zodiacal circle which the sun has and a history richer or poorer than drawn around the earth, but follows ours, as the beings inhabiting them rather the progress of the pole; and may be higher or humbler than we. man, in his noblest development, is As nothing in our world seems found on the north side of the earth, grouped together without design, and his head pointed, not towards the sun, as in the mineral, vegetable, and ani. but to that mysterious pole-star hidden mal kingdoms this grouping arises in the darkness of old night. If he from relationship and family resementers the region of the equator, he blance; so there seems a certain fabecomes brute-like, as have the Ne- mily connexion to exist between the groes, the Malays, and the West In- earth and the other planets, which dians; and as little is he the creature form between them but one indivi. of the seasons, for in his principal in- dual-system, whose limbs and existtellectual and animal functions he is ence are subjected to one law. independent of the position of the sun. 6. This law of existence, which the

“All this proves that man, as the planets have in common, is most obquintessence of the earth, has received servable in their regular revolutions of that oldest and star-like earth round the sun, and must have had a power which is independent of the fixed cause and origin. And perhaps, sun, or indeed hostile to it. And as being nearer to this beginning, the hence the wonderful contrariety we memory of this common connexion, find in men, and in their history, is the i. e. of the earth and the other plaresult of predisposing natural causes. nets, was more vivid among the first

“Whatever connexion may exist be- generations of men ; nor is it unlikely tween the powers that operate on our that, towards the conclusion, it will planet ; on the one hand, of the unis again be more visible. In the legends versal stellar and cosmal influences- and religious systems of the oldest on the other, of the individual solar nations, the stars and the harmony of infuence ; still our planet preserves the planets hold a prominent place, its integrity in its isolation in the free and the ancient notion that the life of dom of space, and has, as it were, all the planets began while they were emancipated itself. Never have the in a certain position or constellation ; inhabitants of other heavenly bodies and that, after they shall have finished come down to earth, nor any of its in- their assigned circuits, they will revert habitants ascended. If higher powers

to that constellation again, is, in an operate in them, those powers have astronomical sense, perfectly reason. transmigrated here into an earthly able ; and as, indeed, every thing finite nature; and though they may origi- must have a beginning and an end, nally have been widely separated from the notion seems indubitable. But each other, here they have both be- over the duration of this period, and come earthly flesh-one child of two over the connexion between the asdissimilar parents. The earth-child tronomical and the historical, between of the star-night and of the sun-has the alternation of stars and of events, her own physiognony, hor own life, human reason has often puzzled itself, and her own heart's pulse, and must and has never yet seen its way clearly, be considered, along with mankind and will find it difficult to do so; for and his history, as one whole ; nay, history, among its other good quain some degree as a characteristic lities, has this, that it never allows individuality, how strangely soever itself to be fixed beforehand, but, with the double nature of the parents is its wondrous revelations, constantly changed in it.

strikes us with surprise.”. " This earth-unity, this earth-cha- And here ends the Astronomical racter, this earth-principle, gives to all Problem of a philosophical historian, earthly nature its regulated order, of what Thomas Carlyle calls - this and also to mankind and to their his- nineteenth century of time." But tory; It is a particular seed from our history is only a portion of the which this natural form and this his- history of Georgium Sidus and

sequence must necessarily Mars; that the earth was originally spring. Another seed, in other hea- on more familiar terms with her venly bodies, produces a nature cog- neighbours, and probably

will become nate perhaps with ours, but of a dif- intimate with them again ; that peo

; ferent organization, finer or coarser, ple have never yet found out-either




in the plains of Chaldea or the tents with another. We are immortal, that of the Gypsies—the influence of the we may see and learn more in the stars on human events; and that even world to come ; but here all we can Francis Moore, physician, will not see, and all we can learn, is of the easily do so, because history likes to earth, earthy. Much has been said astonish! All this is conveyed in the about the connexion of this life with a first department of this work, of future, and indeed with a past. The which we have given a larger speci- most ancient nations, as do still the men than we shall do of the succeed- people of Eastern Asia, imagined we ing problems, as we wished the reader were fallen angels,-beings condemn. to see with his own eyes the struggle ed for their crimes to inhabit this to be original and startling, which, as mortal body. Others imagined we may naturally be expected, ends in were endowed with freedom of will; being childish and absurd.

