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J.D. CAMPBELL will find in Sherwood's EnglishFrench Dictionary, printed with Cotgrave, 1660. Fast, ferme, stable, fixe; aussi, viste, vistement.
GREEK PRONUNCIATION (3rd S. iv. 147.) — The term aspirate, although sanctioned by the highest authorities, is not the best representative of Sarea, rough, as applied to p, x, and e, in opposition to vixa, smooth, as applied to π, к, and 7. In modern Greek is f, x is the German ch, and is the English th in think, theme (Burnouf, 2; Macri, 17-20). With respect to ancient Greek, a comparison of proper names with Hebrew will furnish the sound of these letters; take for example the names of those in most common use, as Japheth 'lápel, Ham = Xàμ, in Hebrew □ where the sound of is the Greek x, as heard in the Scotch loch, in the Welsh sach, or the Spanish j in Gijon. It is certainly not the kh in brickhouse, which is only an approximate sound. Seth = je, Ruth Poe, Jericho = 'Iepix. The Hebrew is also represented by x in Lamech (Adex), and Canaan (Xavad). The relation of th to t, and of ph to p, is shown in Hebrew by inserting a dot, as n th becomes ♬t, and ph becomes p, by means of this diacritical point.* In Arabic, letters of one organ are sometimes merely distinguished by a point. The in Greek is the Arabic ;; it has no p, but in Persian and Turkish the p is represented by adding two dots to the Arabic b ?, thus .. Thet, is distinguished from th by one more dot, thus; whilst the rough h is in Arabic >, the German ch is with one dot above, and our j is 7
with one dot below. The Penny Cyclopædia (art. "Alphabet," i. 379, 380), gives diagrams of the relations of the alphabetical letters according to their organic pronunciation, with special reference to p, x, and e. The sounds represented by x and were unknown to the Romans, as they are to the Italians and French, but Fabius was written in Greek Φάβιος, Furius Φούριος, Flaminius Φλαμίνιος, Fulvius Poxovtos. The geographical words Bithynia Βιθυνία, Thyatira Θυάτειρα, Philadelphia Φιλαδέλφεια, Ephesus Lperos, Phrygia puya, Pamphylia Пaupuxía, Thrace Opán, Corinth Kópuveos, will suffice to show the traditional pronunciation of and 6, whilst that of x is imperfectly preserved in chronos, Chios, chaos, chasm, chorus, chrysm, &c., it being foreign to the English.
T. J. BUCKTON. There is no reason to suppose that the modern Greeks have abandoned the ancient pronunciation It is singular that the right pronunciation of th has been lost both by the German and Spanish Jews, the former using s and the latter t.
of either x, , or e. The first is stronger than an aspirate, it is a guttural; neither is nor aspirated, but simply pronounced as the English ƒ and th (in thin). The Greeks give to the @ the sound of our th, in that; and there is good reason to believe this was the old classical pronunciation.
iv. 168.)- This office has not been held by a LORD HIGH TREASURER OF ENGLAND (3rd S. single individual since the beginning of the reign of George I., its duties having been invariably executed by Lords Commissioners, the number of whom at present is five. In the previous reigns, beginning in that of James I., commissioners were also frequently appointed; indeed, there were very few Lord Treasurers, the last two of whom were Harley, Earl of Oxford, and Charles, Duke of Shrewsbury, in the reign of Queen Anne. The first Lord Commissioner is always the Prime the Chancellor and Under-Treasurer of the ExMinister. If a peer, the second Commissioner is chequer. If the first Commissioner is a commoner, he till this reign held the office of Chancellor of the Exchequer also, as Sir Robert Walpole, William Pitt, George Canning, and Sir Robert Peel; but since the accession of the pre
sent Queen, the office of Chancellor of the Exchequer has always been separated from that of the Prime Minister, whether noble or commoner; Sir Robert Peel, in his administration of 1841, setting the example.
