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OF THE WORKS OF FREDERICK CHOPIN, Revised and corrected by the Composer's Pupil and Friend,

T. A. D. TELLEFSEN. FULL MUSIC SIZE, AND PRINTED FROM ENGRAVED PLATES, Price 8s. por Book, or £4 the Complete Collection

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Its Rise And Progress.


(Continued from page 609.)


Andre Ernest Modeste Gretry was born at Liege on the 11 th of February, 1741. His father, who was of noble blood, but poor, had a situation of first violin in the chapel of the cathedral, into which he got his son received, from the age of six, as a chorister. The child had a pretty voice, which he lost as he grew to manhood; his master had forced him to sing during the period that his voice was breaking. This master, who was extremely brutal, declared that little Gretry was incapable of learning music. The father of Gretry did not share this opinion, and withdrew him from the chapel of the collegiate church, in order to confide his education to a more amiable master, named Leolerc, a professor of ability, with whom the child made rapid progress. As he very early showed an aptitude for composition, a professor of learning was given him—the organist of the cathedral. He had also a master of counterpoint, but as soon as he was able to write music with a certain facility, not desiring to push his studies any further, he applied himself to composition. "I had not enough patience to restrict myself to my lessons of composition," said he in his Essais tur la Musique; "I had a thousand ideas in my head, and the impulse to make use of them was too strong to be resisted. I composed six symphonies; they were executed in our town with success." He was persuaded that it was indispensable he should go and study in Italy, and for this reason he wrote a mass which obtained for him a place in a college at Rome, founded by the citizens of Liege. He then proceeded to the eternal city, in company with a dealer in relics. He studied there under the guidance of Casali, a celebrated contrapuntist, whose advice he failed to follow with sufficient assiduity. A certain number of essays in vocal music, and several symphonic pieces, brought him so fur into prominence that he was intrusted with the task of composing the music for two interludes for the Alberti theatre. An Englishman with a passion for music (Melomane) offered him a pension if he would go with him to London, and Gretry was about to start, when on attache of the French embassy, named Mellon, showed him the opera of Hose et Colas. Monsigny's score taught bini what our Opera Comique was, and inspired him with the determination to give the preference to Paris. On his way he passed through Geneva, and there he had played an old piece, Isdbelle et Gertrude, to which he had written new music, at the same time giving a few lessons to gain a living. It was in Switzerthat Gretry became acquaintedjwith Voltaire, who urged him t proceed immediately to Paris, which he did. There he made haste to study our language, at the Theatre FranQais, where he regularly attended the performances until a libretto should fall into his hands from the skies. He was of a weak constitution, which caused his friends to fear that he would not live long, a prediction which was happily falsified, for Gretry died when he was past 72. After the following fashion did Grimm speak of him :—

"Gretry has a gentle and refined countenance, with the rolling eye and pallid air of a man of genius. lie is an agreeable companion. He has married a young woman with a pair of very black eyes, which is a Btrong step for a man with such a chest; but he is in better health since he has married."

Another contemporary, Bachaumont, in his secret memoirs, ■ays, at the date of December 14, 1769:—

"It is with sorrow that the lovers of the Italian Theatre, who had conceived the greatest hopes in respect of Gretry, that Fergolcse of France, perceive that this composer is on the point of being mown down by the scythe of death in the Sower of his age. His chest is attacked, and the kind of life ho leads contributes not a little to aggravate his condition. It is admitted pretty well on all hands that he was calculated to operate a revolution in the music of that theatre, the coryphccc of which appeir but mediocre persons by the side of this writer."

Such was the great artist whose gradual success I am about to attempt exhibiting to the reader. Gretry had first to surmount

the immense difficulty against which beginners so often struggle in vain—finding a libretto. This first herculean labour accomplished, another scarcely less bard to overcome presented itself— to meet with a manager who would consent to produce the work of an unknown composer. Now this is what happened to Gretry. I have previously said that Phillidor had been unable to find him a poem, and for two years all research was vain, but Gretry at last laid his hand on a librettist, who, like himself, was unknown, and who gave him a libretto founded on a tale of Marmontel, Let Mariages Samnites, which the Italian theatre refused, the subject being considered too serious for the style to which that establishment was devoted. It was then arranged for the Royal Academy of Music, where it was also refused. An attempt was made to produce it at the Prince de Conti's, but the execution was so bad that it was abandoned. One person alone did not share the general opinion, and this was the Comte de Creatz, the ambassador of the King of Sweden. He invited Grc'try to dine with him to meet Marmontel, and placed the two guests 6ide by side. The two men made acquaintance,and the poet, after receiving rather coolly the advances of the composer, was at last won over to him by his witty conversation. Over the dessert he promised him a libretto.

