« ElőzőTovább »
LONDON CHAPELS. Can any of your corre- time. An instance of its use is now before spondents give me information about the fol. lowing Chapels existing before the Marriage Act, “ Well, Mr. Observator, Mitch ke ditch ye with Sir 1753 ?
Denny Ashburnham's gingerbread testimony. For there's Park Chapel, Chelsea, built by Sir Richard many an unhappy child makes a good man.” — Doctor Manningham in 1718. Where situate ? how now
Oates's Vindication of himself, fol., 1679, p. 47.
J. C. H. used ? Is there any engraving of it? Spring Garden Chapel. Where situate ? how OGLESBY is a very uncommon name.
It does now used ? any engraving? (The French Chapel not occur, so far as I am aware, in any of the there was burnt down in 1716.)
Indices of Wills, at the Prerogative Court, London. Maddock Street Chapel. - Where was this ? Can any correspondent of N. & Q." inform me Was St. George's, Hanover Square, the substitute to what part of England it is peculiar at the for it?
present day, or where any records of it in the Kensington Palace Chapel. -- Any information seventeenth century are to be found ? Sp. about this? The Marquess of Carmarthen was married there in 1712, and the Rev. Mr. Blake
“ THE PERIODICAL Press," &c. — Who was way was curate" of the Chapel in 1736.
the author of a 12mo volume, entitled The Peri. Wood Street Compter Chapel.—This was pro- odical Press of Great Britain and Ireland (Lonbably removed when the Compter was located in don, 1824) ?
ABHBA. Giltspur Street. Is anything known of it, or of Quotation. Noble Street Chapel ?
“We live to die, and die to live again; Is any thing known of the Register of Mar.
For life eternal is our destiny, riages belonging to Guildhall Chapel, which was And death is but the gate to life, which cannot die.” pulled down about 1820 ? It is not at the Church
EMERITA. of St. Lawrence, Jewry, as stated in Cunningham's London.
John S. BURN.
SCALDING THURSDAY. What is the meaning of The Grove, Henley.
this mysterious entry in Laud's Diary?
[1635.] “Sept. 24. Scalding Thursday." Lynn Regis. - In the General History of the
DAVID GAM. County of Norfolk (8vo, Norwich, 1829), pp. 464466, are given extracts from a poetical work, en
TALIESIN WILLIAMS (AB IOLO).-Wanted a per. titled, “ Lennæ Redeuiua ; or, a Description of fect list of this gentleman's writings, with the King's Lynn in Norfolk by Ben Adam.” places and dates of their publication. His collecIt is said to consist of “ Two hundred and four. tion of Welsh MSS. (including those of his father, teen MS. pages, beginning at Anno Domini 1, and Iolo Morganwg) is said to have been purchased carrying down the events to the reign of King by. Lord Llanover. Have any of them been Edward IV.” The writer of the History of Nor. edited, and by whom?.. Any Welsh corresponfolk does not appear to have seen the MS. itself, dent of “N. & Q.” kindly replying to these but quotes from extracts which he says are con- queries will oblige
GOFYNWR. tained in a “ Catalogue of Seals presented to the Norwich Museum by Richard Taylor, Esq.”
TilE BARN. — There is a house in Woodhay, Strange to say, not only have these extracts from Hants, thus denominated. Could its name have the Lenne Redeuiua disappeared from the Museum, been originally “ Tithe Barn,” a place where the but the Catalogue itself is no longer to be found rector's tithes were collected in kind ?
N. H. R. there. Can any correspondent of “ N. & Q.” give information respecting this work of Ben Adam, “TUDOR, A PRINCE OF WALES. -An Historical which, from a marginal date at one place, appears Novel; in Two Parts. London, printed by H. H. to have been written in the year 1676 ? There is for Jonathan Edwin, at the sign of the Three a “ Catalogue of Seals and ancient Deeds in the Roses on Ludgate-hill, 1678." Who was the Norfolk and Norwich Museum” still in that in- writer of this work ?