and by virtue or vice could choose We were in hopes that in the next, between heaven and hell. This grand or Theological Problem, we should and happy view began, along with all have something more tangible than spirited and chivalrous life, among such vague wool-gathering among the the Persians, and attained its full stars; but when the fit comes triumph in Christianity. But in this him, it is not so easy to bring such faith there is nothing real except the an ethereal voyager down to com- effect it has on us, in so far as it inmon sense and this plodding world. spires us to great deeds and with noThe third paragraph is somewhat ble thoughts. Nothing is more foolodd. “ There exists, however, an ish than from our earthly state, and extraordinary resemblance between with our proportionately contemptible astronomy and theology. Some intellects, to try to find out the depths “ wicked allusion,” we thought, to the of the divinity, and of the infinite Inquisition and Galileo. But such tri. realm of spirits. That depth is as vial matters never entered into the immeasurable by our spiritual vision, author's head. “ As astronomy," he as the starry heaven is to our bodily continues, “points out to us a ten- eyes.

But the relation man bears to dency of the earthly to ascend beyond God, eternity, and a future life, has the solar circle into infinite space, so nearly the same weight and influence theology points out to us a tendency on his history, as the relation which which leads beyond this narrow sphere the earth's axis bears to the heaven of of existence into infinite time, or eter- stars, has upon terrestrial nature. If nity ; and as that corporeal space- the magnetic attraction of the north tendency was attached to the north- pole of the heavens did not produce a south polarity of the earth's axis, counteraction to the solar influence, which stands immovably firm in spite the whole earth would be nothing but of the east-west action of the sun, so the slave of the sun ; if that spiritual also we perceive that each individual's attraction which conducts man into path intersects, in a perpendicular di- the lofty ideal did not exist, history rection, the horizontal stream of earthly would be nothing but the slave of history, and soeks its goal upwards in sensual nature,-man would be nothe Deity.

thing but an animal. Notwitlistanding History moves in an horizontal line, the interest we necessarily take in the from Adam right onwards to the end concerns of the world, still there is of time. Each individual, however, always something apart from us, as only enters on this line to leave it it were, in all our temporal joys and immediately, and seek his loftier des. sorrows; and a gentle monitor whistiny in a higher existence.

pers to us of something higher. It is in * An irrepressible feeling tells us this suggestion that Christianity finds we struggle upwards from this paltry its influence. It dashed to atoms the world into an immortality in the great heathenism of old days, in which the eternal realm of spirits. But the con- sun drew his spiritual circle round the nexion between that future life and world ; and clear, amid the darkness our present state, is as much hidden of night, rose up that star which was from us as the connexion between the the handwriting of Heaven. But external firmament and this miserable Christianity has become crumpled; planet. We must confine our efforts the star has been hidden in clouds, to the present life, and not interfere and so it seems impossible that there


ever should be fulfilled on this side of the beginning covered with water till it the grave a prophecy of rest and hap- gradually raised itself, and the summit of piness, which is expressly limited to the mountain Meru (it retains the name the other world. Yes, only in the still, and is the south-western point of other world ! for it is vain to hope for the Himalaya range) first made its the kingdom of a thousand years, the appearance. This was the Paradise republic of virtues—Utopia ! The where the first human pair were struggle will still go on, and grow placed ;-originally an island till the loftier as it continues; but in the rest of the continent uprose, and then struggle we shall succumb-our vic- it sent forth the four rivers of Paratory will not be here our triumph dise, (the four well-known great rivers will be above. As death overcomes of Asia.) all physical existence here below, so With this the Mosaic legend will evil overcome all moral good. agrees, as do the Persian, Greek, and 'Tis only in the struggle that man Scandinavian. The legends of all ennobles himself, and his wondrous Western nations point towards the orihistory is perfected. But the hostile ginal sacred mountain in the East. principle conquers him at last, and The Chinese legend, in exact agreetherein alone lies the majestic beauty, ment with this, points to this mountain the tragic charm of history. Without in the West, because the Himalaya this appalling catastrophe history lies westward from China. In short, would be child's-play, a flat, unprofit- this Indian legend of the elevation of able tale. No, there pervades her a the earth from the water, constantly redeeper earnest ; and as only the bold- curs among most of the ancient nations. est and longest struggle is worthy of To this natural history has noher, so also is only the end which the thing to oppose. The form of the Apocalypse reveals. The earth will valleys over the whole earth, and petrinot go to sleep in peace and awake in fied aquatic animals discovered on the heaven ; she will be destroyed in loftiest mountains, are still proofs that glowing fire. Men will not be per- the earth was originally covered by fect in virtue, wisdom, and felicity, the waters. And as the Himalaya is and be wafted, like Elijah, to heaven really the highest mountain, and lies without knowing death ; they will go in the centre of the broadest and old.. on multiplying themselves without est continent; and as the plains beend; and all at once, insanely pouring neath it are the home of ali domestic out their strength in colossal depravi- animais necessary to man, and of all ty, they will expire amid the terrors of kinds of vegetable food, this oldest of nature, in universal slaughter, when all popular legends, when viewed in the last days shall come.