lie kept his word, and on the 20th of August, Le Huron, by Marmontel and Gretry, was enthusiastically received by the public of the Come'die Italienne. The composer had introduced several pieces from the Mariages Samnites. Grimm speaks of the first performance in the following terms, after rendering homage to the good execution of the opera, due principally to Caillot and to M. and Mad. Laruette : —

"M. Gretry is a young man who here makes his first attempt; but this attempt is a masterpiece which, beyond gainsay, raises its author to the highest rank. In all France Phillidor alone could measure weapons with this man. You find in his operas examples of every style."

Not so good a harmonist as Phillidor, and perhans with less facility than Monsigny, he possessed in a high degree the art of stirring the emotions of the crowd. He had imbibed from the society of men of letters, which he esteemed more than that of his colleagues,* a correctness of feeling and a degree of truth in translating the thoughts of his collaborators, which had caused Scdaine to say of him, on hearing Le Huron, "That's the man I want." They were born one for the other, for although the poet was not much of a literary man, and the composer by no means a profound musician, both had vivid feelings, and possessed the art of communicating their impressions to the public.

After Le Huron, Gretry brought out Lucile in January, 1769. The words by the good man Anseaume. After the performance the authors were called for: the composer aloue was named, the poet desired to remnin anonymous. "He is wrong!" cried some one in the pit. This naive observation must have been singularly flattering to Anseaume, who heard it from the prompter's box, where he was modestly ensconced. "This romantic piece' says a contemporary, "exhibited the rare spectacle of an audience melting into tears. The composer has seconded the poet to a marvel, and violently stirred (brise) the hearts of his hearers by ariettes full of passion. Every one left weeping and enchanted ; so that the piece is looked upon as crowned with the greatest success." It is in this opera that the famous quatuor occurs,

"Ou pcut-on etre micux qu'au scin de sa fiunille?"

Le Tableau parlaiU, of which Anseaume also wrote the words, and which was produced on the 20th of September, 1769, placed Gretry completely in the highest place among the usual composers of the Comedie Italienne. This one act, which is still a stock piece, contains some genuine melodies, which rendered Gretry's work popular. All the world knows the duo between Colombine and Pierrot, a little masterpiece of grace and handling.

Gretry produced two operas in 1770, Sylcaiu and Les deux Avares. These two pieces met with success, especially the second, played for the first time December 7. The overture wns much applauded,

* It was to him that Voltaire said, with more malice than truth, "You are witty, sir, and yet you arc a musician." This, by-the-by, was meant as a hit at J J. Rousseau, who was well able to return it.

being phrased in the manner of a musical dialogue, to use the expression of a critic of that day, who discovered in the score piecea of the most profound workmanship. The comic duo, "Prendre ainsi cet or, ces bijoux," is especially worth mentioning. The following year witnessed the first appearance of L'Amitie aVEpreuve, of which the libretto was by Favart. This piece met with;, no success; the authors cut it down into one act, and it was performed in this shape in 1776; they then expanded it again into three, adding three new characters, and it was thus transformed that it appeared in 1786.

Zemire et Azor was played the first time in November, 1771, at the court theatre, in the palace of Fontainebleau, and the work pleased so much that the illustrious audience demanded a second performance. The piece was in four acts, and Marmontel had written the words. It owed its success to the score. The operas of Rameau had advanced musical education in France previous to its development by Gluck. People were beginning to look at something beyond the words of comic operas; as early as 1768, Bachaumont, who makes no pretensions to musical knowledge, wrote, in speaking of a new piece but little admired, Le Nouveau Marie, the words of which were not very good, "The music is by a composer who is little known; and it is known that it is generally under the auspices of the latter that the poem finds acceptance."

Zemire el Azor was performed by the Italian actors, that is to say, by the actors of the Comedic Italienne, on the 16th of December. The town did not fully ratify the decree of the Court. However, every justice was rendered to the work, although with less enthusiasm than at Fontainebleau. The authors were called for; Gretry appeared alone, Marmontel thought it incompatible with the dignity of an academician to show himself. The tumult rose to a frightful pitch. The management then sent forward an Italian actor, much in favour, Carlin, who played the Harlequins, and by a few pleasantries he succeeded in turning aside the wrath of the public, who at last withdrew. In this opera clarionets were heard for the first time in the orchestra of the Conic'die Italienne.