LLALLAWG. stitution, but it is evidently not the one alluded
SIR JOHN WENLOCK: LORD WENLOCK.-Camto by the historian, for it contains notes in which on Seals in the Museum” (doubtless the book liest notice of him wbich Camden had found being reference is made to " Mr. Richard Taylor's book den says of this double-distilled traitor, that of
his parentage be cannot say anything, the earnow missing). Moreover, it bears date 1830, whereas the History of Norfolk was published in his appointment as Escheator for Bucks and Bed1829.
fordshire, 17 Henry VI. In 28 Henry VI., he
was Chamberlain to Queen Margaret, for whom “Mircu KE DITCH."—What is the meaning and he laid the first stone of Queen's College, Camorigin of this old English expression ? I have bridge. In or soon after 35 Henry VI., be was observed it in pamphlets published in Charles II.'s created K. G., and two years afterwards attainted,
having sided with the Duke of York against the creation of Charles, Prince of Wales, in 1616. He is noking.
ticed in Dugdale's Baronage, ii. 280 ; Collins's Peerage by He had been severely wounded at St. Alban's, Brydges, iii, 154; Lord Braybrooke's Hist. of Audley End, when on the king's side.
p. 39; Nichols's Prog. of James I., iii. 220; and Henry He was with Edward
Howard's Memorials of the Howard Fannily, p. 54; but at Towton field; and, in 6 Edward IV., he had nothing is known of him.] summons to Parliament as a baron. But after
TREACLE BIBLE I have heard of a Breeches great honours and employments conferred on him by King Edward IV., he rejoined the Lancas
Bible and a Vinegar Bible; but now a friend tells trians, and was slain at Tewkesbury, May 4, 1471;
me there is a Treacle Bible. What is its history?
Cpl. leaving neither wife nor issue that ever I could see-says Camden.
[The Treacle Bible is so called from those printed in I should be very much obliged to any of your others that of Coverdale, 1535), in which the Balm of
the time of Henry VIII. and Queen Elizabeth (among correspondents who can give me any account of Gilead is called the Treacle of Gilead, as in the following the family, connections, marriage, or issue (if passages of the edition of 1575:any), of this Lord Wenlock.*
G. R. C. “ Is there no triacle at Giliad? Is there no Phisition
there? Why then is not the health of my people reANTHONY YOCNG.-Information is desired as to covered ? "-Jer. viii. 22. this person, to whom has been attributed the com- “Goe up unto Giliad, and bring triacle, 0 virgin thou position of “God save the King." (See Chappell's daughter of Egypt: but in vayne shalt
thou goe to surPopular Music, 693).*
gerie, for thy wound shal not be stopped.” — Jer. xlvi. 11.)
“THE HISTORY OF Miss CLARINDA CATHCART
AND Miss Fanny RENTON.”—This work was pubQueries with answers.
lished by Newbery, in two volumes, Oct. 1765. CHANCELLOR LIVINGSTON. — Watt has the fol.
See list of books published, Gent.'s Mag., vol. lowing article :
xxxv. p. 485. I shall be much obliged for any in
formation about this book. Did these ladies ever “Livingston, Chancellor. An Essay on Sheep; with Additional Remarks, by William Cobbett. Lond. 1811,
exist in form and substance ? or are they crea8vo. 88."
tures of some fertile imagination ? Real, or fictiIs Chancellor a Christian name or a name of tious, who wrote the History?
C. office? In either case some account of this author [This work is one of Jane Marshall's novels, authoress appears desirable.
S. Y. R.
of Letters for the Improvement of Youth, and Sir Harry
Gayglove, a comedy printed in Scotland, but never per(Robert R. Livingston, an eminent American politician and lawyer, was born in the city of New York, Nov. 27, theca, where her name is spelt Marisball.]
formed. A list of her works is given in Watt's Biblio1746. In 1780 he was appointed Secretary of Foreign Affairs, and at the adoption of the constitution of New The Right Hox. John Smith, successively York became Chancellor of that state, which office Speaker of the House of Commons and Chancellor he held until 1801, when he went to France as minister plenipotentiary, appointed by President Jefferson. In
of the Exchequer, was living in 1722. When did
S. Y. R. 1805 Mr. Livingston returned to the United States, and he die, and where was he buried ? employed himself in promoting the arts and agriculture. [The death of the Speaker is thus announced in The He introduced into the State of New York the use of Political State of Great Britain, xxvi. 455: “ On Wedgypsum and the Merino race of sheep. He was president nesday morning, Oct. 2, 1723, died the Rt. Hon. John of the New York Academy of Fine Arts, and also of the Smith of Tydworth, co. Southampton, Esq. one of the Society for the Promotion of Agriculture. He died March four principal Tellers of His Majesty's Exchequer, a 26, 1813, with the reputation of an able statesman, a privy counsellor, and formerly Speaker of the Hon. House learned lawyer, and a most useful citizen. Lieber's Encyc. of Commons. He was a person who, on all critical occaAmericana, viii. 25.]
