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It would be very interesting if all such inform- NEWSPAPERS (3rd S. iv. 397.)--R. J. W. will ation respecting Cervantes and his great work obtain the information he needs, by applying to could be collected, in the same way as the late Messrs. Hansards, Great Queen Street. A recent Mr. Adamson did for Camoens. W. M. M. return can also be had there. Mitchell's NewsA GOOSE TENURE (3rd S. iv. 268, 400.)-For a
puper Directory will aid his research. Also, in
the Encyc. Brit. (vol. xvi. pp. 180—205,) will be century and a half, the Lord of Essington, in Staffordshire, was bound to bring a goose on the first ticle on Newspapers by Mr. Edwards.
found an interesting and valuable historical are day of every year to the Lord of Hilton ( an ad
JAMES GILBERT. joining and superior manor), and drive it thrice
2, Devonshire Grove, Oli Kent Road, S.E. round the hall fire, while “ Jack of Hilton” was blowing it. He, or his bailiff, had then to carry RING SAID TO BE OF MARY, QUEEN OF Scors it to the table, and receive a mess for himself from (3rd S. iv. 396.) – It is singular that the only the Lord of Hilton. The custom ceased on Es- sovereign to whom the insignia and initials, as sington becoming the property of the Vernons. described, could have belonged, should not have the owners of Hilton.
been suggested in the list given. The original " Jack of Hilton” is still at Hilton Park, where seal was, doubtless, that of Queen (regnant) Mary I saw him some three years since. He is very Stuart, wife of King William III. The absence properly kept in a box, as being unfit for general of the motto is confirmatory of this supposition ; observation. It is a small uncouth image of brass, and I imagine that the escutcheon of pretence resting on one knee; one arm on the breast. It of Nassau, invariably borne by her husband, was is hollow, and perforated - by which the fire- properly omitted in a seal denoting her separate blowing part of the performance was effected. I or distinct sovereign capacity.
S. T. think Plot gives a representation of it. How or when this image came to Hilton, or
ANONYMOUS WORK (3rd S. iv. 371.) – The was made a party to the Essington tenure, is un
Letters from the Kingdom of Kerry in the Year known. I have been informed, however, that a
1845, were written by Mrs. Lydia Jane Fisher, gentleman who had become well versed on the youngest daughter of Mary Leadbeater ; whose Continent with Pagan antiquities, at once recog;
interesting Annals of Ballitore form vol. i. of the nised it when shown to him as the god “Poosta
well known Leadbeater Papers, published last year (I write from memory). It is a very interesting by. Messrs. Bell & Daldy. Mrs. Fisher was the
editor of that work.
“Αλιεύς. subject, and one upon which I should wish Mr. Vernon of Harefield would send you a Note. MISUSE OF WORDS (3rd S. iv. 407.) -I agree
almost entirely with B. R., but the word garble The Great DUKE A CHILD-EATER (3rd S. iv. requires a remark. The substantive, mentioned 412.)— At Christmas, either 1828 or 1829, ap
by many old writers on weights and measures, peared the first volume of Hood's Comic Annual.
meant refuse : and averdupois weight is stated as During the next few years there were sundry applying to all substances which have garble. To other « Comics", published in imitation of it: one, garble, was to separate the refuse from the valuthe name of which I cannot call to mind, was
able part. I suppose the garbler of spices must meant especially for the young, and in it I remem
have been an officer appointed to judge of the ber to have seen the song quoted by A. A. It is refuse, in order to decide on the duty payable. many years since I saw this book; but I am
Aggravate is a word I have always heard ap-, nearly certain that it also contains some
plied to the act of making an angry person more in condemnation of punning. The lines com
angry: it is natural that the word should be menced :
transferred from the feeling to the person. "Other
words have undergone the same alteration. But “ My little dears who learn to read,
if aggravate must be restored to original meaning, Pray early learn to shun That very silly thing indeed
there is a charming word ready to take its place. Which people call a pun.”
I found it in a very amusing book, published I maintain, nevertheless, that a good pun is old borsedealer, a most original personage, ex;
about thirty years ago, the Clubs of London. An much to be enjoyed.
claims, “It is so aggrivoking!" This compound OGLESBY (3rd S. iv. 326.) – This name is not
of aggravate and provoke has all the force of both uncommon in the western part of North Lincoln- words, in soùnd as well as in meaning, shire. Sp. will find several times in Kelly's
A. DE MORGAN. Post Office Directory of Lincolnshire, 1855. It SWING (31a S. iv. 398.) At the time of the occurs also once in the London Directory for 1861, fires, the written notices signed "Swing" were and twice in the Gentleman's Magazine, 1793, very often, if not most frequently, directed against July, p. 620; 1800, Feb., p.
