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Budeaux, as your correspondent J. A. C. VINCENT, states? Were such double entries common in former days? And if so, can any other instance be pointed out? Lysons's Devon (p. 89) says St. Budeaux is a daughter church to St. Andrew's, Plymouth. As the entry is so pecu. liarly written in the St. Andrew's register, I should think it most probable that the body of the Lady Marie was there interred. Can her tomb or grave be pointed out in either church or yard ? G. P.
But as this saint was a native of Lisbon, and is so highly venerated in Portugal, a lengthened detail of his life and miracles would be most likely to be given in a Portuguese work of saints' lives. The account states that the saint, preaching at Rimini, and being unable to make any impression upon several heretics there, walked down to the sea, and called upon the fishes to come and hear the word of God, since those men refused to listen to him. A multitude of large and small fishes immediately raised their heads out of the water, and arranged themselves in order before the saint, who preached to them in these words, which I translate from the Portuguese work : —
"My brethren ye fishes, you are under a great obligation to return thanks to our Lord, as far as you are capable, for he is your Creator, and you are his creatures, who have received from his hand being and life, and also so noble an element for you to live in; and that you have sweet and salt waters according as he has disposed them for you. He has also given you many places where you can escape the fury of tempests, and provided that your element should be transparent and clear, so that you may better see the ways by which you have to go and to come, and the inconveniences which you have to avoid. Also that he has provided you with fins, and power to move in what direction you please. You, at the creation of the world, were blessed by God, and through his blessing you received power to multiply. You, at the deluge which destroyed so many living creatures, were preserved without any destruction. To you it was committed to preserve the prophet Jonas, and after the third day to cast him upon the land sound and safe. You paid the tax and tribute for our Lord Jesus Christ when living as a poor man upon earth, he had not wherewith to pay, offering in your mouth pay
for Christ and St. Peter. You, before and after the resurrection, were eaten by the eternal King Jesus Christ; so that for these and many other things you are bound to praise and glorify God."
The sermon will be found in Addison's Travels in Italy. Salvator Rosa's fine picture on this subject is in Earl Spencer's collection at Althorpe, Northamptonshire. (Vide Moule's Heraldry of Fish, p. 289.) JOHN WOODward.
Let me inform MR. DALTON that there is a version of St. Anthony's sermon to the fish in the 4th chap. of part ii. of a book much read in Wales, and entitled, Drých y Prif-Oesoedd, or View of the Primitive Ages, by Theophilus Evans, a Brecknockshire vicar, where it is quoted as from Addison's Travels into Italy, p. 26. If MR. DALTON cannot procure this last work, which of course will bring him one step nearer to the original Italian, I will translate the discourse as it stands in the Welsh, and forward it to "N. & Q."
I can assure your readers that the saint improved the occasion to the utmost, and displayed in a wonderful degree the power, so rare among modern homilists, of exactly adapting his ideas and expression to the intelligence and circumstances of his audience. It is quite a model of a practical sermonette (for it is by no means lengthy), and must have gone straight home to the hearts
of the hearers.
It does begin "Dearly beloved Fish," and it ends with an injunction to the finny congrega
tion, "though they cannot sound forth the glory of God with their tongues to express their reverence in the best way they are able, namely, by bobbing their heads." This they did, and dispersed in the most orderly manner.
I await the expression of MR. DALTON's wishes and your own. G. C. GELDart.
BED-GOWN AND NIGHT-DRESS.
The circumstances described by Fielding (Joseph Andrews, bk. i. chap. v.) imply that Lady Booby had some dress on, and that the word naked is not to be taken absolutely but relatively; which is confirmed by the description of Parson Adams (bk. iv. chap. xiv.), who is said to be naked whilst he is "standing in his shirt." The same chapter, in describing Didapper's adventure, distinguishes the shirt from the night or dressing gown, and we may infer from its diamond buttons and laced ruffles that he slept in his day shirt. The nightgown of Fielding was probably the modern dressing-gown, as appears from John Evelyn (died 1706), who, in describing "ladies dresses," says:"Twice twelve day-smocks of Holland fine, With cambric sleves, rich point to joyn (For she despises Colbertine).