this light, derives additional confirmaAnd this is the “ Theological Pro- tion. blem” of a learned inhabitant of " The mythos also of Paradise is Christendom, though we cannot call still one and the same. Many of the him a disciple of Christianity. But ancient nations have, no doubt, treated we will not waste another drop of our it in a childish and almost ludicrous good black ink (blue we hold to be a

Wherever polytheism was humbug) on such drivelling. Proceed established, the first man is lost in a we to the Mythological Problem, and crowd of gods and deified animals, see if he makes any sense out of fable, and is crushed by the weight of symnow that he has made such miserable bolical monsters. nonsense out of the truth. But, alas! • It is only the Mosaic legend which alas ! before we get many pages into has conceived the idea, at once lovely his mythological lucubrations, we find and majestic, of a beginning, a first every whit as ludicrous as his childhood of the human race. The

first man ! a captivating, most im" The small portion of the older portant, inexhaustible thought.

How legends which can be considered as rich in all his relations to God, his really historical, must be tried by the Creator! -to Nature, his cradle, his universal laws of nature and reason theatre, his grave!-to the great hubefore it obtains our belief. The most man family, his children! - and to interesting to us are those of Paradise their tremendous history! In all these and the first human pair. According relations the Mosaic legend satisfies to the Indian legend, the earth was in at once the enquiries of the deepest NO. CCXCII. VOL, XLVII,



them theology.

mysticism, and of the plainest under many new faculties seem to make standing.

their appearance from time to time, • In all other legends the first man (such, for instance, as animal magneappears dependent upon nature ; in tism,) while others disappear, he the Bible alone he is represented as honestly confesses, that the difference nature's lord. Adam gives names to of the races continues as great an enigall creatures : all creatures obey him ma as the origin of the human race till, by sin, he falls under the dominion itself. But our worthy friend likes it of the powers of nature.

all the better on account of its being “ The Mosaic legend connects the an enigma; being a gentleman only first hostile separation of mankind im- inferior to Billy Black in finding out mediately with the first pair. The a puzzle.

And the following short eldest born of men murders his bro- sentence soon gave us note of prepather, and wanders with the mark of ration for another of his flights. Cain upon his brow into distant re. “ Here, then, we must again have re. gions. * Is there not in this mythos, course to astronomy”— To astronomy, however deeply hidden, a trace of the to discover why there are niggers in first mysterious division into the diffe. Africa ? - Shiver me! what will the rent races of mankind ? It is of little fellow do next? importance to enquire whether the " - Let us remember the great astrolegend of Noah be a totally new one, nomical opposition of an earth-power or only altered from that of Adam. north and south, to a sun-power To us it is of no manner of conse- east and west, and we shall find the quence whether the world began to be same opposition recurring in the de. peopled by one or by the other. As velopment of mankind on the earth. soon as history becomes a little clear, Strictly speaking, there are only two we find mankind already divided into positively opposed races of men, the five great families, which answer to black and the white. But the whites the five great portions of the world, are evidently children of the north, and having already adapted them. under the influence of the great fixed. selves to the climates; the white race star heaven; under the law of a higher in Europe and Western Asia, the yel- world regulation, endowed with spirit low in Eastern Asia, the red in Ame. and activity, and, so far from subrica, the black in Africa, and the brown mitting to the mere power of nature, in Southern Asia and Australia. The that they have, through the whole later dispersions at the Tower of Ba. course of history, aimed at making bel, at the destruction of Troy, and at themselves independent of it. The the oppression of Dacia, whatever their blacks, on the other hand, are children effects may have been, belong only to of the south, under the influence of the white Caucasian races, and to a the sun, eternally subjected to the ani. recent period. But all this gives no mal desires, without self-consciousexplanation of the causes of the differ- ness--without historical recollections ences between the races ; and as long -without an object of endeavour, and as we remain ignorant of them, all those living but for the morrow. tales and legends can only be regarded • The third great family is the yel. as memorials of other separations with- low-Mongol-Chinese. in the white race itself. Here, then, “ If the blacks represent the sun,

and we must summon the natural sciences the whites the great fixed-star heaven, to our aid'; for all legends must be the Mongols would seem to be the tried by geography and physiology.' earthly representatives of the moon.

