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from his dream, and, according to Harris, , other Divine communication was made started off towards Pennsylvania, not to him, authorizing him to go alone knowing to what point he should go. and bring the chest and deposit it But the Lord directed him, and gained secretly under the hearth of his dwellhim favour in the eyes of just such a ing, but by no means to attempt to look person as was described to him. He into it. The reason assigned by the was married, and had returned. His angel for this removal, was, that some first child had been born, and was now report in relation to the place where about six months old. But Joe had his sacred book was deposited had gone not been altogether obedient to the forth, and there was danger of its being heavenly vision. After his marriage disturbed. According to Harris, Smith and return from Pennsylvania, he be- now scrupulously followed the Divine came so awfully impressed with the high directions. He was already in possesdestiny that awaited him, that he com sion of the two transparent stones laid municated the secret to his father and up with the golden Bible, by looking family. The money-digging propen- through which he was enabled to read sity of the old man operated so power- the golden letters on the plates in the fully, that he insisted upon it that they box. How he obtained these spectacles should go and dig and see if the chest without opening the chest, Harris could was there-not with any view to remove not tell. But still he had them; and it till the appointed time, but merely to by means of them he could read all the satisfy themselves. Accordingly, they book contained. The book itself was went forth in the stillness of night with not to be disclosed until Smith's child their spades and mattocks to the spot had attained a certain age. Then it where slumbered this sacred deposit might be published to the world. In They had proceeded but a little while the interim, Smith was to prepare the in the work of excavation, when the way for the conversion of the world to mysterious chest appeared; but lo! in- a new system of faith, by transcribing stantly it moved and glided along out the characters from the plates and giving of their sight. Directed, however, by translations of the same. This was the the clairvoyance of Joe, they again substance of Martin Harris's communipenetrated to the spot where it stood, cation to me upon our first interview. and succeeded in gaining a partial view He then carefully unfolded a slip of of its dimensions. But while they were paper, which contained three or four pressing forward to gaze at it, the thun- lines of characters, as unlike letters or ders of the Almighty shook the spot, hieroglyphics of any sort, as well could and made the earth to tremble; a sheet be produced, were one to shut up his of vivid lightning swept along over the eyes and play off the most antic moveside of the hill, and burnt terribly around ments with his pen upon paper. The the spot where the excavation was go- only thing that bore the slightest reing on, and again with a rumbling noise semblance to the letter of any language the chest moved off out of their sight. that I had ever seen, was two upright They were all terrified, and fled towards marks joined by a horizontal line, that their home. Joe took his course silently might have been taken for the Hebrew along by himself. On his way home- character 17. My ignorance of the chaward, being alone, and in the woods, racters in which this pretended ancient the angel of the Lord met him clad record was written, was to Martin Harris in terror and wrath. He spoke in a new proof that Smith's whole account voice of thunder, and forked lightning of the Divine revelation made to him shot through the trees and ran along was entirely to be relied on. upon the ground. The terror of the The way that Smith made his tranDivine messenger's appearance instantly scripts and translations for Harris was struck Smith to the earth, and he felt the following:-Although in the same his whole frame convulsed with agony, room, a thick curtain or blanket was as though he was stamped upon by the suspended between them, and Smith, iron hoofs of death himself. In lan- concealed behind the blanket, pretended guage most terrific did the angel up- to look through his spectacles, or transbraid him for his disobedience, and then parent stones, and would then write disappeared. Smith went home trem- down or repeat what he saw, which. bling and full of terror. Soon, however, when repeated aloud, was written down his mind became more composed. An- I by Harris, who sat on the other side

of the suspended blanket. Harris was of being ordered, as we too often are, to told that it would arouse the most ter- act with severity, we should do much rible Divine displeasure, if he should more good than we now do.” attempt to draw near the sacred chest, While the boys, who seemed of the or look at Smith while engaged in the very lowest order of loitering vagabonds, work of deciphering the mysterious were at a distance, I observed a wellcharacters. This was Harris's own ac dressed man with two children join them. count of the matter to me. What other At first, I thought it was to reprove them; measures they afterwards took to tran- but no, it was to share in their cruel enscribe or translate from these metallic tertainment. After waiting till I saw in plates, I cannot say, as I very soon which direction the man proceeded with after this removed to another field of his children, I threw myself in his way, labour where I heard no more of this and was indeed much surprised, when he matter till I learned the book of Mor.

came nearer, to find him so apparently mon was about being published. It respectable. was not till after the discovery of the I asked him if the children he led by manuscript of Spaulding, of which I the hand were his own, when he replied shall subsequently give some account, they were. “And no doubt," continued that the actors in this imposture thought I," you would be very angry if any one of calling this pretended revelation the used them ill.” He said he should. "How book of Mormon. This book, which then is it,” said I, “that you use them professed to be a translation of the so ill yourself ?" He did not appear to golden Bible brought to light by Joseph understand me. " What I mean is," Smith, was published in 1830, to ac continued I, “How can you use them complish which Martin Harris actually so ill as to set them so bad an example mortgaged his farm.

in joining the thoughtless lads you have We must return to the details of this just left in their wanton and cruel sport ?" gross and wicked superstition.

