

the study of the more ancient Teutonic We trust that these observations tongues shall be inculcated among our may, at least, be of some use in youth as only next in importance to directing attention to such topics. that of the classical languages, we shall We cannot dismiss the subject with- have among us many who, ascending out an humble but earnest exhor- the highest vantage grounds of science, tation to our countrymen to give to can take a searching and comprehen. comparative philology the honours sive survey of the whole extent of Indowhich it deserves, and which it more European speech, an ample territory, especially claims at their hands. Our presenting to the eye of imagination native tongue is nearly, if not alto. the fairest varieties of hill and dale, gether, the noblest language that hu- meadow and moorland, embellished man wisdom, or let us rather say here with smiling corn.fields or deDivine goodness, has ever instituted for licious gardens, and there overshadow. the use of man. It is as nobly descended ed with frowning precipices and solemn as it is happily composed. It is uni. forests; but throughout all its bounds ted by many links of connexion to ennobled by the sacred haunts of the richest and fairest forms of speech learning or of liberty, of elegance or in other ages and nations; and it of virtue.

* It is singular to observe that, according to an important law of interchange between the labial and guttural consonants, the proper characteristic of the relative and interrogative pronoun and its particles in Greek is ni, as an, wov, wote, Wotigos, &c., while in some Gothic tribes, as in the north of Scotland, the corresponding form is the equiva. lent F w, instead of the ordinary Gothic HW qu. Thus, fa, far, fan, fulk, are the north-country words for who, where, when, whilk. What link in this curious chain belongs to the Cockney pronunciation ?

ALGIERS. The invasion of the Algerine terri- nine years, they are now fighting withtory by the French, is one of the most in cannon-shot of Algiers ! remarkable evidences that nations are The war has begun in earnest. While not to be taught either common justice Abd-el-Kader lives, France will probaor common sense by suffering. We bly have to carry on a continued war, there see France, after five-and-twenty more or less open. If he shall fall, years of national misery, taking the first the spirit of other chieftains will be opportunity to rob and shed the blood formed while the animosity survives ; of her neighbours. She had no more and it will survive, grounded as it is cause of war against the Algerines in the nature of things, in the native than against the Antediluvians; but repulsion between French and Mahoit occurred to her imbecile Govern, metan manners, in the habitual ha. ment that she wanted " glory," and tred of the native for the invader, to her insane people that glory was to and in the strong religious antipathies be found in cutting the throats of which have already enabled the AfriTurks and Moors, unfortunate enough can leader to proclaim his assault on to live in a territory where she ex- the French as the “ Holy War.” pected to find land cheap, dollars at Even the fullest possession of the the sword's point, and triumph for Algerine territory could never be of nothing

real value to France : it has no har.. Providence, it is true, often lets bours, and can therefore never be fools and villains take their way; but a station for any thing beyond a priperhaps there never was an instance, vateer or a pirate. In the event of an not excepting Napoleon's own, where European war, it must be abandoned, the punishment of the original culprits or France must consent to lock up followed, with such distinct, complete, 50,000 troops there, with the cerand immediate vengeance on the tainty that famine, the Arabs, and crime.

perhaps an English expedition, will Within a twelvemonth, the Govern- perform in Algiers the second part of ment which had formed this atrocious the Egyptian campaign. But the project was utterly extinguished; great points of criminality subsist, even Charles the Tenth and his dynasty if the policy were however successful ; driven from their throne, and exiled and those are, that the invasion was from the land for life ;-his Ministry, made absolutely without any cause but a the Polignacs and their associates, determination to plunder, and that the thrown into a long and severe impri- conquest has been retained, in direct sonment, a fate singular among all the and unquestionable defiance of the changes of European cabinets, and most solemn, public, and repeated deafter narrowly escaping the scaffold, clarations, that no conquest whatever also exiled for life; Marmont, the was intended, and that, as in the inchief military councillor of the King, stance of Lord Exmouth's expedition, forced to fly from France, and never the moment that satisfaction was obdaring to return; Bourmont, the tained, the whole armament was to be commander of the invasion, never ven- withdrawn. turing to set his foot on the French It argues a deplorable state of moral soil since, and still a fugitive through feeling, to find that no man in France the world; the invading army, of has the honesty of heart to protest 30,000 strong, some of the finest against this iniquity ; that the legislatroops of France, long since destroyed ture can find no warning voice, that in Africa by the climate and the war. the journals are fierce in their wrath fare of the Arabs, scarcely a man of against any idea of abandoning Althem having returned. And after the giers, and that all France madly seems sacrifice of probably twice the number to regard the national crime as a naof lives in a disputed possession of tional glory. Algiers ! wild Algiers !

The signal-guns pealing
There are sounds of affright

The march of the foe;
Coming thick on thy gales,

And the desert horn's howl,
Sounds of battle and flight ;-

Like the wolf in his prowl ; The spurrings of horsemen, .

For, roused from their lair, With tidings of woe;

The Berbers are there.

'Tis the blue depth of midnight; Woc, woe to the Guul! The moon is above,

Ambition's worst slave; Sheilding silver in showers

Must he grasp, till the world On mosque and on grove;

Is a dungeon or grave ? And the sense is opprest

Must he envy the Arab
With the sweetness of night.


and his sand? 'Tis an hour to be blest,

Must his crown be a curse, All fragrance and light.

And his sceptre a brand ? But the sparkling of steel,

But Wrath will not sleep; And the cannon's deep peal,

As he sows, he shall reap; And the quick-volleying gun,

The robber shall pay Tell that blood is begun.

Gore for gore, clay for clay. The Frenchmen are rushing

Ay, follow the Arab To gate and to wall;

Through mountain and vale, And the Moor is awake

He's the eagle, and safe In his gold-tissued hall.

As its wing on the gale. He sharpens the dagger

Ay, scorch through the day, And loads the carbine,

And freeze through the night, And looks to the hills

He's the leopard—one bound, For the morning to shine.

And he's gone from your sight. And on rampart and roof

But death's in his tramp Crowds are standing aloof;

As he sweeps round your camp ; And their gestures, though dumb, One charge and one roar, Tell_" the Emir" is come!

And you sleep in your gore ! On dash the dark riders,

But the plague-spot has fallen
The sons of the south,

On each and on all ;
From plain and from mountain, Where art thou, Old Bourbon ?
Age, manhood, and youth !

Europe scoff'd at thy fall.
Their steeds are like wind,

Where thy fierce “ Thirty thousand," And their bodies like fire,

Napoleon's old braves ? That wounds cannot tame,

Like thee, they are corpses-
That toil cannot tire.

Algiers gave them graves.
On they burst like a flood,

Where the victor Bourmont?
Till the desert drinks blood,

He has follow'd thy throne;
Thick as night-falling dew-

On his brow the blood-stain,
Allah hu! Allah hu !

To wander, like Cain.

Yet the plague shall not smite

And then die with the dead;
The madness shall cling,

The grave shall be fed.
Too cursed to abandon,

Too weak to retain,
The legions of France
Still shall slay and be slain.

ABD-EL-KADER, the star
That shall blast them with war-
Thou, the land of their biers,
Algiers! wild Algiers !


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