The Lord Treasurer was formerly the Chief Judge of the Court of Exchequer, and would be now if that office was revived; but the Chancellor of the Exchequer is now the Chief Judge on the equity side of the Court. On the day of his being sworn into office, he takes his seat on the Bench, and some motion of course is made before him. He has even been called upon occasionally to exercise his judicial powers. In 1732 Sir Robert Walpole actually heard a cause, in which Chief Baron Reynolds and Baron Comyns were of one opinion, and Barons Carter and Thompson were of the contrary, and gave his decision in a learned speech. Again, in 1735, an equal division of the ordinary Court obliged him to pursue the same course.
SCOTT'S "LAY of the Last Minstrel” (3rd S. iv. 163.)-In justice to the memory of Sir Walter Scott, I would wish to say that the errors complained of by your correspondent, MR. JOHN HENLatin poem by John Jonston, quoted in the fifth NING, in the text and punctuation of the little note to the first canto of The Lay of the Last Minstrel, are altogether those of the printer. There is now lying before me the sixth edition of the Loy (Longman, 1807, 8vo), in which, at p. 223, Jonson's lines appear correctly printed, with the exception of two errors in the punctuation. W.
THE BALMORAL "MEMORIAL CAIRN" (3rd S. iv. 45.) There is a curious resemblance between the appropriate quotation from the Wisdom of Solomon on this monument, and the inscription on the tomb in Père la Chaise of Clementine Cuvier, only daughter of the eminent naturalist, who is also interred in the same grave. I copied it a few years ago, and now perhaps it may interest some of your readers. Malle. Cuvier was a lady of the very highest accomplishments, and died Sept. 28, 1828, aged 22: —
"Ayant peu vecu sur la terre elle y a rempli la course d'une longue vie, car son âme était agréable à Dieu." W. H. WILLS.
I KNOW NO MORE THAN THE POPE (3rd S. iii. 470, 517.) — Whence I got it I do not remember; but for more than thirty years I have taken this phrase to be a corruption of "I know no more than of the Pope." Such a disavowal might very well become a proverb at the time when the knowledge was not a very safe acquisition. A. DE MORGAN.
THEODOLITE (3rd S. iv. 51.) I would suggest, with diffidence, to PROFESSOR DE MORGAN, that the first syllable of this word may be only the definite article. The passage he cites from the Pantometria, "instrument called Theodelitus," ought perhaps to have been printed "instrument called the Odelitus." Or Thomas Digges may have been misled by such a mistake occurring in a previous book or manuscript. The transition from alhidada to odelitus is very intelligible. A similar merger of the article in the word occurs (though in two different languages) when people speak of "the Alcoran," "the Alhambra," &c. Is the first syllable in alhidada the Arabic article? And is the original name of the instrument hidada? STYLITES.
BOCKART, OR BOSHART (3rd S. iv. 109, 157.) — A reference to my communication, "Samuel Bochart," in "N. & Q." 2nd S. xii. 89, will explain to your correspondent H. B. my authority for supposing that the ch in Bochart's name was pronounced hard. In the little book therein alluded to, Bochart has written his name in Hebrew characters, with the hard guttural, thus, . Had he pronounced the ch as in French, would he not have written it with i, sh? THOMAS H. CROMEK.
COATBRIDGE: STRANGE PRODUCTION FROM A BLAST FURNACE (3rd S. iv. 146.)—A specimen of spun glass was some years ago given to me as taken from a furnace in Staffordshire. I suspect the strange production alluded to, though looking like flakes of cotton, may be fine spun glass. Such substances, I apprehend, are produced by the hot
POTWALLOPING FRANCHISE (3rd S. iv. 168.) The case of Taunton referred to by Defoe will be found in Douglas's Reports, i. p. 371, and the right of election was "in the inhabitants within the said borough, being potwallers, and not receiving alms or charity;" and it was agreed before the committee, that a potwaller is a person "who furnishes his own diet, whether he be a householder or only a lodger; but it is necessary that such potwaller have a legal parochial settlement in the borough." It was doubtful whether apprentices would come under the designation and have a right to vote. Where the town was not disfranchised, the right The same franchise was at Honiton and Ilchester.
still exists in favour of all voters who were entitled on June 7, 1832, and have not been omitted from the registry (except on account of relief) for two years in succession. The right of voting at Preston was in "all the inhabitants." The particular potwalling franchise was not specified in any act of parliament or charter. To prevent occasional voters, the act of 26 Geo. III. c. 100, required potwallers like householders to have answered the description for six calendar months previous to the day of election.