The fourth, or Genealogical Pro- There is something about them grey, blem, accordingly commences with pallid, and faded, and isolation is an enquiry into the effects of climate their peculiar characteristic. In the in altering the colour ;-then, as to midst of the world, they make up a whether it is probable that the Fall little world of their own, perfectly had

any influence in making mankind detached and separate. But this little black ;-and after suggesting an ori- world, although perfect in itself, is ginal solution of the difficulty, by only a shadow of the rest—a lifeless, supposing it not impossible that this cold imitation. In physical confordiversity of colour was originally im. mation, the Mongols are even less planted in Adam's organization, and different from the whites than are the took some time to develop itself--as blacks. And on the difference be.

tween these three races, the legend spect; they attain the pure complexof the three sons of Noah may be ion, noble sentiments, and lofty spirit founded. The Negroes, indeed, have of the whites; and, at the same time, a legend of the three brothers, and have the plastic forms and sound they expressly refer to them the white, health of the dark races. May not the the yellow, and the black races of splendid qualities of the Greeks and mankind. The two other principal Romans have arisen from a similar families may have arisen from ad- combination of the Thracian and mixtures of the other three. The Semitic families ? brown Malays, from a junction be. 6. It may be asked whether, at some tween the blacks with the Indians and future time, the rest of the world may Chinese. The red Americans ap- not be flooded with Europeans from the pear also to be a kind of mulattoes, a East Indies, from the Cape, and from combination of the Mongol and Ma- Botany Bay, and by this means (though layan races, and probably also of the it may take hundreds of years in the Gauls, Finns, and Wendæ, who are performance) a universal commixundoubtedly of Indian origin, and ture take place, as it has in America ? may have peopled the north of Europe Or whether there may not occur a and Asia in the earliest times, and reaction of the original coloured inhave passed over, via Greenland, to habitants against the colonists-and America.

in that event, whether those coloured " The coloured races have certain races would remain, as hitherto, in points in common, notwithstanding their lethargic stupidity, or, of their the differences that are to be found own accord, would embrace Christi. among them. I allude not only to the anity and European civilisation?. It darkness of their colour, but to a cor- would be a strange phenomenon in responding darkness and contracted the history of the world if the rigid ness of the understanding. The crust of those ancient nations were to stereotype character of earthly nature, soften all at once, and after remaining under the annually recurring influence immovable for six thousand years, of the sun, is shown in their whole life they were instantaneously (as by the and bearing. They either have no touch of magic wand) to be endowed history at all, and have made no pro

with the soul of the white races. I gress towards a higher civilisation for do not believe it. I believe rather thousands of years—or they remain that the final complete triumph of on a very low step of civilisation, and Christianity and of civilisation will be have hindered the farther improve the consequence of an entire fusion of ment of their descendants. The first the whites and blacks. Australia holds good of the Negroes—and the must speedily have the same fate as last of the Mongols.

America has had. There the abo“Europe, from its peninsular shape, rigines are thinly scattered, and canis particularly adapted for maritime not resist the aggressions of the tra. pursuits, and this led her to make con- ding colonists, who will go on increaquests in other quarters of the world. sing rapidly as the Indian trade acThe Dutch-Roman races (the Portu- quires additional expansion through guese, Spaniards, Hollanders, French the prosperity of the American States and English) colonized all America, the emancipation of the East Inand made themselves masters of the dies—and the extending colonization coasts of Africa and all the Australian of the Cape. Africa will soon follow. islands. With this commenced a new The time is not far distant when intermixture of the white and coloured Northern Africa will be subject to

A great discovery was made Europeans. And Egypt also must in the course of these commixtures, in future play a distinguished part, pamely, that though they take place either by the restoration of an Arab in equal quantity, the quality is in kingdom, or by European conquest ; favour of the whites. If, for example, and colonization will go forward slowten wbites and ten blacks unite, the ly, but surely, from the Cape. The descendants in the eighth generation Negro tribes in the interior seem inwill be white. It has also been ob- capable of offering any effectual opserved, that the white mulattoes of the position, and will sooner or later be eighth generation surpass their pro- reduced to the same situation as the genitors on both sides in every re

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North American Indians.


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