185. K. P. D. E.
agricultural machines, pursuant to the notion that
machinery lessened the demand for labour. One such was the fact on Sunday last, when the following particular kind of implement was often men
brothers were at the altar at St. Chad's at the Holy tioned; and this was the point of a joke played, I be- Sacrifice, and in the evening sang vespers together: the lieve, upon the headmaster of Westminster School, Birkenhead; the Very Rev. Canon Richard Browne, St. who was said in the newspapers to have found Ann's, Leeds; the Rev. Joseph Browne, St. Andrew's, the following upon his desk: “Sir! If you do Newcastle-on-Tyne; the Rev. Henry Browne, St. Mary's, not lay by your thrashing machine, you will hear Manchester; the Rev. J. F. Browne, St. Chad's, Manfurther from SWING."
chester; and the Rev. William Browne (lately ordained),
Professor at the English College, Lisbon. The father "THE MONKEY WHO HAD SEEN THE WORLD"
and sisters of the above clergymen were at the mass and (3rd S. iv. 400.) – When a boy in the country, Iject of surpassing interest, and of internal glory to God
vespers, beholding what to them must have been a subhad given to me a nice edition of Gay's Fables, | that they had been so blessed." with pictures. To "The Monkey,” &c. was pre- This is from the Tablet.
F. G. L. fixed a picture containing an animal in bag-wig, tawdry jacket, spiky sword, and other absurdi- Great Guns (3rd S. iv. 392.) – Though not a ties; all which made him a funny creature. A direct reply to the query of J. E. H. as to whether few years afterwards, I learnt to find my way we have any authentic records of cannon balls at about the streets of London. One day, turning all approaching the magnitude of 92 inches in from St. James's Square into Pall Mall, I came circumference at a period so early as 1453, per• suddenly, without a moment's warning, in front haps the following circumstance may not be un. of a young fop dressed exactly to the pattern I interesting. Scrambling about among the ruins had so often laughed at. I had very nearly cried of the triple wall of Constantinople, one summer's out “The monkey who has seen the world !!!" afternoon a few years ago, I found among the I followed bim a little way I had seen the sweeps débris which had fallen down into the ditch in on May-day not long before-expecting that he front of the wall, a large stone bullet. I roughly would stop before some house, and dance, or measured its diameter by cutting a notch in my tumble, or do something for his living; but he walking stick, and on reference to it I find the walked on.
I then turned back, and immediately measurement thus indicated to be 22 inches. The afterwards met an elderly man, beyond doubt place where the bullet was found was a little to an educated gentleman, in the very same kind of the south of Top Kapoussi, “The gate of the dress, arm-in-arm with a general officer in full | Cannon,". - so called because it was on an emiuniform and several stars ; these were followed nence in front of it that Mahomet planted his by others of the same types. On making inquiry, great gun. I thought it not improbable that this I found that the levée had just finished; and that might be one of the bullets fired from the huge the monkey-jacket, cheese-toaster, &c., which I piece of ordnance, though I could see no mark of had always fancied were invented by some clever concussion upon it, except that in one part
it was artist to make a monkey look more
like a monkey not perfectly spherical. It lay among the débris than he was by nature, were parts of the dress of a large portion of the wall that had fallen out: which grave men were expected to wear when ward and partially filled up the great ditch. It they paid their respects to the sovereign! This was fashioned out of a blue quartzose rock, close was more than forty years ago, and I believe grained, and extremely hard and heavy. I may some of the trappings have been abolished. M. add, that I once saw an old gun, built on the INKSTAND (3rd S. iv. 348, 418.)—A correspon
hoop and stave principle, apparently not less than dent immediately furnished me with the address chopped up by the steam hammer in the Turkish
“ Mons Meg," if not larger, which was being at which these inkstands can be obtained : Du- Arsenal to make nails. I regret that I did not four, 17A, Great George Street, Westminster. I take a note of its dimensions. have one now in use, and I think it decidedly the best I ever possessed. This inkstand has the St. ANTHONY'S SERMON TO THE FISHES (3rd S. moveable cover for the top of the сир. .
iv. 414.)—I have examined Addison's Italian copy
A. DE MORGAN. of this Sermon, and also his translation of it in Curious CIRCUMSTANCE (3rd S. iv. 409.)—I send and much more laboured than the Sermon which
vol. ii. of his works in quarto.