After Zemire et Azor, Gretry wrote several 6cores which turned out less felicitous. L'Ami de la Maison in three acts (1772). The composer had in this piece to contend against a subject somewhat gloomy and cold, but nevertheless acquitted himself with talent by the aid of those simple and touching phrases which sprang up abundantly under his pen, and which were of infallible effect. In short it was still good and genuine music.

Le Magnifique followed L'Ami de la Maison. Sedaine had taken the subject from La Fontaine's tale, or, perhaps, from Lamothe's comedy. There are seventeen pieces in this score, which is in three acts. It was coldly received on its first performance (March4, 1773), but in the course of time the public gave it a better reception. A marvellous valet's song, and the scena of the " Quart d'heure de silence," were especially applauded. Both are little masterpieces of style.

La Rosiere de Salency, acted on the 28th of February, 1774, was the work in which Mad. Trial drew particular attention to herself. In this opera, the air, "Ma barque legere * deserves mention. La Rosiere de Salency was played first in lour acts, and subsequently reduced to three.

La Fausse Magie, in two acts, saw the light on the 1st of February, 1775. The words, the least felicitous of any written by Marmontel, militated considerably against the effect of the work. Among the most pleasing pieces of the score is the duo of la soixantaine.

"Quoi, e'est vous qu'elle prefere!"

Les Fausses Apparences, better known by its second title, L'Amant Jaloux, was first played before the court in 1778, and produced afterwards in Paris on the 23rd of December the same year. Mad. Dugazon obtained great success in it in the part of Jacinthe. There is a pretty trio for three soprani in this opera; it was one of those which Gretry himself preferred, and in which truth of expression is carried to its furthest limits. In reference to this he says, in his Essais sur la Musique, "The part which seems to me to have been most effectively dealt with in the following air, 1 Plus de soeur, plus de frere,' is the suspension after these verses:—

"' Mats si quelque confidente
Malicieuse, impertinente,
Cherchait a tromper mon attente—'

The two following notes, played by the orchestra, ascending by semitones, express the face made by Lopez. I might have made him sing these two notes to the exclamation 'oh!1 but silence is more eloquent." One sees by this passage with what minute care Gretry scanned the verses he was about to set to music. Like the fox in the fable, regretting in his heart that he was not a profound musician, he compassed the design of making posterity acknowledge that the qualities which shone in him were those which alone deserved to be prized.

After having arranged the music of a burlesque drama, in four acts, entitled Matroco, he sought to prevent its production, fearing a failure. Retarded, in the first instance, by the illness of Mad, Trial, the first performance did not take place till 1778. Ln Evenemens Imprimis, a piece in three acts, of which Hele,* the author of L'Amant Jaloux, had written the words, appeared on the 13th of November, in the year 1779. A few pretty airs obtained for it what is conventionally called a tuceis tfestime. Aucassin et Nicolette, in four acts, and in verse, by Sedaine, met with the same fate, despite the talent of Mad. Dugazon, who was, according to contemporary testimony, charming in the part of Nicolette. She was obliged to yield it to another for some time, owing to her health, but she resumed it in 1782, at which period the authors reduced their work to three acts. The pieces which pleased the most were the first air of Nicolette, tho duo of the sentintlles, and the arietta of the shepherd. It is worthy of remark, that works in four acts have seldom held their ground at the Opera Comique; it has always been found necessary to cut them down into three, ere the public would adopt them completely,

Cqlinette a. la Cour, a lyrical comedy In three acta, hj Loordet de Sauterre,! produced the 1st of January»l?8i, added little to ike glory of Grttry. L'Embarras des Richesses, by the same author, was equally wanting in success. The title supplied the wits of the day with an opportunity of making fu* at the expense of the author. The following"Irerse/Wre'prMed aboal it,: — v ^

"On donne a l'Opera
L' Emharras des Richesses
Mais 11 rapportcra,
Je croix, fort peu d'especcs.
Cet opera comiquo . ■

Ne reussira pas,

Quoique l'auteur lyriquc ".