sions, had given signal proofs as well of his zeal and affecSir ROBERT HOWARD, K.B., was Governor of able uprightness and integrity.”]
tion for the present happy establishment, as of his inviolBridgnorth Castle for Charles I. when it was surrendered to the parliament April 26, 1646. Who
PIMLICO. - There is a Devonshire proverb, was he? It seems to me that he could not have “To keep it in Pimlico," that is, to keep a house been Sir Robert Howard the dramatist, who is in nice order. Can you inform me from whence said to have been born in 1626, and to have been we get the name of the place, Pimlico? Whether knighted at the Restoration.
S. Y. R. it has any reference to the proverb ? C. H. G. [Sir Robert Howard was the fifth son of Lord Thomas [Four articles on the origin of the word Pimlico apHoward, first Earl of Suffolk. Sir Robert was made peared in our First Series; but without any allusion to Knight of the Bath with his brother William at the this proverb. Pimlico kept a place of entertainment in
or near Hoxton, and was celebrated for his nut-brown [For an interesting paper on the supposed tomb of ale. The place seems afterwards to have been called by Lord Wenlock in Tewkesbury Church, see “ N. & Q.," his name, and is constantly mentioned by our early 2nd S. ix. 175.-Ed.]
dramatists.] [t Anthony Young is noticed in our 2nd S. vii. 64.Ed.]
Serpent ; Dr. S. R. Maitland's Eruvin ; and EnReplies.
nemoser's History of Magic. With the last, com
pare THE DEVIL.
“ The German Ideas of the Devil in the
Sixteenth Century,” in Freytag's graphic Pictures (3rd S. iv. 246.)
of German Life, vol. i. ch. XII. The History of the Evil Spirit as dealt with by this old fashioned word), that he denied the
It was one of Coleridge's heresies (if I may use Revelation and Tradition, Paganism and Popular Superstition, Heresy and Infidelity, Literature personal existence of the Evil Principle,” and and Art, would no doubt, if treated in a reverent
considered the Devil “ a mere fiction, or, at the and Christian spirit
, form a very instructive and best, an allegory." See a Note he wrote in a profitable, though a very painful and more or less copy of Robinson Crusoe; and another he wrote repulsive work. To see so awful a subject treated
in Smith's “Select Discourses," given in his in a merely "interesting" or "light-literature" Notes and Lectures upon Shakspeare, &c., London, style, not to say with downright levity, would be 1849, vol. ii. pp. 135, 154. Swedenborg held a both repulsive and mischievous.
similar doctrine.-Cf. his Heaven and Hell, $$ 311 There is a book by J. G. Meyer (or Mayer) and 544. Is there not, by-the-way, a modern called Historia Diaboli
, Tribing, 1777, 4to, which work on “ The Personality of the Tempter ?" . I have never seen, but suspect to be little more
The mysterious affinities which exist between than a collection of witch-stories and such like.
the Demoniacal and the Bestial led the Heathen De Foe's History of the Devil is unworthy of the
to represent their Demons, such as Pan, the title or of its author. He writes much more to
Fauns, Satyrs, &c., in the shape of rough shaggy
Animals. the purpose in Robinson Crusoe, in that striking
Thus Pan, the God of this World, passage where Friday (somewhat like a certain
" is portrayed by the Ancients in this guise ; on Zulu of recent celebrity) dumbfounders and com
his head a pair of Horns that reach to Heaven, pletely shuts up his instructor by asking two or
his body rough and hairy, his beard long and three questions; which, simple and natural as
shaggy, his shape biformed, above like a Man, below they were, were yet unanswerable, as they in- like a Beast, his Feet like Goat's hoofs,” and from volved the whole tremendous Mystery of Evil and
this he was especially called "the Goat-footed." the Evil One.*
Now, when the Heathen Teutons and Northern For much curious matter and some striking Nations embraced Christianity, there were a few Eastern traditions respecting “The Prince of this who hung back, (as was the case in every nation), World,” I would refer r. to a work of singular and for a long time clung to the ancient belief, interest and profound learning, The Many Man
and in secret continued to practise their rites. sions in the House of the Father, by the late Rev.
