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Obv. Head of Venus to the right, with diadem; behind it, the letters s. c. ("senatus consulto"). Rev. "C. NAE. BALB." ("Caius Nævius Balbus"). Victory in chariot (triga) to right; above the chariot, numerals occur on different specimens from VIII. to CCVIII. (These are only what I have seen, others higher or lower may exist).
This coin is struck, between B.C. 82 and B.C. 80, by a magistrate of the name of Caius Nævius Balbus. He is totally unknown;. but from numismatic evidence, must have been in power with two other magistrates, Quintus Antonius Balbus (see Cohen, Médailles Consulaires, pl. iii., Antonia I.), and Tiberius Claudius (Cohen, pl. xii., Claudia III.): the first of whom was prætor to Marius, circ. B.C. 82; and the latter is known to haye had a place in the senate in B.C. 63 (Sallust, Cat. 50; Appian, Bell. Civ., ii. 5). The coin in question is engraved in Cohen, pl. xxix.
The "rude and deep notch round the edge," was probably made to test the purity of the silver. Coin so notched were called serrati (Tac. Germ., 5).
The Empress Cornelia Gnæa is usually called Cornelia Supera. She is supposed to be the wife of Æmilian (A.D. 253—254). F. W. M.
BOOTERSTOWN, NEAR DUBLIN (2nd S. ix. 462.)— In turning over the above-named volume of "N. & Q.," I met with the inquiry of your correspondent ABHBA as to the original meaning and etymology of the name of this village. He is quite right in rejecting the absurd statement, that it was originally called Freebooterstown from its being the resort of freebooters. This is simply a falsehood. There is no evidence that it ever had the name of Freebooterstown. Nor was it ever, I believe, called Booterstown until after the formation of the Dublin and Kingstown railway. Before that time, it was always called Butterstown; and in old documents, as your correspondent correctly tells you, it is called Ballybotter, Ballyboother, Butterstown, or Botharstown, and Boterstone.
The word bothar, or bothair, is a road, a street, in the Irish language: in some parts of Ireland the th is pronounced as if tt; in other parts it is slurred over, as if it was h.
Thus, there is a street in Dublin called Stony batter, the stony road; there is a Buttersfield Avenue, near Rathfarnham; Bothar mór, or the great road, is the name of the road from Tipperary to Cashel; Bothar na mac riogh (road of the king's sons) is the road from Corofin, by the Castle of Inchiquin to Killnaboy, co. Clare (Four Mast. A.D. 1573); Bothar-liac-Baislice (Grey-road of Baisleach, now Baslick), is the name of a high road leading to Baslick, in the
parish of Ballintober, co. Roscommon (Four Mast., instances. A.D. 1573, p. 1180). There are hundreds of other
ABHBA will, therefore, see at once the answer to his question. The high road from Dublin to Wicklow was called the Botar, or Bothar: in and botter, therefore, or Ballybothar, was the town about Dublin, the th was pronounced as tt. Ballyor village of the Bottar, or high road; and this was Englished naturally Botterstown, or Butterstown.
The diminutive, Botharín (commonly pronounced Bohareen, or Boreen), is familiar to Ireland. It is a word of daily use, even in the every one who has resided in the country parts of language. It signifies a little road, a lane, or mouths of those who can only speak the English bridle road, across the fields. JAMES H. TODD. Trinity College, Dublin.
