but not the consonants,)-or in consonantes or complete rhymes, (the first line rhyming with the fourth, and the second with the third.) These are occasionally varied by the introduction of other forms of versification, many of a very intricate and complex nature. Even the sonnet is frequently employed in soliloquies, or in those effusions of gallantry which are so frequent in the Spanish drama. After many experiments, we feel satisfied that the assonance, as used on the Spanish stage, is undistinguishable in English, while the principle which requires that the same assonance, if once begun, shall be continued throughout the scene,









though consisting of several hundred lines, would render its adoption too irksome to be practicable in English poetry. We have therefore substituted, for the assonances of the original, unrhymed trochaics as the nearest approach to the effect of the Spanish;

the other forms of versification which occur in the original, we have endeavoured to transfer to our translation.

A few words of explanation, added to the names of the characters, will be sufficient to give an idea of their position at the commencement of the play: after which the development of the action proceeds simply and rapidly. The personages of the play are,

(in love, without knowing her, with)

(a young widow, the sister, and living in the house of) (the friend and former companion in arms of DON MANUEL, and the brother of)

(in love, but without success, with) —

(the cousin and friend of ANGELA-in love with Don Juan,
and beloved by him in turn.)

(the servant of DONA ANGELA.)
(the servant of DONA BEATRICE.)
(the servant of DON MANUEL.)
(the servant of DON LUIS.)

The opening of the play affords a good instance of the skill with which Calderon at once introduces the reader into the action of the play, and excites, from the first moment, an interest in the fortunes of his personages, which goes on increasing to the last. The scene is a Street in Madrid; the time November 1623, being the baptismal day of the Infante Balthazar, the son of Philip IV.

DON MANUEL and his servant CosME appear in travelling dresses.

Cosm. Well, since we have miss'd the revels

By an hour, let us endeavour

Not to miss our quarters next

By an hour; for says the proverb,

Even the Moor Abindarraez,

Knocking late without must bait.

And I'm dying till I see

This same friend, that thus receives you

Loverlike, at bed and board,

Without knowing how or wherefore
Such good fortune should be ours;
Since of both he's not enamour'd,
Why should he provide for both?

D. Man. 'Tis Don Juan de Toledo,
Cosme, who thus courts my friendship
With a love which wakes the envy,
Shames the boasts, of other ages.
Jointly we pursued our studies,
Jointly from the peaceful college
To the field of warfare passing,
Were companions, next in arms.
In the war of Piedmont,
When the noble Duke of Feria
To a captain's staff advanced me,
I to him resign'd my banner;

He became my ensign; then
In a skirmish sorely wounded,
In my tent I laid and nursed him.
Under God, his life was owing
To my care; of lesser favours
Here I speak not.

Noble natures

Dwell not on such obligations.
Thus it is, by learned art,
That beneficence is painted
As a stately lady, turning
From our gaze away;-implying
That the man who does a favour,
Straight should labour to forget it—
He who blazons it does none.
Briefly then, Don Juan, grateful
For this friendship, these attentions,
Seeing that my gracious sovereign
With this post repays my service,
And that I, in passing, must
To the court repair, proposes
In his house to entertain me,
In like coin old debts repaying.
And although he wrote to Burgos,
House and street at length describing,
Yet I did not choose to ride

Through the town, my path enquiring.
So, at the Posada leaving

Mules and baggage, forth I fared
On my search; and seeing round me
Festive liveries, gala dresses,

Stopp'd a while to learn the reason,
And to catch a glimpse in passing.
Late enough, in truth, we come ;—

Enter hastily DONA ANGELA and her servant ISABEL veiled. D. Ang. If, as your look announces,

Cavalier, you bear within you

Knightly gifts, and noble bearing,
Show them now, and shield a lady
Who appeals to your protection.
Life and honour are concern'd,
That yon cavalier that follows
Should not know, nor overtake me.
Save me for your life! I pray you
Save a lady, nobly born,

From misusage, from exposure;
And the day perchance may come-
Adieu! adieu!-I die with terror.
Cosm. Was't a lady or a whirlwind?
D. Man. Strange event, indeed!

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[The women hurry out.

What mean you,

D. Man. First, by some device to stay him :But, if that be unavailing,

Then by force to stop pursuit,

Still from him the cause concealing.

Cosm. Some device! Then I'm your man. One suggests itself already.

See, this note of introduction

From a friend, shall serve our purpose.

[DON MANUEL retires to the background.

DON LUIS and his servant RODRIGO enter. D. Luis. This veil'd fair I must discover, Were it only that she strives

With such effort to escape me.

Rod. Follow, and you'll soon detect her.

Cosm. (coming forward and addressing DON LUIS.)

Señor, though of this intrusion

I'm ashamed, perhaps your highness

Would be kind enough to read me

How this letter is directed.

D. Luis. Hence-I have not leisure now.
Cosm. Leisure! If that's all that's wanting,

I have leisure in abundance,

Quite enough to spare for both.

D. Luis. Hence, my patience is exhausted.
Stand aside, I say!

D. Man. (Aside.) No longer
Can I wait, let courage finish
That which caution had begun.
Cavalier, the man you outrage
Is my servant, and I know not
How he should have so offended
As to merit this misusage
At your hand.

D. Luis. I answer neither
Accusations nor enquiries.
Explanation is a lesson

I have yet to learn. Farewell.

[Drives him to one side.

D. Man. Señor, if my honour needed
Explanation for an insult,

Even your arrogance may trust me
I should not depart without it.

When I ask'd how he had injured,

Wrong'd, or troubled you, the question
Merited more courteous answer.

Courtesy in courts should harbour

Give not yours so poor a name,

That a stranger's tongue must teach you

Lessons ye yourselves should know.

D. Luis. Who shall say I could not better Teach that lesson ?

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Rod. (To Cosm.) Draw your sword too!
Cos. Mine's a maiden blade, and may not

Venture from its virgin scabbard!

Till drawn forth by marriage license.

DON JUAN appears at the door of one of the houses in the street. DONA BEATRICE endeavouring to detain him. D. Juan. Beatrice, unhand me!

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Times I wish the hurt were mine!

Cos. Bless us, what a courteous quarrel!

D. Juan. Come, and let your wound be look'd to. You, Don Luis, must remain.

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D. Luis. (aside.) How provoking That my efforts to discover

This veiled fair are all in vain!

Cos. (aside.) Oh! how richly does my master Merit what he got, to teach him

Not to play Don Quixote here.

[Exit, following his Master.

DONA BEATRICE and CLARA re-enter from the house.

D. Luis. Lady, now the storm is over,

Let the roses of your beauty

Bloom again, which lay so lately
Chill'd and wither'd by the blighting

Of a swoon.

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It is not Don Juan: were it

He that had been hurt, I should not

Stand so patiently beside you.

Calm these terrors: 'twere unjust,

Since my brother is uninjured,

That your breast with anxious fears

Mine with grief-should thus be haunted:

Grief, for such it is, to see you

So distress'd, so overmaster'd,

By the imaginary fears

Which so idly cloud your mind.

Beat. Well you know, Señor Don Luis,

That I value your attentions

Justly, both as proofs of love,

And because they come from you;
But I never can requite them,
For the stars control affection;
And for what the stars deny us,
Who shall call them to account?
If in courts we prize the dearest
What in courts is found the rarest,
Then be grateful for this candid
Undeception; were it only
That the simple truth's a treasure
Rarely to be met with there.


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