WM. DURRANT Cooper.
I am aware that persons enjoying this franchise have been called "Potwallopers," but it is an error. The true name is "Potwallers," and signifies a person who occupies a room in which is a
pot-wall; namely, a wall containing a chimney, affording a convenience for cooking his victuals. J. G.
T. B. is under a singular mistake in referring to an universal franchise in Greenock. Previously to the enactment of the Scottish Reform Statute, 2 Will. IV. c. 65. Royal burghs only had any share in returning Scottish representatives to Parliament, and Greenock neither is nor ever was one of them. By that statute it first acquired the right—a member being given to it exclusively; but no distinction was made as to electors between it and other towns, these being occupants of houses worth 10%. a-year. G.
PETER PAUL RUBENS (3rd S. iv. 169.)- Rubens was knighted by Charles I. of England, but never received the Order of the Golden Fleece. As far as I remember, the escutcheon on the stone which covers his grave, in the church of St. Jacques at Antwerp, is not ornamented with the badge of any order of knighthood whatever.
"THE INTREPID MAGAZINE" (3rd S. iv. 110.)— The Intrepid Magazine was projected by John Fazakerly, Esq., the celebrated collector of the writings by modern Latin poets; whose library was sold by Mr. King, Jun., at No. 36, Tavistock Street, Covent Garden, Feb. 9, 1801, and nine following days, the entire collection realising only 3751. 10s. 7 d. Mr. Fazakerly, who died in May, 1796, at Prescot in Lancashire, printed privately Poemata Varia in 1781; the original (or his own) portion of which was remarkable for violent invective against King George III. and his minister Lord North. The Intrepid Magazine alluded to is a work also violent in its contents, and which its title fully justifies ; it proceeded no further than the first volume. The volume, besides the engraving named in your Note, should also contain another etching of the first John Stockdale (or "Lying Jack," as he was termed on another large etching), when "at his devotions" before the magistrates for infringement of copyright. T. L. SERMON AGAINST VACCINATION (3rd S. iii. 350; iv. 160.) The answer given is scarcely to the point. The Query relates to vaccination, introduced by Dr. Jenner in 1798. The answer to inoculation, brought into England by Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, about 1720.
The objection to vaccination is founded on the introduction, into the human constitution, of a disorder incident to one of the lower animals. The objection to inoculation was, that it was a presumptuous interference with the ordinary course of nature, and implied a distrust of God's providence. T. C.
MAGICAL CRYSTALS OR MIRRORS (3rd S. iv. 108, 155.)-In Sir Henry Ellis's Original Letters (Third Series, vol. iii. p. 41, Letter 268), is a letter from "the Abbot of Abingdon to Secretary Cromwell," under Henry VIII.; "that he had taken a Priest into custody, who travelled about practising Conjuration":
"Right honorable and my very singuler good Maister, in my mooste humble wyse I comende me unto you. It shall please your Maistership to be advertesed that my Officers have taken here a Preyste, a suspecte parson; and with hym certeyn bokes of conjuracions, in the whiche ys conteyned many conclusions of that worke; as fynding out of tresure hydde, consecrating of ryngs with stones in theym, and consecrating of a christal stone wherein a chylde shall lokke, and se many thyngs."
NUMISMATIC QUERIES (3rd S. iv. 28.)-Under this head, HermentRude asks for some information which I am unable to give; but I write to ask what the piece marked (b) in her Query, and a similar piece I am about to describe, really were? My own impression is, that they were medals provided at certain places where the Virgin was held in special veneration.
One side bears in the margin twelve stars in four groups of three each, and a lily between each
row of three. In the field there are four lilies
joined to as many curves, turned inward. Among these are five stars thus, so that two rows of three each are formed. No letters of any kind. The other side bears in the centre a peculiarly formed crown, with lilies at the top; and upon the front, the word AVE in medieval or Gothic characters. A ring surrounds the crown; and the legend, begun in the centre, is given more at length in the margin in similar characters:
"+AVE: MARIA : GRASIA*: PLENA : DN." "Hail Mary, full of grace, the Lord." There was not room for the tecum, which may, therefore, have been left out.