SAXON SUNDIAL AT BISHOPSTON, NEAR NEWHAVEN, SUSSEX (3rd S. iv. 230.)-This is engraved in the Gentleman's Magazine for Nov. 1840, drawn and communicated by Mr. Mark Antony Lower, F.S.A., of Lewes; and in the second volume of the Sussex Archæological Collections, 1849, will be found a paper "On Bishopston church, with some general remarks on the Churches of East Sussex," by Mr. W. Figg, F.S.A., of the same town. See also the late Rev. Arthur Hussey's Churches of Kent, Sussex, and Surrey, 8vo, 1852, p. 198. J. G. N.
remind your correspondent of Darwin's remarkAEROSTATION (3rd S. iv. 146, 194.) — I would able lines (Economy of Vegetation, canto i. 1. 289), written probably before 1750, as exemplifying the prophetic faculty of genius in anticipating scientific discovery :
"Soon shall thine arm, unconquered Steam! afar Drag the slow barge, or drive the rapid car; Or on wide-waving wings expanded bear The flying chariot through the fields of air. Their crews triumphant, leaning from above, Shall wave their fluttering kerchiefs, as they move; Or warrior bands alarm the gaping crowd, And armies shrink beneath the shadowy cloud." Contemporary critics depreciated his poetry, as eccentric and extravagant; but, as he aptly states in his “ Apology": —
"Extravagant theories in those parts of philosophy where our knowledge is yet imperfect encourage the of ingenious deductions, to confirm or refute them: and, execution of laborious experiments, or the investigation since natural objects are allied to each other by many affinities, every kind of theoretic distribution of them adds to our knowledge by developing some of their analogies."
parently suggested several of the subsequent disDarwin's exquisite Rosicrucian fancy has apcoveries in natural philosophy. See his Poems, passim. J. L.
COURT COSTUMES OF LOUIS XIII. OF FRANCE (3rd S. iv. 186.)-A. D. will find numerous engravings of the costumes he wishes to see in that valuable work by J. Malliot, Recherches sur les Costumes &c. des anciens Peuples, in 3 vols. 4to. The French costumes, from the fifth century to the seventeenth inclusive, will be found in the third volume. F. C. H.
PRAYERS FOR THE DEAD (3rd S. iv. 188.)-It is certain that the Catholic Church has always prayed, and still prays, for the souls of the faithful departed. What Daillé probably referred to as abolished, were probably certain prayers for the Saints, which, though unobjectionable when rightly understood, were liable to be mistaken. If we occasionally find mention of masses and prayers offered for the saints already in bliss, they must be understood as offered for this end, that by honouring the saints, we may cause them, through the mercy of God, to become intercessors for us. Such prayers have never been general, and are never now used. The saints, properly speaking, are those souls already in heaven; but those in purgatory may also be considered saints, as they are sure of heaven when their period of suffering is finished. This may also serve to explain the expression of praying for the saints in
F. C. H.
RIDDLE (3rd S. iv. 188.) –
"My first invisible as air," &c.
The word Gas-light appears to me to answer pretty satisfactorily the proposed riddle. Is it the right solution?
F. C. H.
STONEHENGE (3rd S. iv. 248.) - Lieut.-Col. Francis Wilford contributed many articles to the Asiatic Researches at the end of the last century; but in some of these he admits that he had been misled by the Pundits he employed, who professed to find in Indian history and literature explanations of archæological problems of Europe which he was anxious to solve. Even Sir William Jones was deceived in this way. Wilford discovered the imposture in 1804, so that his prior writings must be read with caution. Sufficient is now known of Indian literature to make it highly improbable that the origin of Stonehenge is even alluded to therein. See his Essays on the Sacred Isles of the West, (As. Res. ix. 32; x. 27; xi. 11, 1805-1810), but do not implicitly trust them. T. J. BUCKTON. REGIOMONTANUS (3rd S. iv. 110, 178.)- According to Baldi, the authority for Müller is Junctinus (Giuntino). The archives of Ratisbon will perhaps give nothing: for it is not clear that he was actually consecrated. It is certain that the Pope enticed him to Rome to reform the calendar, and designated him-this is the word of Riccioli and Gassendi-Bishop of Ratisbon. Baldi has fatto; Paul Jovius has creatus. Melchior Adam does As not make any allusion to the circumstance.