Twelve more for night, all Flanders lac'd, Or else she'll think herself disgrac'd. The same her night-gown must adorn, With two point waistcoats for the morn." The night-gown was called also night-rail; the word rail, according to Horne Tooke, being AngloSaxon for to cover, to cloak, thus carrying back its use many centuries; but rail was not appropriated to night-dress exclusively. It was worn at day time also in the streets, in the reign of Anne:
"Amongst many other ridiculous fashions that prevailed in this country, since the reign of Queen Anne, was that of the ladies wearing bed-gowns in the streets about forty years ago. The canaille of Dublin were so disgusted with this fashion, or perhaps deemed it so prejudicial to trade, that they tried every expedient to abolish it. They insulted in the streets and public places those ladies who complied with it, and ridiculed it in ballads. But the only expedient that proved effectual was, the prevailing on an unfortunate female, who had been condemned for a murder, to appear at the place of execution in a bed-gown." (Walker's Historical Memoirs of the Irish Bards, 1818.)
Although women wore night-rails, the men did not in Middleton's time, for in his Mayor of Quinborough it is said, "Books in women's hands are as much against the hair, methinks, as to see men wear stomachers or night-railes." (Fairholt, Costume in England, p. 570.)
The night-shirt or bed-gown was distinct from the dressing-gown, for Louis XIV. (1643-1715), Elizabeth, James I., and Charles I.
on retiring, was presented by the Dauphin with his "chemise de nuit," which was aired by a valet of the wardrobe, and his majesty then rose out of his chair to put on his robe de chambre, bowing to his courtiers as the signal for their dismissal. In the morning after breakfasting, Louis took off his morning gown (robe de chambre), and the Marquis de la Salle assisted him in taking off his night-vest (chemise de nuit) by the left-hand, while Bontemps was similarly employed on the right. (Penny Mag. 1841, p. 34, 35.)
Lord Hervey, in describing the bedding of the Prince of Orange with the eldest daughter of George II. says (Memoirs, i. 310) : —
"But when he was undressed, and came in his nightgown and night-cap into the room to go to bed, the appearance he made was as indescribable as the astonished countenances of everybody who beheld him. From the shape of his brocaded gown, and the make of his back, he looked behind as if he had no head, and before as if he had no neck and no legs."
In the Gentleman's Magazine (April, 1736, vi. 231), the marriage of her brother, the father of George III. is thus described :—
"Their majesties retiring to the apartments of the Prince of Wales, the bride was conducted to her bedchamber, and the bridegroom to his dressing-room, when the Duke undressed him, and his Majesty did his Royal Highness the honour to put on his shirt. The bride was undressed by the Princesses; and being in bed in a rich undress, his Majesty came into the room, and the Prince following soon after in a night-gown of silver stuff and cap of the finest lace, the Quality [nobility] were admitted to see the bride and bridegroom sitting up in the bed, surrounded by all the royal family. His majesty was dressed in a gold brocade turned up with silk, embroidered with large flowers in silver and colours, as was the waistcoat; the buttons and star were diamonds. Several noblemen were in gold brocades of 300%. to 5002. a suit."
T. J. BUCKTON.
Your correspondent W. P. will find many references on this subject in Mr. Halliwell's Archaic Dictionary, in voce "Naked Bed." To these I would add Othello, IV. 1, and the chapter of Joseph Andrews succeeding to that he has quoted (vi.), P. 25. (My references are to the 2nd edition, 1742.) This phrase would seem to have lingered much later than the custom which occasioned it. Beau Didapper retained his shirt (vol. ii. p. 279), though we are told (p. 278) that he had "disencumbered himself from the little clothes he had on"; and Parson Adams was endued with the same garment (p. 286), though he had "jumped out of bed without staying to put a rag of clothes (p. 279). If W. P. will turn up his Tristram Shandy, at the scene of the hero's baptism (ed. 1761, vol. iv. chap. xiv), he will find additional proofs that at least as far back as a century ago our ancestors had attained to a sleeping-dress. J. D. CAMPBELL.
(3rd S. iv. 163.)