He coloured, and denied having thrown at the birds; but I intimated to him the difficulty of doubting that which our eyes

and expressed my regret that It was about half an hour after mid- he should think so lightly of departing day, and the sabbath sun was brightly from the truth. “ You must allow me,' shining in the south, when on crossing said I, “to speak to you; for I mean it the London Fields, near Hackney, I not unkindly. No doubť

you perceived a band of full-grown, thought-children, but you are likely to be a blessless boys, indulging in a kind of cruelty ing to them, and they to you, just in that was altogether new to me. It con the proportion in which you bring them sisted in throwing young birds into the up to fear God, and to act uprightly. air with a broad piece of paper round Now, sir, you have no more real right to their necks. A hole had apparently been abuse God's creatures, than I have to cut in each paper to put the head of a abuse your children; and you have cerbird through it

. When the feathered tainly no right as their parent to bring objects of this inhuman sport were thrown them up in habits of cruelty. The respecup, incommoded by the paper, and ob- tability of your appearance only makes structed by the resistance of the air, they me the more anxious to convince you could not fly more than twenty or thirty that you have done wrong. I am an older yards without gradually coming to the man than you are, and you must not be ground ; it was therefore impossible for angry with me, therefore make me no rethem to escape from their cruel torment-ply. I hope that you will be more care

While the birds were in the air, ful for the future to set your children a they were pelted with hats, turfs, sticks, better example, and that they will be a and stones. When the lads saw that they blessing to you all your days.” had caught my attention, they removed He walked away with his two little to a distance; but, after some time, falling ones without replying a word; but if he in with a policeman, I directed him to go only feels as kindly towards me as I felt to them, to speak firmly, but kindly to towards him and his children, he will not them, and to bring away the young birds. fail to be benefited by the medicine that The policeman set off on his mission in a a stranger endeavoured to administer to very proper spirit. “Sir," said he, “if him, in a kindly spirit, and with a gentle we could always go to work gently, instead | hand.

GENTLE REPROOFS.-No. II.

THE CRUEL BOYS.

have seen,

love your

ors.

SKETCHES OF THE LINNEAN SYSTEM

OF BOTANY.-No. II.
THIRD CLASS. TRIANDRIA.

crocus of the gardens, (Crocus vernus,) which, though not originally a native of

this country, has become naturalized Whatever department of nature is in- about Nottingham, in the fields and meavestigated, it will be found to be in- dows. It is a native of the south of scribed with the name of the Deity. | Europe, and blows from February, or While the Christian botanist regards earlier, till April, growing about six the earth beautiful with thousands and inches high, the flower purplish, with tens of thousands of flowers, the Chris-reddish veins, and a long tube, the upper tian astronomer gazes on the heavens part with six equal divisions. The spangled with stars. The regular revo- stigma of this pistil is orange, and when lution of the stars, and the annual re this is dried, it becomes the saffron of production of plants and flowers alike the shops, esteemed for the beautiful declare the presence of God. His name, colour it imparts to water, wine, and written on the earth, in the many-co- liqueurs. What is sold in the shops is loured petals of flowers, is inscribed in extensively adulterated with the dried the heavens in revolving “worlds of petals of the common marygold, and fire:” thus the vast and the minute with a much less innocent article, the equally declare His praise.

dried fibres of tough beef, which are Every month has its returning, at- dyed yellow for the purpose. tractions; when January is past, Febru It would be foreign to our purpose ary, if the season be mild, gives addi to enter on the manifold deceits which tional interest to the garden and the are practised in society, save those confield. The snowdrop becomes more nected with the subject on which we abundant; the yellow crocus expands treat, otherwise a wide field would be its petals; the laurustinus blows; the opened for animadversion. Integrity coltsfoot is in flower; and the catkins and truth are costly things; but decepof the alder attract the eye.