Thus does the English language (and your he died not long after his arrival at Rome, and correspondent) bend to the wishes of M.
we know nothing of the length of his last illness,
DICKENS AND THACKERAY (3rd S. iv. 207.) The challenge of M. is accepted. And first as to Dickens:
"Home is made happier by the works of Dickens; Of one and all. -the sire, the 'little chickens,' Also their dam'
the joyous pulse he quickens." Next, exercising the rhymer's license, and not being nice to a letter, you have the following lines on the limner of " The Four Georges":
"Ah! blest relief from pages soft and sacchary;
ticulars that I expect soon to see the other extreme of thread-paper heads, and no hoops; and from appearing like so many blown bladders, we shall look like so many bodkins stalking about."
I will only remark that crinoline does not seem much of an advance upon Mrs. Delany's prognosTERES ATQUE ROTUNDUS. "MILLER OF THE DEE" (3rd S. iv. 49, 78.) If any of your correspondents are at a loss to know the origin of the song of the "Miller of the Dee," they will find it one of the songs sung by Justice Woodcock in Bickerstaff's opera of Love in a Village, produced at Covent Garden in 1762; and which when sung by Quick was always much applauded. O. T.
LADY'S DRESS (3rd S. iv. 238.)- Your correspondent will find the "hoop" in vogue earlier than he observes, viz. in a letter from Mrs. Delany in Jan. 1744 (her Autobiography in 3 vols. 1861, vol. ii. p. 449), she says: "There is such a variety in the manner of dress that 1 do not know what to tell you is the fashion. The only thing that seems general are hoops of an enormous size; and most people wear vast winkers to their heads. They are now come to such an extravagance in these two par
chancellor, therefore, remains as it formerly ex- circumstances of the case, is interesting and isted, though some of his duties are taken away. | valuable: He still attends the court on certain occasions, such as on entering into office, and on the pricking of sheriffs: and, if I remember rightly, in the former case a motion of course is still made before him. EDWARD Foss.
JOSEPH HARPUR, LL.D. (3rd S. iv. 190), a member of Trinity College, Oxford, was a native of Dorsetshire, though his parents resided near London, and was born about the year 1773. His degrees are correctly stated from the list of Oxford graduates; and having been induced, by domestic circumstances it is supposed, to resume his residence in the University about the year 1806, he held for many years the office of DeputyProfessor of Civil Law. He died at the age of forty-eight, October 2, 1821, owing to the result of an attack of paralysis; and was interred in the churchyard of St. Michael's parish, Oxford, in which he had lived. The full title of his work is, An Essay on the Principles of Philosophic Criticism applied to Poetry, London, 4to, 1810; and it was favourably thought and spoken of at the time of its publication: but from the abstruse nature of the subject, and perhaps in some degree from the little pains taken to force it into notice-being the production of a retired scholar, personally known only to those with whom he was it has gradually sunk into oblivion.
POTHEEN (3rd S. iv. 188.)-Your correspondent J. L. has clearly identified the goatish wine of Julian with the potheen of our days.
The latter was a Celtic invention, and the emperor had been too long conversant with Gaul not to know and appreciate its inspiring effects.
There has however, in all ages, been another side even to this question; and Dioscorides, with that disregard for poetry which happily distinguishes his profession, takes care to point out this other side, viz. the condition of the morrow when the inspiration of the night has fled :—
MIRABEAU A SPY (3rd S. iv. 226.)—It is per fectly well known that, in 1786, Mirabeau was sent by the French minister, Calonne, on a secret mission to Berlin. While there he compiled the materials for a work that he published on his rereturn, De la Monarchie Prussienne. There also appeared about the same time, anonymously, an Histoire Secrète de la Cour de Berlin. This, which is no doubt the work alluded to by Lord Malmesintimate-bury, has been very generally attributed to MiraJ. W. beau; and it is entered as such in the Catalogue of the London Library. The only thing that ap pears to be new in the passage extracted by BOOKWORM is, that the letters are there said to have been addressed to Talleyrand. Adolphus, in his Biographical Memoirs (vol. ii. p. 97), describes the work as consisting of letters written by Mirabeau to Calonne. And this is much more probable. Calonne was at that time minister. Talleyrand was, as yet, only agent of the clergy. MELETES.