The number of curious surnames is legion. A pamphlet of twenty or thirty pages, in which every other word would be a queer surname, might be written. But these sort of names, like most things in the present age of progress, seldom mean what they seem, and may be generally accounted for with very little research. Thus in such names as Image and Marriage, the last syllable is from wich, a dwelling-place; whilst such names as Balaam and Sneezum are compounded of ham, of the same meaning. Death, Dearth, and Dark are from De Ath, De Arth, and D'Arques, in France. Bottle is from the Sax. botl, bold, an abode, dwelling. Names ending in sel, sell, saul, shull, sole, hall, all, are generally from the Sax. heal, D. hal, saal, G. saal, Dan. and Sw. sal, Fr. salle, It. Sp. sala, all from the L. aula, Gr. avλn. Cf. the surnames Bentall, Bramhall, Counsell, Gomersall, Mansell, Minshull, Mothersole, Plimsaul, Plimpsall, Plimsol, Plimsoll, Shrubsole. Grief is i. q. Greave, i.e. Reeve, from the Sax. gerefa, G. graf, a bailiff; Comfort, from the Cornish cwm-vordh, the great way; Stiff is from Stephen; Simper from St. Pierre; Rainbird from Rambert, the inverse of Bertram, by corruption, Bertrand. Tubb and Tubbs may, like the Cornwallian Tubby, be nicknames of Thomas; Perfect is probably from some place named Pierrefitte in France; Coward is doubtless i. q. Goward, a patronymic of Gow or Gough, from the W. gof, a smith; and Cobbell is a diminutive of Cobb. I take it that Bugg is i. q. Bach, from G. bach, a brook, or backe, a hill; hence, as French diminutives, Bacot, Bacon, by corruption, Buggin. Sig, Sigg, Seak, Sug, in names of Gotho-Teutonic origin, is generally to the Greek VIK in Nicander, and the Latin vic in Victoria; and is derived from the A.-S. sige, O.-N. sigr, victory; hence Segar, Sigar, Siggers, Seager, Sugar, Sigbert, Sigmund, Sigismund, Sigrist, Sigwin, Seakins, i. q. Siggins. Stott may be from stot, a horse; in the Scottish, a young bullock, a steer, from the Sax. stotte; hence Stotter may mean one who has the charge of stots; hence also as patronymics, Stoddard, var. Stoddart, Stodhart, Stothard, Stothert, Stothurd, Studdard, Stuttard. Although we have many names from beasts, and some few from birds, I doubt much whether we have a single one from the finny tribe, notwithstanding the existence of some forty names which would appear to be so derived. Thus Dace is i. q. Days, i. e. David's; Roach means a rock; Whale is a foreigner; Turbot is for Tebbut, corrupted from Theobald; Gudgeon, Sturgeon, and Mullet are diminutives of Gouge, Sturge, and Mull; and Chabot is another diminutive. Gurnard and Pilchard are patronymics. Dolphin is possibly of
Cornish origin; Burt may be the same as Bright, and Wilks is from Wilkins, a diminutive of Will; Maid is doubtless the same as Mead and Meadow. Jack is not from Jacques, as some assert, but from Jannock, a diminutive of Jan, i. e. John; Luce seems to be from Lucius; Eel is probably from Eli; and Tench is doubtless the same as Dench, and the Gaelic name Tainsh; Par is from Pierre, whilst Herring and Whiting are either patronymics, or compounded of ing, a meadow. Among very many names relating to the medical world we have Bark, Bowell, Brain, Fever, Glister, Gumboil, Lance, Lancet, Morter, Motion, Pestel, Physick, Pill, Plaster, Truss, Whitlow. Brain is corrupted from an Irish name; Bowell is probably i. q. Powell, i. e. Ap-Howell; Fever is the same as the Fr. name Le Fevre, "the smith"; Motion is a diminutive (perhaps of Mote or Mott); Gumboil is corrupted from the German name Gumpold or Gumbold; Physick is from a Cornish local name; Pill is the same as the Pecksniffian name Peel, signifying a fortification; Truss is probably from Theresa, and Whitlow may mean the white mound. R. S. CHARNOCK.
NOTES AND QUERIES.
For the biography of poor José da Sylva himself, see also the Resumé de l'Histoire Littéraire du Portugal (Paris, 1826), by the same writer, and the Histoire de la Littérature Brésilienne of Ferdinand Wolf, which has been just published at Berlin by that indefatigable Spanish and Portuguese scholar. (Berlin, 1363, p. 31.)