From this state of things, the Demonology of the G. S. Faber, section iii. chap. vii.-ix. The
Ancients mingled itself imperceptibly with Chris
scope of Mr. Faber's views may be shortly given in the tianity... Accordingly, Satan, "the god of this words of a learned writer of last century: “ As it World,” naturally took the place of Pan; and, is highly credible that Satan, whilst an Angel of after great Pan was dead, inherited his Horns Light, was a Fountain-Spirit, and Hierarch in and Hoofs
. As Ennemoser observes, the reprethe place of this World ; so we may hence the
sentation of the Devil as a Black He-Goat was more naturally account for his particular envy
of high antiquity; and in oaths it was a common and enmity to Mankind, the designed successors
formula to swear by the He-Goat's skull," or to his kingdom; as also for that share of dominion imprecate, “ May the He-Goat shame him." He he still retains, till the time of his binding shall adds,“ The best known marks of the Devil are come." (Hartley's Paradise Restored, Lond.,
the Cloven Foot, the Goat's Beard, the Cock's 1764, p. 3.)
Feather, and the Ox's Tail.” * In the WitchCf. Böhme's account of the " Throne-Angels,” Orgies of the Middle Ages, the Devil used to and the Fall of Lucifer, J. B.'s Theosophick appear either riding on a He-Goat, or in the shape Philosophy Unfolded, by Taylor, Lond. 1691, of a He-Goat with a black man's face. Thus in pp. 20, 45, 341, 371. Henry Brooke's autograph | Goethe’s Walpurgisnacht, the He-Goat figures in my copy of the Theosophic Philosophy, suggests conspicuously. Besides these popular superstia reference to his Fool of Quality, Kingsley's edn. tions, the Mysteries and Moralities so frequent vol. ii. pp. 140-141, where he follows Böhme.
in the Middle Ages probably served to keep up See also, Rev. J. Deane, On the Worship of the
this association of ideas, and to familiarise men's Serpent ; Rev. W. Haslam's The Cross and the
* Cf. Ennemoser's History of Magic, Howitt's trans.
vol. ii. pp. 152-3, 195-7. The Devil was sometimes called * Friday's last question, which points to the ultimate an Ox by the Jews, and a Rabbinic writer says: “Sanrepentance and salvation of the Evil Spirit, opens out a mael is sometimes seen in the likeness of an Ox or a Hog. curious field of thought and literature; starting, say, Particularly in the time of pestilence, he appears in the with Origen, and coming down to Bailey's Festus. likeness of a black Ox."-Stehelin, p. 190.
minds with the half-human, half-bestial, horned, “ As for the grand deceiver, the Devil, the vulgar and goat-footed representations of the Evil One. Fable, that in all Apparitions whatsoever there is still The Heathen Symbolism thus adopted in the thing in their carriage that, narrowly eyed, will tell what
the shape of a Cloven Foot, holds true, for there is someMiddle Ages was itself, however, derived in great they are." measure from primitive Revelation and Tradition, and was countenanced by some mysterious allu
In the wild scene of the Witch's Kitchen in sions in Holy Scripture. Thus in Isai. xiii.
21, Goethe's Faust, Mephistopheles says to the Witch the word we translate “Satyrs,” and which in the whom he has thrown into a state of rage and original signifies rough, hairy creatures, is rendered amazement: in the LXX. by Saipóvia, Demons.* I subjoin a “Dost thou know me, thou atomy, thou scarecrow?
Hast thou no passage from Brown's Sacred Tropology, Édinb. Dost thou know thy lord and master?... 1768. In treating “ Of Metaphors respecting distinguish the Cock’s feather?
more any respect for the Red doublet? Canst thou not Fallen Angels," he observes :
“ The Witch. () Master, pardon this rough reception. “ They are called Goats, or HAIRY ONES (Lev. xvii.