It is much longer you the record of a circumstance even still more curious than that given last week by your corre
I translated from my Portuguese copy, and which spondent Mr. G. F. CHAMBERS:
at the time I supposed to contain the entire
Sermon. Addison's would probably be too long “ Six BROTHER PRIESTS. It is scarcely likely that a to find insertion in the pages of " N. & Q. scene which took place at the Feast of our Lady of Mount Carmel, at St. Chad's Church, Manchester, perhaps ever
though we not unfrequently meet there with occurred before, or that
any father had the happiness of pieces of wearisome length and very slender innot only having six sons called to the Holy ministry,
terest. but to see them all at the altar at the same time; yet I attach no further importance to the Sermon
than as it conveys a remarkable reproof to un- MERCHANTS AND TRADESMEN'S MARKS (3rd S. willing hearers; but I cannot admit that it was iv. 413.) – A. B. will find engravings of these intended as a skit upon any prevalent perversion marks in Willis's Current Notes, 4to, London, of texts. The Sermon inculcates serious duties, 1851-7. Jervis's Memorials of Angus and the which men are too apt to forget; and the Saint Mearns, 8vo, Edinburgh, 1861, contains engravis represented as conveying these to the minds of ings of trade-marks of old Dundee Merchants. perverse people, through the novel experiment of
B. preaching to creatures. The end was attained by the conversion of those who had before been
Miscellaneous. obstinate and impenetrable. In answer to MR. GELDARt's question, I can
NOTES ON BOOKS, ETC. safely assure him that no Catholic Doctor, great The Book of Common Prayer, according to the use of the or small, ever maintained an opinion that animals United Church of England and Ireland : together with have any capacity for religion. The commence
the Psalter or Psalms of David pointed as they are to be ment of St. Anthony's Sermon is as I gave it.
sung or said in Churches. (Longman.) What Canon Dalton quotes from Ribadeneira is
Messrs. Longman have, we presume, produced this merely the summons which the Saint first gave to
beautiful specimen of decorative printing as a Prayer the fish to come and hear him; and is thus given It is printed at the Chiswick Press, and its distinctive
Book suitable for a wedding present, or a Christmas gift. in the Portuguese : “ Vinde ouvir a palavra de features are the exquisite borders, which have been taken Deos peixes do mar e do rio, pois a não querem from the works of Geofroy Tory, the French bookseller ouvir os homens heregas e impieis.” Immediately and engraver (1480-1536), whose Latin Psalter and Cosmoa great number of fishes, great and small, came
graphy of Æneas Sylvius are well known, and whose own forth before the Saint, and all held their heads is esteemed one of the most remarkable curiosities of
treatise on ornamental typography, entitled Champfleury, above the water in mute attention; and then the literature. The designs are certainly very graceful and Saint began his Sermon in the words already elegant. given. By this time Canon Dalton has probably The Desk-Book of English Synonymes ; designed to ufford discovered that bis promised Sermon to a wolf Assistance in Composition, and also as a work of Referwas not delivered by St. Anthony, but by St. ence requisite to the Secretary, and indispensable to the Francis of Assisium.
F. C. H.
Student. By John Sherer. (Groombridge & Sons.)
This ample title-page so completely describes the ob · VIXEN (3rd S. iv. 389.) – We have vixen (not ject of the work, that we may content ourselves with fixen) in Shakspeare, Midsummer Night's Dream, stating that that object is well carried out, and the book Act ÍII. Sc. 2. (Cambridge Edition, 1. 324.)
made even more useful by an Analytical Index.
The Siege of Jerusalem by Titus. By Thos. Lewin, Esq. “ She was a viren when she went to school."
(Longmans.) Vixen is the reading of the folio of 1623.