Ait fait son emharras, >* ^»

Emharras d'interets, ^ •

Embarras de paroles,

Emharras de bullets,

Embarras dans les roles,

Enfin, de toute sorte,

On ne voit qu'embarras;

Mais allez a la porta

Vous n'en trouverez pas."

La Caravane du Caire, represented before the court on the 30th of October, 1783, was more favourably received. The overture is one of Gretry's best. A fine chorus "Apres un long voyage." La Caravane was played in Paris on the 16th of January, in the following year. A somewhat singular incident occurred on the occasion. The quarrel between the Gluckists and the Piccinists was about this time at its highest pitch. The partisans of the Italian composer fancied that they could detect in Gretry's manner a certain relationship with that of Gluck. Both composers proposed to themselves, before all else, to arrive at truth in dramatic expression. The Piccinists formed a league to hiss the new opera. The police put a stop to the frightful uproar occasioned by this cabal, by turning the ringleaders of the riot out of the theatre, and the Cararate was allowed to proceed on its prosperous march from performance to performance.

On the 18th of March, 1784, appeared Theodore et Pcojsm, a score in three acts, the words of which were by Desforges. It met with no success, and Gretry withdrew it after the first per

* This Hele, or d'Helc, was an Englishman. He came to Paris in 1770. Being in a state of great destitution, he was obliged to borrow a few clothes from a friend in order to make a decent appearance in public He had recourse to the assistance of others for the verses in his operas.

f Lourdet de Sauterre, born in Paris, 1732, died ibidem, 1815.

formance. Regretting, however, the loss of his music, he found a fresh employment for it in VEpreuve Villageoise, two acts, which Desforges had constructed out of an episode in Theodore et Paulin. "This niaiserie,"* says Bachaumont, on the 25 th of June, 1784, "had yesterday the greatest success as regards the music, which is picturesque, simple, and rich, without any display which -would he out of place and foreign to the character of the subject." Such, in fact, are the principal merits of this score, which continues, with so many of the composer's works, a stock piece of the Opera Coniique, and the libretto of which is, indeed, a niaiserie of the most pleasant and of the most dramatic description, whatever Bachaumont may have written to the contrary notwithstanding.

(To be continued.)

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Sir,—If there is one abase that claims the notice of the public more than all others, in the economy of our established Church, it is tho disgraceful system carried on relative to the paltry pay awarded its organists, by its Christian ministers and churchwardens or parish at large, which tho following, as one of too many instances, shows:—

Times-.—October 15th, 1860. *

"To Organists.—An organist is required for Braintrce Church. The salary will be at the rate of 15/. per annum. Testimonials will be received from tcctf-qualificd applicants up to the 30th October, inst. Address—the Churchwardens, Braintrec, Essex."

As no other inducement is offered—either tuition, or a house to live in—I am at a loss to understand in what way a talented

» This untranslateable word is best interpreted by the Shaksporian expression "silly sooth." "'Tis silly sooth, and dallies with the innocence of love."— Translator.

player is to make an appearance, in keeping with his profession, upon so paltry a stipend, not equal to what the humblest mechanic can earn. Before an individual is capable of undertaking the duty to perform it even in a manner passable, he has to study under a master, bestowing money and time, the same in amount to a minister, with the exception of not going to college. Viewed in the light of a just tribute paid to art, surely something nearer the mark than the trifling yearly salary offered in the preceding advertisement is justly due to merit, if musical talent is of any value. Whether the clergyman and churchwardens fix the amount, it is certain the party do not consult the following scripture,— • Not grudging as of necessity, for the Lord loteth a cheerful (liberal) giver" W

A place in your valuable and widely-circulated journal for this short comment, may introduce it to the notice of the right persons in the right places, and its still small voice be the humble means towards effecting a change in this, one of the worst, abuses tolerated in the established Church.

Tours respectfully,

Castor And Pollux.