But I see no Cloven Foot. Where then are your two 7; 2 Chron. xi. 15. Heb.) Before God their moral ap
Ravens? pearance, oft before men, their visible, how unsightly, Mephist. This once the apology may serve. For, to abominable, and shocking! How they delight in, feed be sure, it is some while since we saw each other. The upon, and are filled with the poison of iniquity. Their march of intellect too, which licks all the world into behaviour, how detestable to every one holy and pure! shape, has even reached the Devil. The Northern PhanWith what pleasure they perform mischief; what injury
tom is now no more to be seen. Where do you see they do Christ's militant Sheep! And how oft, under Horns, Tail, and Claws? And as for the Foot, which I the form of Goats, Satyrs, and other hairy animals, have
cannot do without, it would prejudice me in society; their Heathenish votaries adored them!”-p. 120. therefore, like many a gallant, I have worn false calves
these many years.", In Mr. Mossman's excellent little Glossary of the Principal Words used in a Figurative, Typical,
Mr. Hayward appends to the above the folor Mystical Sense in the H.S., &c., Lond. 1854,
lowing note: we find :
“ The old German Catechisms, from Luther's time
downwards, were generally adorned with a frontispiece, " Goat. — (1.) A She-Goat offered in the Levitical representing the Devil with all the above-mentioned apsacrifices denoted Penitence. Thomas Aquinas. (2.) Sin pendages.' itself. Bernard. (3.) Wicked and unclean persons (lost Souls): S. Mat. xxv. 33. Cf. Lev. xvii. 1, where the
Dr. Arnold objects to the Miltonic representaword translated Devils' signifies in the Hebrew Goats. tion of Satan, and prefers what I may call the (4.) That God will not eat bulls' flesh, nor drink the Panic :blood of goats,' Ps. 1. 13, signifies that He will not accept the sacrifice of the Proud. Bernard.”—p. 51.
“ By giving the Devil a human likeness, and repre
senting him as a bad man, you necessarily get some By the
Rabbinic writers, the Devil is frequently image of what is good as well as of what is bad, for no termed Seirissim, i. e. a Goat; and when the
man is entirely evil. The Hoofs, the Horns, the Tail,
were all useful in this way, as giving you an image of Jews fell into superstition, they used to make a
something altogether disgusting, and so Mephistopheles, yearly deprecatory offering of a Goat to Satan, and the utterly contemptible and hateful character of the which they styled “ a Present." Thus, too, Esau, Little Master in Sintram, are far more true than the ó Bébnaos, the great human type of Satan, was
Paradise Lost." rough and hairy like a Goat, and lived in the land Mr. Neale, in bis delightful work, The Unseen of Seir or Edom; and all his names, Esau, Seir, World, Lond. 1850, p. 192, says something similar, and Edom are used to denote the Evil Spirit. See and shows that “no Mediæval Poet could have Stebelin's Traditions of the Jews, Lond. 1732, written Paradise Lost.”
EIRIONNACH. pp. 191, 200-202. Cf. also, Sir Thos. Browne's Vulgar Errors, b. v. ch. 23, § 17. Among all
Any one who wishes to make out the history nations, the He-Goat is the especial emblem of of this notion, must investigate the incorporation Uncleanness and Lasciviousness, and thus becomes of the heathen evil spirit with that of the New a natural symbol of the Prince of Unclean Spirits. Testament. He may find his first references in an Having shown that the Cloven Foot of Satan re
Appendix to the Dictionnaire des Sciences Occultes, presents a Goat's hoof, I shall throw together a Paris, 1846, 2 vols. 8vo, a part of the Abbé Migne's few passages relating to the subject.
enormous undertaking. This dictionary contains a Abp. Leighton observes, in a Lecture on St. great quantity of matter connected with dæmons, Mat. vii. 15:
and the old stories about them. Possibly some
volume of the collection is more directly devoted * “ The word Seirim (trans. “Devils' in Lev. and to our subject, but I cannot find one in the list. Chron., and · Satyrs’ in Isaiah) simply imports Goats ;
There is a long discussion in the Mirabilia and the object worshipped by the Israelites under that Angelorum ac Dæmonum, the first book of Gaspar the Greeks called that pantheistic divinity, the Universal Schott's Physica Curiosa, Herbipoli, 1662, 4to. Pan.”-Faber's Many Mansions, 2nd ed. p. 260.