The sad and well-known story loses nothing of its Mrs. Cowden Clarke (a good authority) gives is completed by an agreeable Journal of a visit to Jeru
interest in Mr. Lewin's well-written pages. The volume this as the only use of the word vixen by salem last year, and a careful sketch of the Topography Sbakspeare.
of the Holy City. We cordially recommend it to our In referring to presumably likely passages in readers. Ben Jonson, in Marlowe, and in Beaumont and Selections from the recently published Correspondence beFletcher, I do not find the word (either as fixen
tween Louis Claude de St. Martin and Kirchberger Baron or vixen.)
de Lieberstorf, during the Years 1792-7. Translated
and edited by Ed. Bruton Penny. (Hamilton & Halliwell and Wright give fixen as North.
We do not feel ourselves qualified to do more than call
attention to the appearance of this volume of mystical QUOTATION FROM SENECA (3rd S. iv. 373.) –
philosophy, which will, no doubt, greatly interest our This passage is found in the 104th Epistle of theosophic readers. Seneca, towards the middle (edit. Argent. 1809). De la Rue's Improved Indelible Diary and Memorandum The correct reading is —
Book for 1864. Edited by James Glaisher, F.R.S. “ Ipsi quoque hæc possunt facere sed nolunt. Denique
With an Article on the Moon by J. R. Hind, Esq. quem unquam ista destituere tentantem ? Cui non faci- De la Rue's Improved Red Letter Calendar for 1864. liora adparuere in actu? Non, quia difficilia sunt, non We have so often called attention to the combined andemus, sed, quia non audemus, difficilia sunt.”
utility and beauty of the various forms in which Messrs. C. T. RAMAGE. De la Rue put forth their Indelible Diaries and Red
Letter Calendars, that the repetition has really left us Josephine's ADDRESS TO NAPOLEON (3rd S. iv. nothing fresh to say of them. The marvellous photo411.)—The song inquired for by M. B. was pub; Beck from Mr. Warren De la Rue's original negative, is a lished by Chappell, about 1839, and is entitled
novel and interesting feature: the value and importance “The Beloved One;" words by Miss Twiss, music of which is well illustrated by Mr. Hind's article on the by Mrs. Robert Arkwright
H. A. S. subject.
BOOKS AND ODD VOLUMES
WANTED TO PURCHASE. Particulars of Price, &c., of the following Books to be sent direct to the gentlemen by whom they are required, and whose names and addiesses are given for that purpose: SRERLOCK (WM., D.D.), PRACTICAL DISCOURSE CONCERNING A FUTURE
JUDGMENT. London, 1695. 8vo.
London, 1702. 8vo.
phia, 1804. 8vo. Lynch (WM.), The PRESCRIPTIVE BARONIES OF IRELAND. 1835.
Wanted by Rev. B. H. Blacker, Rokeby, Blackrock, Dublin.
T. V. N. Mr. Proude's Papers on the " Letters of Du Quadra, Bishop June and August, 1861.
Aquila," preserved at Simancas, appeared in Fraser's Magazine for C. J. The memoranda only refer to the late appearance of swallones. Thus in The Field of last week, a correspondent says, on Sunday the 22nd (Nov.) we saw three swallows flying in the High Street, Great Marlow.
John A. C. VINCENT is referred to "N. & Q." 1st S. vii. 544; viii. 4, for articles on the meaning of Pilm or Pillum, i. e. Dust.
J. B. ROWLANDS will find on consulting the General Indices to our 1st and 2nd S. innumerabie references to articles on Hour Glasses in Pulpits.
W.J. (Cambridge.) Unsightly is used as unseen in Hudibras and by Suckling. See Todd's Johnson, 8. v.
F. H. For the origin of the exclamation Hurrah or Huzza, see our 1st Series,
where are fourteen articles on the word. For the derivatus of Snob, see also the same series, i. 250.
THEOBALD Smid. The lines “ Forgive, blest shade," &c. rere sritten by the Rev. Mr. Gill, curate of New Church, Isle of Wighl. Vide "N. & Q." Ist S. ix. 241; X. 133, 152.
E. E. M. The word Secretariat occurs in the French dictionaries, and means the secretaryship, or the secretary's office.
ST. T. The author of Thinks I to Myself was the Re. Edvard Nares, D.D. Vidc"N. & Q." 2nd s, ix. 230.
ERRATA.-3rd S. iv. p. 415, col. i. line 21 from bottom, for "Clonfede" read Clon feacle; " p. 421, col. ii. line 19 from bottom, for "conciatus" read"cruciatus.
GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE for July, September, October, November, and December, 1855.