{ (From a Contemporary.") Thb plot of the new opera has been described, and we have only to add, as corollary, that its unstudied—or, perhaps, we should rather say studied—simplicity is a great thing in its favour. The audience are at once at home with the personages of the drama, and scene follows scene with a consistency as agreeable as it is unfortunately rare. There are no mysteries, no knotty points to unravel; the story progresses, step by step, as naturally as possible, and the familiar incident which brings about the end—viz., the death-warrant, borne by the unsuspecting Sompnour, turning out a free pardon on certain easy conditions—is of a piece with the rest. Robin was too gallant an outlaw to be hanged; and, as he is rescued in tho opera by a process open to the humblest comprehension, because fairly within the limits of probability, the issue satisfies everybody while it actually surprises nobody. This clearness of construction is alike essential to the early appreciation and to the enduring popularity of a lyric drama; and when, in addition, the dialogue spoken or musically recited, the words of the songs, duets, and concerted pieces, fulfil the conditions of plain, vigorous, and sensible writing—as is the cose with Robin Hood—we have a libretto with which a musician capable of doing anything is pretty sure to do his best. Mr. Macfarren, as was hinted in our notice of the first performance, has done his very best; and the experience of a second hearing enables us to say, without hesitation, that the championship of the English school, until a better opera than Robin Hood is produced, must remain in possession of its composer.

In our remarks upon the music, we must for the most part adhere to generalities. A detailed technical description of number after number, in a work, the mere pianoforte and vocal score of which occupies something like 350 printed pages, would take up more space than we can afford, without perhaps, at the same time, giving the non-musical reader any very exact idea of what it would be desirable to explain. The overture is short and spirited. Its two principal themes reappear frequently in the course of the opera, and give distinctive individuality to the hero and heroine. The instrumentation is admirable, and the well-sustained opposition between the expressive and the brilliant styles affords an abstract musical interest to the composition while constituting on appropriate preamble to what follows. In the first act we are presented to all the chief personages. The introduction at the outset exhibits that skill in contrivance which is a distinguishing feature of its composer's talent. Armourers are busily engaged at the forge, matrons and maids at the spinning-wheel, Allana-Dale and Alice in making love. Each party is musically represented, and stands out with equal perspicuousness, whether isolated or combined. The graceful melody allotted to the women is happily contrasted with the vigorous song of the armourers; while the character of the whole (as, indeed, may be remarked of all the choral and concerted pieces) is frankly and unmistakeably English. In a ballad with chorus—" The hunters wake with the early morn"—

which has the pretty quaintness of our best old national ditties, Alice (Mad. Leuiaire) narrates the most recent exploits of Robin Hood. The outlaw (Mr. Sims Reeves) himself now appears as Locksley, with Maid Marian (Mad. Lemmens-Sherrington), the two giving voice to their tender solicitudes through the medium of a duet ("When lovers are parted "), in which, though charmingly expressive, a faint resemblance to Spohr's Jessonda may be detected. The next piece is an apostrophe to the ruling passion— "True love, true love, in my heart"—to which Marian makes allusion whenever her constancy to llobin is put to the test, and which is as beautiful as it is unaffectedly simple. This forms one of the leading subjects of the overture, and is introduced so often and with such invariable felicity in the course of the opera, that it seems perpetually to haunt the car. So genuine a tuuc will go far to elevate the standard of taste when (as it cannot fail to do) it finds its way to the drawing-room piano; at any rate it may serve as a wholesome antidote to the mock sentiment that in a great measure debases our ballad style, once so racy, now so faded and forlorn. A love song not more or less maudlin is a rara avis in the present day. The first air allotted to the Sompnour (Mr. Honey), "The monk will in his cell," despite its Rossinian episode, is an excellent specimen of the music which everywhere confers marked individuality on this character. Imbued with the old English ecclesiastical tone of melody and harmony, it is not on that account by any means less prepossessing. The scene where Allan-a-Dale (Mr. Parkinson) is ordered to the stocks by the Sheriff of Nottingham (Mr. Santlcy), and released by Robin Hood, is dramatically treated, and leads naturally to the outlaw's glowing apostrophe to his countrymen (" Englishmen by

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nch we take leave to quote the first and last

birth arc stanzas:—

"Englishmen by birth are free,

Though their limbs you chain,
Glowing thoughts of liberty

In their hearts remain.
Normans, do whate'er you can,
Ne'er you'll crush the Englishman.
Chorus—" Normans, do whate'er you can," &c.

"That deathless flamo of liberty

We prize, a treasure dear)
Though hidden for a while it be,

At length 'twill reappear.
In vain our proud oppressors seek

The Saxon race to quell;
Their bonds of iron arc but weak,
While freedom in the sonl can dwell.
Chorus—" Englishmen by birth are free," &c.