Many references will be found here. There is
a chapter " De proprii cujusque nati Dæmonis racter, drawn by a contemporary hand, an ardent inquisitione,” in the second volume of Fludd's love of home is not, I believe, * one of the qualities Utriusque Cosmi Historia, Oppenheim, 1619, 2 with which the Admiral is accredited. Your corvols. folio. Watt's Bibliotheca, under the heads respondent is a little hard upon me, when he “ Dæmon," " Devil,” &c. contains many refer- asserts that there is absolutely no support for my
The first work named by me can be got at remarks to the effect, tbat Drake's heart was so once, and will perhaps last until others can be much absorbed in his enterprises as to induce the heard of.
idea that he sat loosely to the ties of married Milton's “splendid nonsense will, I believe, life. On this point your correspondent shall anbe found to have little which is not of earlier date, swer himself. With reference to my note, that in all that relates to the habits and doings of the Drake's marriage took place July 4, 1569, he infernal spirits. I have seen it stated that even says: the great guns which knocked down the gaseous
" He [Drake) seems to have snatched a temporary angels with hard iron are older than Paradise comfort in matrimony. I say “temporary comfort,' beLost. That is, the splendour is Milton's, the cause, in the autumn of the same year (1569), he made a " nonsense" is borrowed, if indeed it be non- secret voyage to the West Indies; and repeated it twice
A. DE MORGAN.
in the following year, “to gain intelligence' of his enemies ...."
I One of the most interesting ancient represent. I jugal affection ; but (I ask any impartial person)
may be imagining too high a standard of conations of Satan occurs in the MS. of Cædmon,
in do these voyages, waiting so immediately on marthe Bodleian, Oxford. The whole series of illustrations has been well facsimilied for the Archæolo- riage, indicate the ardour of a bridegroom, or
J. C. J.
even the ordinary attachment to home of a hus. gia.
band? Are they not rather signs of a master
passion-of that high-souled courage, and that SIR FRANCIS DRAKE.
indomitable energy, which conquered fortune and (3rd S. iii. 506 ; iv. 189, 241, 271.)
won an everlasting fame? When to Drake's
frequent and prolonged absences is added the Before quitting, the subject of Sir Francis fact of his wife having lived in St. Budeaux Drake's first marriage, and while giving my best village, as far as we can judge,) so obscurely as thanks to your correspondent for his conclusive to have slipped out of memory altogether, and answer to my inquiry, I should like to correct a superadded the existenc of a local tradition, mistake into which he has inadvertently fallen. which points at a woman left in lengthened un
I have not applied a single epithet of disparage- certainty of her husband's fate, I think that my ment to Saltash. An ancient borough, and pos
“insinuation" cannot be called quite baseless. sessed of important jurisdiction, it was, as he says,
With every respect for your correspondent's a town of some consequence in Drake's time. opinions, I may observe that the data on which But what then? There is no more connection to found an estimate of Drake's character are between Saltash and the "out-of-the-way and sufficiently patent to account for, if not to justify, humble village" of which I spoke, than there is diverse conclusions. But, although I bave venbetween Westminster and Bermondsey : for, simi- tured to speculate on a particular topic, I am not larly, the two places lie actually in different a whit the less sincere in my admiration of the counties, and on contrary sides of the dividing many rare gifts that so pre-eminently distinguished river. It was at St. Budeaux, in Devonshire, this brave and magnanimous sea-king. and not at Saltash, in Cornwall, that Drake mar
John A. C. VINCENT. ried Mary Newman. At St. Budeaux, some
Plymouth. thirteen and a half years later, Mary Drake was buried. It is quite needless to appeal to any Sir F. Drake, I have been looking over my notes
Since my Note to you (antè p. 272) respecting resident in “ the three towns" for a confirmation of the statement how exactly the description respecting Plymouth, and I find that I have the "out-of-the-way and humble"—fits St. Budeaux;
“ 25th January, 1582. The Lady Marie, the wife of Sir or of the assertion, that the village retains no
Francis Drake, Knt., buried.” traces of having been other than what it is at the
The words in italics are in red ink. This is an present day-an obscure and retired spot. No Englishman, and especially no west country. Plymouth; which registers commence the year
extract from the register of St. Andrew's church, man, can fail to regard Sir Francis Drake as one of the foremost beroes in our annals ; and yet burial be recorded as above as well as at St.
previous, viz. 1581. How can the entry of this confessedly great man may not unjustly be thought to fall somewhat short of absolute per
* As well as my memory serves me, for I have here no fection. In the minute portrait of Drake's cha- books to refer to.