Wanted by Mr. J. R. Smith, 36, Soho Square, London, W. MORNING AND EVENINO PRAYER. 2 Vols. Arranged by Hon. Charlotte Grimshaw. 24mo edition.
Wanted by Mr. C. Tuckett, 66, Great Russell Street. LETTERS OF LADY BRILLIANA Harley. Camden Society's Publica
tions, No. 58 Wanted by Rev. John Pickford, M.A., Sherington, Newport-Pagnell,
Notices to Correspondents. The Christmas Number of N. & Q." will be published on Saturday the 19th inst. Advertisements for insertion in it must be sent in by Wednesday the 16th.
Horniman's Tea is choice and strong, moderate in price, and whole some to use. These advantages have secured for this Tea a general preference, It is sold in packets by 2,280 Agents.
HLEDGES & BUTLER Wine Merchants, &cJe
C. and J. FIELD, Original Manufacturers (in medal (1862) has been awarded, and their Candles adopted by her Majesty's Government for use at the Military Stations abruad. These Candles can be obtained of all Chandlers and Grocers in the United Kingdom. Price 18.8d. per lb. Also Field's celebrated United Berria Soap Tablets, 6d. and 4d. each. The Public are cautioned to see that Field's label is on the packets or boxes.
Wholesale only, and for Exportation, Upper Marsh, Lambeth, London, S.
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PRESENTS in SILVER. – Collection of New Designs in sterling SILVER CHRISTENING PRESENTS. Silver Cups, beautifully chased and engraved, 31., 31.10. 41., 51., 51. 108. each, according to size and pattern; Silver Sets of Kuife. Fork, and Spoon, in Cases, 17. 18., 1l. 10., 21., 21 108., 37. 38., Bilver Basin and Spoon, in handsome cases. Al. 48. 61. 6. Bl. 8 101. 108. --- MAPPIN BROTHERS, Silversmiths, 67 and Gs. King Wil; liam Street, London Bridge ; and 222, Regent Street, W. Established in Sheffield A.D. 1810.
Sold by Grocers and Confectioners. FRY'S CHOCOLATE. FRY'S FRENCH CHOCOLATE FOR EATING,
in Sticks, and Drops.
J. 8. FRY & SONS, Bristol and London.
CAPTAIN WHITE'S ORIENTAL PICKLE, CURRY, or MULLIGA
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THE ONLY GOOD SAUCE,”
YAMPBELL'S OLD GLENLIVAT WHISKY
At this season of the year. J. Campbell begs to direct attention to this fine old MALT WHISKY, of which he has held a large stock for 30 years, price 208. per gallon; Sir John Power's old Irish Whisky, 188.; Hennessey's very old Pale Brandy, 328. per gallon (J. C.'s extensive business in French Wines gives him a thorough knowledge of the Brandy market): E. Clicquot's Champagne, t6s. per dozen; Sherry, Pale, solden, or Brown, 809., 368., and 428.; Port from the wood, 30s. and 368., crusted, 423., 488. and 548. Note. – J. Campbell confidently recommends his Vin de Bordeaux, at 20s. per dozen, which greatly improves by keeping in bottle two or three years. Remittances or town references should be addressed James CAMPBELL, 158, Regent Street.
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7, New Bond STREET, W.,
LONDON, SATURDAY, DECEMBER 12, 1863. his own estates, from Seville in the south, to Com
postella in the north-west of the kingdom; while CONTENTS. «No. 102.
Alvaro de Luna, the great favourite minister of NOTES:-Grandees of Spain, 465 — A Letter of S. T. Cole.
John II., could muster, in the days of his almost ridze, 467 — Philip Melanchthon and his Son-in-Law, 468 royal power, vassals to the number of twenty thou- Early Surnames, Ib. -- “ King Richard III. :” “ Push
sand! Their revenues were enormous, several along keep moving,” 469 — Text of Walter Scott's Novels, 470.
possessing annual rentals amounting to fifty and MINOR NOTES : New Edition of Bishop Berkeley's sixty thousand ducats, which are equivalent to “Works” - The Ostrich, an Emblem of Faith -- The sky about 90,4741. sterling, the first; and the second at Sunset - Three of the most Popular Books in England
to about 109,7151. in 1594 - Ancient Humour - William Harborne - Longevity of the Raven, &c. - Tonson : Osborne -- Knighting of
Their rights, privileges, and exemptions were the Sirloin — Abbot Whiting's Shoeinghorn, 472.