tion is at all times odious. The “bread Nor are the sweet lays of the red- of deceit is sweet to a man; but afterbreasted bird to be heard alone; they wards his mouth shall be filled with are mingled with the louder strains of gravel,” Prov. xx. 17. the missel thrush, and the brake-loving It

may be remarked, that the numerblackbird. The bickering rooks are seen ous sorts of crocus, cultivated in gardens, wheeling round the tops of their ac are not merely varieties of this, but difcustomed high trees. The bullfinch, ferent species ; and the meadow saffron the chaffinch, the woodpecker, and the (Colchicum autumnale) does not even woodlark begin to show themselves, and belong to the same genus. to warble forth their varied music; the The meadow foxtail grass, (Alopecuhedge sparrow gives life and cheerful

rus pratenisis,) which ranks in the ness to the hedge of the cottage garden, second order of this class, may be met the flies and gnats increase under the with in every meadow, and sends up sunny trees; the field cricket unbars the its bushy, or foxbrush looking spike in portals of his earthy habitation; and April and May, the husk, with two the burrowing mole throws up the fresh valves, containing a single plant, with mould from his subterranean track. But two pistils and three stamens. This grass we will now pass to our third class, thrives well in a rich soil, neither very Triandria.

wet, nor very dry, and is, perhaps, upon The plants which are arranged in this the whole, as valuable a grass as any class are furnished with us three sta which we possess, having the three great mens," as the term Triandria implies. requisites of quantity, quality, and earThe class is divided into three orders. liness, in a degree superior to any other. 1. Monogynia, with one pistil, as vale- After it has been mown, it shoots freely, rian, saffron, gladiole, iris, hog rush, and the after-math is much relished by club rush, and cotton grass. 2. Digy- all descriptions of farm stock. nia, with two pistils, as most of the A field of mowing grass is an exgrasses, wheat, barley, rye, and oats. tended forest to the myriads of creeping 3. Trigynia, with three pistils, as water things and insects that seek nourishplinks.

ment, shelter, and enjoyment amid its By far the most common and best countless flowery stems. Well has it known plant, of the first order of this been said, “ What a garden has a grassclass, is the common saffron, or spring hopper !"

In the second order of this class is cultivation. For ages, the slave trade ranked the common sugar cane, (Sac- rested as a blot on the forehead of Engcharum officinarum,) one of the most land ; and, though at last, ashamed of interesting plants, from its furnishing an the reproach, twenty millions were given article which, from being a rare luxury, to cleanse away the foul pollution, yet has become almost a necessary in civilized still is the inhuman traffic carried on life. It is a native of Africa, lower by other countries to an extent, it is Asia, the East Indies, and Arabia Felix. to be feared, at least equal to that of It has been long cultivated in tropical former times. Not yet are the lines America and its islands, from which, of the Christian poet become obsolete. indeed, the principal supply of sugar is now derived. Botanists are not agreed

“ Think ye nations, iron hearted,

Lolling at your jovial boards, whether it is indigenous to America ; but Think how many backs have smarted the probability is, that it has been intro

For the sweets your cane affords !” duced there from the old world. The The paper grass of Egypt (Cyperus cane grows to a considerable thickness, papyrus) is an interesting plant of this and bears a loose panicle, or spike of class, growing in the small streams and flowers, similar to our reed, (Arundo neglected shallow water courses of the phragmites.) The sugar is prepared depth of three feet or less, in the vicinity from the juice of the plant pressed out of the Nile. The stalk, eight or ten by means of an appropriate apparatus, feet high, is long and naked, and the and boiled with the addition of quick- glumes are chaffy and tiled (imbricatæ) lime, or potass,

saturate and remove in two rows. It grows in similar places the superabundant acid in the juice, about the rivers Jordan and Euphrates. which would spoil the sugar. The boil. It would appear from Isaiah xix. 7, that ing is repeated in vessels gradually paper was made from this plant before smaller; and during the process, it is he wrote his prophecies, supposed to be necessary to skim off the impurities, and about 700 years B.C.; though Pliny on employ more lime or potass. When the the authority of Varro says, the invenjuice acquires a due consistence, it is tion was found out during the conquest suffered to cool in a proper vessel, and of Alexander the Great, when he foundthe sugar concretes into a crystallized ed Alexandria. Soon after, according to mass. This, after being separated from the same Varro, in the rivalry between the molasses, is sold under the name of Ptolemy and Eumenes to establish their rebrown, or moist sugar; which may be spective libraries, Ptolemy interdicted the purified by boiling with lime and bulo sale of paper, about which time the use of lock’s blood, and thus rendered white; parchment was found out at Pergamos, when it is cast in conical moulds, and and rendered the interdiction nugatory. becomes the loaf sugar of the shops. The Egyptians appear to have made