"My dear John,
April 20th, 1827. "Many thanks for your most friendly letter. Things have taken a turn, to me very distressing. The result in short is, that I am a peer; and for the present, without office. The Rolls [in England] I declined, not being able to reconcile myself to act against the feeling of a great number of the profession against the appointment of an Irishman, or rather Irish barrister. Tell my friends not to question me, or to be surprised. Remember me affectionately to [Peter] Burrowes. Y", my dear John, always, "W. C. PLUNKET."
H. C. C. BIBLE TRANSLATORS (3rd S. iv. 228.)-X. Y. Z. will find several particulars which may guide his inquiries respecting the translators of the Scriptures, in the preface to A Glossary to the Obsolete and Unusual Words and Phrases of the Holy Scriptures in the Authorised English Version, published by Wertheim and Macintosh in 1850. J. D.
LORD PLUNKET (3rd S. iii. 167, 259.)—I have (with many other autographs) the original of the following unpublished letter, which, from the
The friend to whom the foregoing letter was written, was the late John Lloyd, Esq., of Dublin, one of the judges of the Insolvent Court. ABHBA.
BOOKWORM has done good service by calling attention to the curious note respecting Mirabeau
“ Καὶ τὸ [πόμα] καλούμενον δὲ κοῦρμι, σκευαζόμενον | in Lord Malmesbury's Diary and Correspondence, δὲ ἐκ τῆς κριθῆς, ᾧ καὶ ἀντὶ οἴνου πόματι πολλάκις | but I confess I much doubt the accuracy of the χρῶνται, κεφαλαλγές ἐστι καὶ κακόχυμον, καὶ τοῦ νεύρου story. One thing is quite certain, Mirabeau was βλαπτικόν.” — ii. 110. employed by the Minister Calonne, and it is very unlikely he should have been in correspondence with Talleyrand so early as 1786 or 1787, or that Talleyrand should have said, "C'était avec moi qu'il correspondait." If Lord Malmesbury's accuracy is to be depended upon, Talleyrand's French would seem to be as faulty as his memory. Perhaps it is an error of the writer who transcribed the note for Lord Malmesbury when editing his father's papers. E. C. B.
SERJEANTS-AT-LAW (3rd S. iv. 180, 252.) — In the succession of serjeants, from 1786 to 1820, E. has omitted Sir Archibald Macdonald, when he
QUOTATION (3rd S. iv. 247.) The hymn "Nearer, my God, to Thee!" referred to by MR. PEACOCK is the first verse of a hymn by Sarah Flower Adams, a musical composer, and authoress of several poetical pieces and criticisms. She died in 1848. It may be found in most collections of hymns variously curtailed: five verses are given in Roundell Palmer's Book of Praise, and six in Christian Lyrics, 1862. SOLSBERG. This hymnal prayer, Nearer, my God, to Thee!" was the united production of the sisters Flower, the accomplished and interesting daughters of the late eccentric but excellent Benjamin Flower, who many years ago originated, and for many years ably conducted, The Cambridge Intelligencer. Of the devout hymn in question, one sister (Mrs. Brydges Adams, I believe now surviving,) was authoress, while her sister set it to music. Happening on Sunday to hear it admirably sung by a chapel choir, I may freely add that the tune is as devotional as the prayer is pure and poetical. S. C. FREEMAN. [We have to thank several other correspondents for replies to this query. — ED.]
VITRUVIUS IN ENGLISH (3rd S. iv. 148.) Although not myself aware of the existence of this work, I may suggest to W. P., in case he is not already aware of the fact, that the library at St. Mary's College, at Oscott, contains nearly, if not quite, all the editions ever published of this author. T. C. BOSCOBEL.