The peculiar excellence of the design and workmanship of my medal makes me wish to know its probable source. Where, and when made? It is of thin brass, in good preservation, and a trifle larger than one of our last invented halfpence.
A few words about these ecclesiastical medals or tokens in "N. & Q." might do good, and I am glad HERMENTRUDE has given me an occasion for this remark. I hope some numismatist will answer her Queries-and mine. B. H. C.
PROVERB (3rd S. iv. 87.)-There is no necessity for a reference to Phædrus to show that the
will of the driver and the driven are ever at variance. The proverb quoted by SCHIN as similar is so only in appearance; as a reference to Suidas will show that it is applied to those whose * Grasia, so spelled.
Your correspondent W. P. will find copies of these bills from 1657 to 1758, and for 1823 and 1825, in the library of the corporation of London, with the names of the parishes. They included the city of London, the city and liberties of Westminster, the borough of Southwark, and thirty-four outparishes in Middlesex and Surrey; but St. Luke's, Chelsea, Kensington, St. Marylebone, St. Pancras, and Paddington, part of the metropolis, were not included.
W. D. C. SERJEANTS' RINGS GIVEN TO THE SOVEREIGN (3rd S. iv. 180.)-The names, dates, and mottoes, of serjeants' rings are preserved in the Reports. JAMES KNOWLES. BIBLICAL QUERIES: PROVERBS XXVI. 8 (3rd S. iv. 9, 96, 137.)-May I add a word to what has been advanced upon the words rendered "as he
that bindeth a stone in a sling"? We must not ridicule the LXX. version, whose translators understood the use of slings as then employed. Our own version seems to be based upon it. The Vulgate, and other versions quoted, do not help us; but MR. BUCKTON seems to forget that although the writer of Proverbs xxvi. 8, knew nothing of Mercury, he may have known something of quicksilver. One important version, the Old Syriac, mentioned by MB. BUCKTON, translates thus: "As a stone in a sling, so is he that honoureth a
fool." And this seems even better than our own translation, which I think could be made more literal than it is: "As the binding of a stone to a sling, so is he that giveth honour to a fool;" i. e. he that gives honour to a fool, acts as if he bound a stone in a sling; or, the man who gives honour to a fool gives it to one who will throw it away. Honour is the stone, and the fool is the sling. After all, perhaps, the word "bind" here denotes merely to put, place, or fix. In Hosea iv. 19, the very same verb is used in the expression "the wind hath bound her up in her wings," a thing which could not be done in the strictly literal sense. That means a sling" must be taken as a fact well sustained, and the etymological fancies of Parkhurst, quoted by A. A.,
cannot refute it. The word is connected with
27, to throw or heap up. The form referred to by A. A. in Psalm lxviii. 28, is quite different in sense, but of the same derivation; it means a company or "collection of persons." I agree with MR. BUCKTON that Gesenius is wrong, and singularly so in relation to this verse, and I am glad to find that Fürst in his Hand-Lexicon, says, "Ausdruck fur Verkehrtheit, Spr. xxvi. 8, wie das Binden des Steines an die Schleuder, wodurch das Fortschleudern verhindert wird:" ("proverbial binding of the stone in the sling,' whereby slingexpression for perversity, Prov. xxvi. 8, 'as the ing is hindered.") Believing with Fürst that our translation nearly conveys the correct idea, I am less concerned to know whether the "binding of the stone" in the sling was to help or hinder slinging; it is very certain that honour given to a fool is labour lost. I beg to add that the word ?, to which A. A. refers, as in Psalm lxviii. 28, and translated "strength," occurs in Psalm lxviii. 27, of our version, and is not translated "strength" but cil; "the princes of Judah and their council," margin, "or with their company." B. H. C.
BLACK GOWNS AND RED COATS (1st S. v. 332, 574; 3rd S. iv. 138.)-With reference to the note stating on the authority, I have no doubt sufficient authority, of C. W. B. and G. T. D., that this brilliant satire was the production of the late George Cox, M.A., Fellow of New College, Oxford, permit me to add that my copy of it is
lettered Blagden's Satire, and ask an explanation
NOTES AND QUERIES.