almost innumerable. They claimed exemption QUERIES:- Capt. James Gifford: Admiral James Gifford, from most of the usual taxes ; they could not be
472 -- Anonymous - Theodore Anspach: Laing's Travels imprisoned for debt, nor subjected to torture for in South America "- The Ammergau Mystery : Shakspeare and Plato - "Life of Cæsar" -"Codex Vaticanus
criminal offences. They had the right of appealDanish and Norwegian Heraldry - The Daft Highland ing to arms to decide their private quarrels; they 1 Laird: Kay's " Edinburgh Portraits" - Old Damask Patterns-De la Tour d'Auvergne - Allusion to Eloisa - Epi
claimed the privilege, whenever they considered taphs — Sir Alexander Fraser, &c., 472.
themselves injured or affronted by their sovereign, QUERIES WITH ANSWERS:- - Much Panes: Banquet of
of renouncing their allegiance to him; and several Sweetmeats --Joanna Southcott -- Peter Manwood: Roger instances are recorded by Mariana of their acWilliams -- The Fault-bag — Portio: Pensio - History of Fairs – Frith-silver — Parish of St. Helen's, Abingdon,
tually going over to the Moors, and fighting Berkshire, 476.
against their own king. In periods of popular REPLIES:- The Devil, 478 - Cranmer Family, 480 - Titus
commotions, they frequently sided with the peoOates, - St. Teresa's Autograph: her Life, &c. - ple; while at other times, the most bloody feuds bert Robinson and “Cousin Phillis" - Executions Berry or Bury – Derivation of " Pamphlet " - Singapore. under circumstances too of peculiar atrocity, and
were carried on between different noble families The Brothers of Mrs. Hemans - St. Mary of Egypt : curious Painting on Glass - Choak-Jade at Newmarket- with a spirit of hatred and vengeance which would St. Mary Matfelon, 480.
brook no interference on the part even of the crown Notes on Books, &c.
These feuds, combined with the martial spirit,
pride, independence, and power of the nobles Notes.
were continually convulsing the kingdoms of CasTHE GRANDEES OF SPAIN.
tile and Aragon. But their pride and self-con
fidence ultimately proved their ruin. Many works in Latin, French, English, and The Aragonese sovereigns especially, many of Spanish, connected with the history of Spain, give whom were men of remarkable energy and firmness, us bigh ideas of the power, riches, influence, pride, made repeated efforts to reduce the authority of and arrogance of the Spanish grandees, both in the grandees within reasonable bounds. Zurita, ancient and modern times.
in his Anales de Aragon, gives several instances Their dignity seems to be as ancient as the of the successful exertions of Peter II. and James monarchy itself, according to the assertion of Sala- the Conqueror to curb their pride, and strip zar de Mendoza in his Origen de las Dignidades them of their exorbitant privileges. In Castile, Seglares de Castilla (Madrid, 1794). But it was however, the kings were not always so fortunate; principally in the wars against the Saracens that because, by their own want of courage and firmthe higher nobility, or ricos hombres, as they were ness, by their vices and prodigality, or incapastyled, rose into power and independence. Em- city for ruling their states, they allowed the barking with their sovereign in the same holy nobles and grandees to usurp the possessions of cause, they considered themselves entitled to divide the crown, and to invade some of its most sacred with him the spolia opima of victory. They privileges. The disastrous reigns of John II. and erected numerous strongholds (castilla) for their Henry IV. afford sad proofs of this statement. own use, as well as defence. They generally re- (See Ayala, Crónica de Castilla, ed. Madrid, sided in them, surrounded by their vassals or 1750.) retainers, who were scattered amidst the surround- When, bowever, the crowns of Castile and Araing towns and villages, many of which were the gon came to be united in the persons of Ferdinand property of the grandees. The lands belonging and Isabella (1469), the grandees were not allowed to the Lord of Biscay, which were confiscated by to set the royal authority at defiance with impuAlfonso XI., included more than eighty towns and nity. Though at the commencement of their castles (Mariana, Hist. de España, tom. i. ed. reign, frightful feuds were carried on between the Madrid, 1780). In the time of Henry III., the noble houses of the Guzmans and the Ponces de Grand 'Constable Davalos could ride through Leon ; yet, when Isabella was at length firmly