The music to this highly characteristic song is instinct with the healthy energy of " Come, if you dare —to which, let it be understood, it bears no other resemblance ; and Mr. Sims Reeves delivers it with much the same fire that has always roused his hearers in the famous air of Purcell. The finale to Act I. commences with a round, "May the Saints protect and guide thee." The Sheriff dismisses the Sompnour on his way with prayers and blessings, which at e responded to by Allan, Alice, and the chorus in a totally different strain. The subject is melodious, and the development all that could be wished : but we think it hardly consistent to allot the identical notes to Allan and Alice which are uttered by the Sheriff and Sompnour, the sentiments they are respectively presumed to convey being in precise opposition. The entire opera may be searched in vain for Buch another oversight. A duet for Marian and Robin, " Good night, good night," terminating with a repetition in a new and most interesting form, of the ballad, "True love, true love," half-whispered by Marian, and continued by the orchestra, completes this brief finale, and brings down the curtain very effectively.

Act II. commences with a choral part-song for men's voices— "The wood, the wood, the gay greenwood "—a genial, picturesque, and charming piece. We are now at home with Robin Hood and his "merry men," and the place, together with the legendary reminiscences it invokes, would seem to have inspired the composer, who has described the incident of Robin's relieving the Sompnour of his booty, and making him dance after supper, for the amusement of the outlaws, with a vigour and characteristic colouring

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beyond praise. This capital scene begins with a trio for Rofe
Hood, the Miller's son (Mr. Patey), and Little John (Mr.Bwtk-
man)—" A good fat deer makes lusty cheer." Here the music i.
in strict keeping with the words, which pay such homage to the
coming repast as the proverbial excellence of met"
has a right to exact:—»

"Ilcre's a neck, and licre's a haunch,
Worthy of a friar's paunch,"

cries Robin, echoed heartily by his companions.

"Neatly turn him, featly haste him,
Happy arc the lips that taste him!"

ejaculates Much, the Miller's son; while all three in unison (ot thought, we mean—Mr. Macfarren makes them vociferate ta» sentiment in part-song), offer tribute to the qualities of the sliugti. tered animal, and kindly apostrophise his memory :—

"Alive, he roamed the forest's pride,
To feast brave lads he nobly died;
Then here's a cheer, a lusty cheer,
To the memory of the good fat deer."

The arrival of the Sompnour; his bullying when with a military escort he surprises Robin and his two associates; his cringing for mercy when Robin's " merry men," starting from the bushes, live chased away the soldiers; the threatening of the ferocious Much, who proposes to hang the delinquent tax-gatherer; »nd (toskip many a salient point) the dance which the Sompnour is compelled to execute in order to save his neck, are one and all depicted with a vivacity worthy of Rossini himself, while, on the other hand, the prevalent tone proclaims the whole unadulterated English, a sttl which we are delighted to find so ingenious a musician adopting in preference to the second-hand German, parodied Italian, andBrummagem French, of which we have had enough and to spare. Not to enter further into detail, though each separate movement h this admirable concerted piece is well worth attention, we mu>'. single out its most striking, and at the same time most intensely national feature,—we mean the song of Robin Hood, to the following graphic words:—

"The grasping, rasping Norman race

I never could abide;
I would my staff could lcavo a trace

On every Norman hide.
But there are sundry moments when

To love them I incline;
jWe cannot always hate the ]
Who bronght us s-

Chor. "Confusion to the Norman! Come, pledge me, brother mine Confusion to tho Norman! we'll drink it in his wine.

"To reconcile my love and hate,

I've found an easy way;
Whenever wine's bestowed by fate,

I drink, but never pay.
I drink, and feel my courage glow,

As with a fire divine,
We're readier still to thrash the foe,

When we have quaBPd his wine."

The music is on a par with the words; we cannot complin"'1 it more handsomely. The singing, too, is equal to either, tt' worthy of both. The emphasis with which Mr. Sims Reeves delivers the*pcnultimate line of the second verse is electric. W be11 it is remembered how the English were oppressed by the Nornwi during the regency of Prince John, while Richard wasiwaj111 Palestine, the vigorous applicability of such an effusion, is « occurs in the opera of Mr. Macfarren—proceeding from the month of one who, though of somewhat irregular life, is supposed to be English to the backbone, and who, had Garibaldis been possible it that period, might have been a Garibaldi — will readily he idmitted. What strikes the audience at Her Majesty's Theatre i> the genuine English character of the whole. The words aw thoroughly English, the music is thoroughly English, and vocal delivery of both is thoroughly J

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