THE BHAGAVADGITA, ETC. (3rd S. iv. 166, 238.) I thank MR. BUCKTON for his obliging answer to my queries; it will be very useful to me. I have been informed by a friend that the Bhagavadgita is the History of Vishnu in verse.
Among my Turkish curiosities is a bottle of
black pomade (said to be used for the beard), strongly scented with attar of rose, which in my lists goes by the name of khokhol. As I know nothing at all about Eastern languages, I will ask if this word is allied to kohhl, which MR. BUCKTON gives as the proper way of spelling what I have as kohol? JOHN DAVIDSON.
WASHINGTON FAMILY (3rd S. iv. 231.)-A pedigree of Washington of Garesdon, in Wiltshire, descended from Laurence Washington (ob. 1619), Registrar of the Court of Chancery, brother to Robert Washington, of Sulgrave, co.. Northampton, Esq., and great-grandfather of Elizabeth, heiress of the Garesdon family, the wife of Robert Lord Ferrers of Chartley (whereby the baptismal names of Laurence and Washington have been derived to several of the Earls Ferrers), will be found in the Stemmata Shirleiana (p. 132), derived "from Baker's Northamptonshire, monumental inscriptions, and deeds penes W. Com. Ferrers." J. G. N.
CPL. will find some interesting comments on Baker's Washington pedigree in The Washingtons, a tale by the Rev. J. N. Simpkinson. Some ancestors of George Washington lie buried in Brington church, and the learned and courteous rector would perhaps be able to afford CPL. some information respecting the Northamptonshire branch of the family.
SIGABEN AND THE MANICHEANS (3rd S. iv. 169.) As I have not observed that any answer has been given to the Query "Who was Sigaben?" I throw out the suggestion that the person meant is Euthymius Zigabenus, a monk of the twelfth century, who compiled a Greek Commentary upon the Four Gospels, and upon the Book of Psalms; he also wrote a controversial work, entitled Panopliu Orthodoxa Fidei adversus Omnes Hæreses, in which, probably, the passage sought for by your querist F. H. will be found. I have not the book within reach. Most likely it is contained in the Bibliotheca Patrum. H. COTTON.
the late Record Commission, but most unaccountably separated from the fifth and sixth Books (already printed by Mr. Brewer), he has preferred first completing this celebrated invective against Hubert Walter, the then Archbishop of Canterbury, his officials, witnesses, and dependents-unquestionably the bitterest of the author's works. Mr. Brewer's account of this remarkable attack by a distinguished ecclesiastic upon his Primate, will be read with considerable interest. This treatise is followed by Giraldus's Dialogus de Jure et Statu Menevensis Ecclesic-a document of considerable value for a history of the main events in the life of Giraldus; and especially of his long and arduous struggle in defence of his own election, and the independence of St. David's,-which has been already printed by Wharton, Leland, &c., but never so completely as in the present edition of it. The Life of St. David, likewise published by Wharton, concludes the volume; which is as creditable to Mr. Brewer's editorship-and that is saying much-as any of the preceding volumes for which the public are indebted to his learning and judgment.
NOTES AND QUERIES.