As to the Danish translation, it would appear from Brunet (p. 1754) that two translations of Don Quixote have appeared in that language; one by C. D. Biehl, Copenhagen, 1776, 4 vols. in-8, and another by F. Schaldemose, Copenhagen, 1829-31, 4 vols. in-8.
Brunet makes no mention of the Latin version, of which among my own books I can discover no trace except what may be inferred from the passage of Ticknor extracted by CANON DALTON, and the following reference to the subject by Navarrete in his Life of Cervantes, already quoted:
66 Algunos curiosos nos han dado noticia de una traduccion latina del Quijote hecha por un literato aleman; de otra en lengua danesa por una dama de Copenhague, y aun de algunos en Sueco y Ruso; pero no constándonos estos hechos per noticias tan positivas como las que hemos dado anteriormente, nos parece propio manifestarlo asi con franqueza para satisfaccion de los lectores."- Vida de Cervantes, p. 529.
With regard to the edition of Don Quixote, published at Boston in 1836 by Francisco Sales, it is evidently an educational book intended for students, the notes being compiled from the standard Spanish editions, which are all mentioned by Mr. Ticknor. CANON DALTON will find that Mr. Sales has not been overlooked by the distinguished author of the History of Spanish Literature, if he refers to vol. ii. p. 191 of the old edition of that invaluable work, or to vol. ii. p. 229 of the new. Mr. Ticknor, speaking of Lope de Vega's Estrella de Sevilla, which has been twice reprinted in the United States by Mr. F. Sales (Boston, 1828, and 1840), the last time, he says, with corrections kindly furnished by Don A. Duran of Madrid, adds the following interesting remark:
"A curious fact in Spanish bibliography, and one that should be mentioned to the honour of Mr. Sales, whose various publications have done much to spread the love of Spanish literature in the United States, and to whom I am indebted for my first knowledge of it."
The copious references given in your note to CANON DALTON's queries relative to the Rev. John Bowle, leave little to be added. I may mention that in my copy of the remarkable and still valuable edition of Don Quixote published by him (Salisbury, 1781, 3 vols. 4to), the name of his vicarage is given "Idemestone," and not " miston," as at present. The Anotaciones a Quixote (tome iii. p. 167), are thus somewhat curiously dated and signed: "IDEMESTON, en su Estudio, y Octubre 26, M.DCC.LXXX.
[3rd S. IV. OCT. 24, '63.
about his edition of Don Quixote, together with Speeches to John Bowle, Baretti, London, 1786, is certainly one of the most some account of Spanish Literature," by Joseph with the following Macaronic whimsical and splenetic of satires. It commences be interesting to M. Delepierre: verses, which may "Ad Doctum Milordum. Epistola Cocaiana. "O Macaronei Merlini, care Milorde,
Qui joca fautor amas, capriciosque probas!
Qui multas linguas et multa idiomata noscens,
A work which commences so singularly is kept up for 338 pages in the same spirit, and terminates not inconsistently with the following passage:
making a most reverential bow to Mr. John Bowle, alias
P.S. I forgot to add in the proper place that CANON DALTON will find, at p. 116 of Prescott's it may be noticed, was dedicated to Mr. Ticknor), Critical and Historical Essays (a volume which,
an elaborate criticism on the American edition of Don Quixote by Mr. Sales, which gives ample means of forming an opinion as to its "merits and character."
iv. 286.)-Your correspondent is premature in stating that in Mr. Pinks's History of Clerkenwell no EDWARD HARLEY, 2ND EARL OF OXFORD (3rd S. mention is made of the earl's residence in that
parish, inasmuch as only about half of the History has at present been published. Mr. Pinks died editing it after the first chapter had appeared before his work was finished, and left the whole before the public in a local newspaper, and the of his MS. in a very confused state. I commenced illustrated monthly parts had been promised. I the press. Many matters must of necessity aphave to work hard to get each number ready for pear in an appendix to the History; amongst
[Nevertheless, the account of Newcastle House, accompanied with an engraving, had already appeared at pp. 97-101.-ED.]