Medicinally, sugar is nutritive and their paper from the inner bark or rind wholesome, though, when for the pur- of the middle part of the stem, the poses of experiment, Mr. Stark tried to laminæ or layers being separated with an live on it wholly, with the addition of a instrument made for that

purpose. The little bread, he soon became emaciated, strips were commonly about two inches and lost strength. When used in con and a half broad, were squared at the siderable quantities, with cream and the edges, so as to be like ribbons, and were like, it is very fattening; and during the cemented together by their edges, which cane harvest in the West Indies, the were laid just over each other. Similar negroes, who eat the green cane, become strips were then laid transversely to give very stout and plump. It is undoubtedly the proper substance and strength, and a popular error, that sugar and sweet when this was done, a weight was placed things in general injure and destroy the upon them while moist, and they were teeth, though, if the stomach be clogged then left to dry in the sun. or overloaded therewith, and the general The papyrus paper varied in quality health affected, the teeth will suffer in and dimensions, according to the uses to consequence, as will other members and which it was to be applied. It was prinorgans of the body.

cipally manufactured at Alexandria, and We can hardly quit the subject of was a considerable source of riches to the sugar cane without some passing al- the city, so that, in the time of Adrian, lusion to the oppressed race of beings one Fermius boasted, that with his stock who have been mainly employed in its of paper, he could maintain an army.

It is not known with greater certainty hooks of the teasel play on its surface. when the papyrus paper was disused, The cultivation is rather precarious, and than when it was introduced; but it was not unfrequently makes but an indifferin general use in Europe as late as the ent return to thc farmer. end of the fifth century; and in Italy it The way-side plantain (Plantago was partially used till the eleventh; and major) is a very common plant in all in France till the twelfth century, when parts of the three kingdoms, and the paper, made from cotton, entirely super- student may find it in abundance by the seded it. The papal bulls of Sergius 11., sides of paths and roads, and even in the John XII., and Agrapatus II. were writ- crevices of pavements, in the less freten on cotton paper in the eighth and quented streets of towns, as it is not readily ninth centuries.

destroyed by trampling. It sends up a Perhaps it would be impossible to flower spike about six or eightinches high, give a more striking instance of the the blossom being whitish, but inconspiimportance of the new mode of making cuous, the flower cup with four divisions, paper, connected with the introduction and the corolla four-parted, with the marof the art of printing, than by the re- gin bent backwards. The stamens are very lation of the fact that in the last half long, the seed vessel has two cells cut century the Bible Society has spread round, and containing many seeds, of abroad in the earth more than twelve which cage birds are very fond, and millions of Bibles and Testaments, and they are sold in London for that purpose, the Religious Tract Society more than along with groundsel, (Senecio vulthree hundred millions of religious pub- garis.) lications.

The autumn scabious (Scabiosa sucThe only common plant of the third cisa) belongs to this order, and may be order of this class is spring chickweed, found in flower from August till Octo(Montifaontana,) an annual from three ber, in grassy pastures, heaths, and the to six inches high, blowing from April to open glades of woods, where it is much May, with a white blossom on a curved sought by bees, and other honey-eating stem. The flower cup (calix) has two insects. It has an abrupt root, as if it or three leaves ; the corolla one petal of had been cut across, or bitten off; and an irregular form, with five divisions ; | from the very absurd popular notion as the seed vessel has three valves and three to the cause of this peculiarity, it was seeds. It may be met with in spring, formerly supposed to have great mediciupon commons, heaths, and mountains, nal efficacy. Old Gerarde, in his Herbal, and is a very pretty plant of a fresh and published in 1597, says, “It is combeautiful

green
colour.

monly called morsus diaboli, or devil's
bit, of the root (as it seemeth) that is

bitten off: for the superstitious people The plants which are arranged in the hold opinion, that the devil, for the envy fourth class have “four stamens," as the that he beareth to mankind, bit it off, beterm Tetrandria implies. It is divided cause it would be otherwise good for into three orders. 1. Monogynia, with

many uses." one pistil, as burnet and sweet woodroof. Another species of scabious, (S. mus2. Digynia, with two pistils, as toad chata,) which smells strongly of musk, rush and elm. 3. Tetragynia, with is a very common plant in gardens, four pistils, as holly and

pearl wort. flowering biennially, and of varying The fuller's teasel (Dipsacus Fullo- colour, from pale yellowish white, to rum) is a biennial plant of great im- very deep crimson and purplish black. portance in the cloth manufactory, The flowers, like the former, are profor raising a fine nap, no artificial appa- duced in round button-shaped heads, ratus having been found equal to this containing many individual blossoms, natural production, the awns on the which the young botanist must take off head being finely hooked, in which the separately for examination, when he will cultivated differs from the wild species, see four tall stamens, corresponding to (D. sylvestris,) the awns of this being the four divisions of the corolla. straight. These heads are fixed on the The chaff weed (Centunculus minicircumference of a large broad wheel, mus) is one of the smallest plants of this which is made to turn round, and the cloth country, and is not uncommon on the is held in such a manner as to let the heaths about London, and in other parts

FOURTH CLASS.

TETRANDRIA.

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