JACOB GRIMM. the death of Jacob Grimm, one of the most profound, if Europe has sustained a great loss by not the most profound, scholar of this age, and who has exercised an influence over the minds of philologists and antiquaries, which will long bear fruit. Jacob Grimm was born at Hanau in Hesse-Cassel, on January 4, 1785, and at 10 o'clock in the evening of September 20, he died from a stroke of apoplexy, in his seventy-ninth year, having passed the day at his desk, and in the unimpaired enjoyment of his intellectual and physical powers. We have not space to enumerate the many important works we owe to his many-sided knowledge, clear-sighted intellect, and indefatigable industry. The delightful Kinder und Haus Mährchen (in which he was associated with his brother in letters as in blood, Wilhelm Grimm, and of which a well-worn copy of the second edition (1819), in three quaint little almaine quartos, is still one of our pet books) was one of the first. His Deutsche Grammatik appeared in 1819, and a third edition of it in 1840. The Deutsches Rechts Altherthümer appeared in 1828, and was followed in 1835 by his Deutsche Mythologie. The second edition of this encyclopædia of Folk Lore (so different from the first that he who is wise will keep both upon his shelves) was published in 1844. menced his Deutsche Worterbuch, and his friends observe In 1852 he comit as a beautiful coincidence that the last word in the last published part is fromm bination of religion and secular piety. Fortunately, as it that peculiar term for a comis understood, the materials for the completion of this great work are in such a state as to give good hopes of its being brought to a satisfactory close. There is a pleasing portrait of this great scholar and good man engraved by Voight of Berlin, from a drawing by Schmidt.
SOUTH KENSINGTON ART TRAINING SCHOOLS. - The new buildings for these Schools, which will come into use on the 5th of October, are the first permanent buildings which have been provided for the National Art Training Schools. The buildings heretofore occupied by the Art Classes have all been of a temporary kind. In the first instance, in 1837, when the School of Design was instituted, the classes were held in rooms, on the second floor in Somerset House, once occupied by the Royal Academy; and now by the Office for the Registration of Births, Marriages, and Deaths. Next, the classes met in 1852 in Marlborough House, where the Queen, at the intervention of H.R.H. the Prince Consort, graciously permitted a training school for teachers for the Schools of Art throughout the country to be first established. Then in wooden buildings at South Kensington, to which place the Training Schools were removed in 1856.
[3rd S. IV. Oct. 3, '63.
put in the old saying, "There is nothing new under the THE CASKET PORTRAIT.-Whatever faith we may sun," it is clear photographers contrive to get something novelties, and a most effective one it is. It is viewed by new out of it. The Casket Portrait is the last of these transmitted light, and consists of a solid cube of crystal in the interior of which is seen the portrait as a perfectly solid bust or miniature piece of statuary imbedded in the thus produced, and very justly, a degree of reality and centre of the crystalline cube, and possessing the most perfect and exquisite relief. The inventors claim for the effect graphs; while the Casket Portrait appears only the more beauty altogether unattainable by the ordinary photo-. perfect the more minutely it is examined. We will not endeavour to explain how this effect is produced by the combination of two photographic images on the two flintglass prisms of which the crystalline cube is composed, but confine ourselves to stating that the manner in which ing and effective. It has another claim to favour, for, we the Casket Portrait stands out in relief is at once strikpresume, nothing can affect its durability.
MONTFAUCON, L'ANTIQUITE EXPLIQUEE.
FLAXMAN'S ACTS OF MERCY. Original edition.
Wanted by Mr. R. Simpson, 10, King William Street, Charing Cross, W.C.
THE HOLIE HISTORIE OF OUR LORD AND SAVIOUR JESUS CHRISTS'S NA-
Wanted by Rev. T. A. Holland, Poynings Rectory, Hurst-
Engravings of Louis XVI. of France, and Gen. Bernadotte,
Notices to Correspondents.
D. DALE. Forby, in the Appendix to his Vocabulary, suggests that the correct orthography should be (not humble-pic) but umble-pie, without the aspirate. The old books of cookery give receipts for making umble pics.
S. Y. R. William Stewart Rose died on April 30, 1843. A biographical notice of him is prefired to his translation of The Orlando Furioso in Bohn's Illustrated Library.
M. H. R. The Spanish proverb,“ Hell is paved with good intentions," is explained in our 1st S. vi. 520.
ANTIQUUS. statement" that Charles II. danced in the cathedral of St. Paul's during We doubt whether Mr. Ainsworth has any authority for his the Plague.'
preceding article, for " Charniquy" read" Charnizay."
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