them will be particulars of the Earl of Oxford. I think your correspondent is right in his conjecture that the earl's residence was Newcastle House. He was son-in-law to John Holles, Duke of Newcastle. But more of this in my appendix. THE EDITOR OF The History of Clerkenwell. "GOD SAVE THE KING" IN CHURCH (3rd S. iv. 288.)- Many years since I used to be an occasional deputy for the organist at the chapel of the Royal Hospital, Chelsea, better known as Chelsea College; and it was then the custom to play as a concluding voluntary, every Sunday afternoon, five verses; or "God save the Queen," five times repeated. This also brings to my recollection a story that is current about Danby, the glee composer, who often officiated at Chelsea College as deputy-organist. The "old heathens," i. e. the pensioners, as the Chaplain-General Gleig used to term them, were in Danby's time much addicted to roaring out the Old Hundredth psalm; five verses being regularly sung every Sunday, even down to the time when I played there; and as Danby had a perfect horror of the Chelsea veterans' melody, he invariably played the first verse in A. Then, by a very long interlude (all the organ music used to be long in the College Chapel, there being a middle voluntary at both services of ten minutes duration, so that the congregation had ample time to note who was present, and stare at each other,) he managed to get the next verse into B flat; another interlude landed him in C, the next in D, and the last and fifth in E. Danby well knew that the old men must leave off long before he came to the last verse, and he was repeatedly accosted by some of them; who asked him, "How it was, they never could sing more than two verses of the tune when he played?" To which he invariably made one reply: "You all are so fond of the tune, that you exert your selves too much; and I am obliged to play very long interludes to give you breathing time." M. C.
INNOCENTE COAT (3rd S. iv. 286) is, I apprehend, a white coat. Convicts going to be hanged, and who protested their innocence to the last, were accustomed to wear a white jerkin (sometimes a nightgown) in addition to the cap and nosegay. There is an allusion to the practice in Peveril of the Peak, and one can scarcely understand how Sir Walter could have jumped so easily at the conclusion, that "innocente " meant "mourning." G. A. SALA. TERRIER (3rd S. iv. 126, 300.)-In old sporting manuals, all dogs taking the earth are mentioned "terriers." The word comes to us, I think, from Normandy. The small patrician-landholder, or gentleman-farmer-a class almost annihilated at the Great Revolution was called "un gentilhomme-terrier." In other provinces he was
termed "un hobereau." The most recent instance within my observation of the use of the first title, was in a French translation of M. Ivan Tourgénieff's Scenes from Russian Life. The middle class Russian landholder (of noble blood however) was there rendered as "gentilhomme terrier." G. A. SALA.
Bailey gives, as the primary sense of the word in its hunting relation, the hole itself; and hence the dog who drags the beast out of it.
What is the derivation of the name of our old friend Dog Tray? so familiar to our childhood, and now again revived. May it not be a corruption of "terri," which name occurs accompanying a small hound couched at the feet of Lady Cassy, on her brass at Deerhurst? VEBNA.
SKETCHING CLUB OR SOCIETY (3rd S. iv. 248.) There is in this county an Anastatic Drawing Society. The subscription is 10s. per annum, and each member has a book of original drawings (multiplied by the Anastatic printing process) annually. The Secretary is the Rev. J. M. Gresley, Over-seile, Ashby-de-la-Zouch, who will, I am sure, gladly give every particular.
I beg to thank for noticing my query respecting the Sketching Society, but it was not my intention that the members should adjourn to the country or locate in any fixed spot in the summer. What gave rise to the society in my mind was the fact, that some years ago there was a society composed of a few members who would meet occasionally at each others' houses, and spend the evening in the execution of some drawing, the whole of those produced to be the property of the host. This might not be practicable now for want of room, if the thing was carried out to any extent, but instead of meeting at private houses, a room could be engaged, which would answer the purpose. A few years since there was an amateur exhibition annually in Pall Mall, and I well remember some of the drawings being of a first-class character: how has this not been continued? probably for want of funds. Why not then institute the society again, and have a small subscription to pay the expenses of the room annually? I merely throw these hints out in the event of some one, having the time to spare, devoting himself to the work of reorganising the society, which would certainly be the means of cultivating a taste for the fine arts, and promote a good feeling among E. ROBERTS. many amateur artists. EXECUTIONS FOR MURDER (3rd S. iv. 268.)Your correspondent J. P. D. will find a clue to the information he seeks by consulting the Judicial Statistics, annually presented to Parliament. I believe the form of making the returns has been