"Oh that a hand like mine could wield again A Dighton's pencil, or, O Boone, thy pen!"
ST. DIGGLE (3rd S. iv. 111, 174.) — This is a modern erection made by Mr. Diggle, a builder, in Dover. Your correspondent has been entirely misled as to the saint part of it. T. M.
ST. LUKE THE PATRON OF PAINTERS (3rd S. iii. 188, 234, 274.)-There is a portrait of our Saviour painted, as it is said, by St. Luke, in the cathedral of Moskva. It is an object of great devotion among the Russian people, who prostrate themselves before it, and humbly kiss the frame. Pro fessor C. Piazzi Smyth, who has seen this picture, remarks that
"This Saint Luke appears to have been an early monk of Constantinople, much given to painting sacred pictures, in the extremest Byzantine style. The evangelist St. Luke, no one can doubt who has read the learned and thorough book of Mr. James Smith, of Jordan Hill, on the Voyage of St. Paul, must have been a medical officer in the naval service of Rome."-Three Cities in Russia, vol. i. p. 457.
NOTES ON BOOKS.
Year Books of the Reign of King Edward the First. Edited and Translated by Alfred J. Horwood, of the Middle Temple, Barrister-at-Law. Published by Authority of the Lords Commissioners of Her Majesty's Treasury under the Direction of the Master of the Rolls. (Longman.)
In an able and well-written introduction to this new contribution towards the history of English law, Mr. Horwood shows us, that the spirit which animated the Barons at Runymede, when they declared their unwillingness that the laws of England should be altered, still reigns in the hearts of the people of this country. "We retain our hereditary titles," he says, "where the claimant goes back to a patent or writ dated four or five hundred years ago: our franchises, where the evidences are as old or older; tenures, the peculiarities of which show a very rude and ancient origin; special modes of descent, such as Gavelkind, which divides the land among all the sons, and Borough English, which gives it to the youngest; and other tenures, such as ancient demesne, where our Domesday Book, now nearly eight hundred years old, is the only evidence appealed to." The "Year Books" have long been held in the highest veneration by the highest sages of the law as, to a great extent, the foundation of the "Lex non scripta " of England; and some of them were printed soon after the art of printing was introduced into this country; and, great as are their value to lawyers, they well deserve to be consulted by the general reader for the sake of the historical informaion, the biographical notices, and illustrations of manners
[3rd S. IV. SEPT. 12, '63.
and customs which they contain. The present publication will do good service therefore in two ways; first, by generally, as bases of historical study. making known the present very early "Year Books;" and, secondly, by drawing attention to the Year Books
Sussex Archæological Collections relating to the History and Antiquities of the County. Published by the Sussex Archeological Society. Vol. XV., being Vol. III. of Second Series.
tillers of that soil, and the result is a rich crop of varied If Sussex is a rich field for Archæologists, it is no less and instructive materials for the history of their county true that the Sussex Archæologists are skilful and zealous ductory article on "The Poynings," specially, and of the country generally. A glance at the Halnaker," "The Rivers of Sussex," "Charlton, and the Contents of the present volume will prove this. The intro"The Bonvilles of long more immediately to the former division; while Typographia Sussexiana," be-. "The Services of the Barons of the Cinque Ports at
Charlton Hunts," and "
Coronations," Sir Sibbald Scott's papers on the "Documents found at Cowdray," and Mr. Durrant Cooper's
Sussex Men at Agincourt," belong to the latter, and make up a volume creditable to the Society, and more especially to those members who have contributed to it.
Good Things for Railway Readers. By the Editor of "The Illustrated Railway Anecdote Book." (Lockwood & Co.)
A pleasant volume of pleasant gossip, clearly printed (no small recommendation for a volume for railway reading), and well compiled by one of our best "nappers-up of unconsidered [literary] trifles."
A Descriptive Illustrated Hand-Guide to Tunbridge
A very useful guide to this beautiful spot, and the yet more beautiful country by which it is surrounded.
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