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"the Worth Op Akt Appears Most Eminent In Music, Simce It Requires No Material, So Subject-matter, Whose Effect Must Be Sbducteo: It Is Wholly Porm And Toweb, And It Raises And Ennobles Whatever It Expresses"Gtitke

SUBSCRIPTION—Stamped for Postage—20s. PEE ANNUM Payable in advance by Cash or Post-Office Order to B0OSEY & SONS, 28 Holies Street, Cavendish Square, London, W.

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BE. MARK'S

GREAT NATIONAL ENTERPRISE

Organised In 1818, and developed at his ROYAL COLLEGE OF MUSIC,
MANCHESTER,

To encourage Native Musical Talent, and to promote the general advancement of
Music upon his New and Effective System ; also as a
NORMAL SCHOOL
For the Training of Masters to conduct
CONSERVATOIRES OF MUSIC
For little Children throughout the United Kingdom.

Principal, Composer, and Conductor Dr. Mark.

Medical Adviser Charles Clay, M.D.

Th« Rev. J. B. Wilkinson, of St. John's Church,

Manchester, kindly superintends the Religious In.

struclion. A ; JUster or the General Educational Department { tJl^S^.

| Mr. Wrigley.

( Mont. Rogi'ier. I Mr. Beard.

fMonS. VlEtTXTBHPS.

'* ( Mr. Donovan.

Mr. Dowmnu.

Mr. Rt ssRLL.

Violin

Violoncello, Double Bui, and Viola.,,

Flute, Clarionet, Oboe, and Piccolo ... Cornet and other Brass Instruments ...

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Dr. MARK, if open to Engagement* either for THE FIRST ORCHESTRA, Con si stir of 30, 40, or Ml Performf-re, and conducted by Dr. Mark, is composed of the Adrancpd Pupils of the Royal Cnllego of Music, and some of the " Utile Men," who perform Sacred, Classical, Operatic, and Popular Music. Also a Vocalist, Solo Harpist, Solo Pianist, and Organist—or

THE SECOND ORCHESTRA, Conducted by Mr. Wrigley, which consists of 30 Performers, and is composed of the ** Little Men," who play Operatic and Popular Music, and sing favourite Airs and Choruses. Also a Vocalist, and Solo Instrumentalists.

Dr. Mare begs to inform young ladies and gentlemen who are preparing for the profession that he affords opportunities of Introducing them to the public by performing at his concerts.

Orphans of Ibe musical profession, and poor childrenpossessingmusic.il talent, are admitted free, and receive a general and musical education, together with board, lodging, and clothing, until the age of fourteen years, when they ure either apprenticed to a trade or trained for the profession.

Little Boys, from five to nine years of age, apprenticed for three, fire, or seven

£ears by paying a moderate entrance fee to cover the expenses of instrument and ooas.

For Prospectuses, apply direct to the Royal College of Music, Manchester. Visitors are admitted from Nine to Eleven, a.m., and Two to Four, p.m. every day, Saturdays and Sundays excepted.

MEYERBEER'S GRAND MARCH for the SCHILLER
FESTIVAL, performed at the Floral Hall and Crystal Palace
Solo or Duet for Pianoforte.—Cramer, Beale, and Co., 201 Regent Street.

EASTERN OPERA IIOUS E.—PAVILION THEATRE. Lessee, Mr. John Douglas. Continued success of the Grand Opera Company, which has surpassed the must sanguine expectations of the Manager. The Theatre crowded to the ceiling. On Monday, FRA DlAVOLO, Supported by Messrs. W. M- Pahkinson, A. Bkaiiam, O. Summkrv, Mad. Lancia, Miss Fanny Ternan, and Mr. Edmund Rosenthal. On Tuesday and Wednesday, TROVATORE. On Friday and Saturday, MARTHA. On Thursday, a Special Night. THE BOHEMIAN Gikl and NORMA, on which occasion Mr. Melchor Winter, the new tenor, will make his first appearance. Band and Chorus of 100 art/sirs. Conclude all this week with a MUSICAL BURLETTA. Boxes, 2s. ; Lower Circle, Is. (id.; Pit, 6d.; Fit Stalls, Is.; Amphitheatre Stalls, ;Private Boxes, 10s., 15s., and 3s. each person.

MAD. LAURA BAXTER begs to announce thrit she Hill give a SERIES of PERFORMANCES of SACRED and MISCELLANEOUS VOCAL MUSIC during the ensuing Season. Had. Lavra Baxter will be assisted by eminent artists, and also by her Amateur and Professional Pupils. Communications to be addressed to Mad. Lalua Iiaxtbb, at her Resilience, 105 Albany Street, Regent's Park, N.W.

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ISS AUGUSTA THOMSON begs to anuouuee that

she will remain in Town for the Winter.—All letters for Town and Country Engagements, Oratorios, &c-, to be addressed 24 Holies Street, Cavendish Square, W.

THE ARION (Eight-Part Choir). — Conductor, Mr. Alfred Gilbert The Members are informed that the next Meeting will

take place at 13 Berners Street, on Thursday, October 4th, at 8 o'clock precisely.— Prospectuses of the Society mar be obtained on application to th» Conductot,

F. F. REILLV, Hon. Sec.

rpHE MIDLAND COUNTIES VOCAL UNION, con

-L sistlng of the following Artistes—Miss Amelia Hill, Mrs. John Haywaro, Mr Robert Mason, Mr. W. T. Hrigos; Conductor, Mr. VV* C. StockLey; may be engaged for ORATORIOS or MISCELLANEOUS CONCERTS, with or without Solo or Orchestral Instrumentalists.

Applications for terms, .\ r. to be made to the Secretary, Mr. W. T. Briggs, Cathedral Choir, Worcester; or to Mr. W. C. Stockley, 120 Moseiey Road, Birmingham.

MR. WALLWORTH begs to inform his pupils, friends, and the public that he has REMOVED toft! PARK STREET, GItOSVENOH

SQUARE, W The Second Edition of his "art op BmGirte" is just published, and

may be bad at his residence.

YOLUNTEER BAND now forming in the 37th Middlesex (G. G. B.) Volunteer Rifles. Any persons willing to join are requested to , apply at Head Quarters, 35 Bernard Street, U'issell Square,

T30ARD and RESIDENCE for PROFESSIONAL

Jj LADIES. — Miss Le DIEU hops to announce to her Friends mid Hie Public thai she receives a limited number of Young Professional Ladies as BOARDERS. 18 (hjlcut Crescent, Primrose Hill, N.W.'

THE SON of a PROFESSOR of MUSIC seeks employ- ^ 4°, mcnt. Has a well-grounded knowledge of music. A small salary only expected to commence with—Address A. Z., 13 Salmon Parade, Bridgowater, Somersetshire.

MUSICAL EDUCATION.

AYOUNG GENTLEMAN, of good education and address, who can command a premium of £100, may be received for Five Years into a first-class Musical Instrument Establishment, of thirty years'standing. In the West of England, lie would be instructed fa the Organ, Pianoforte, and Singing, and a Salary would be given in the latter three years. Apply to S., care of Messrs. BooseyA Sons, 28 Holies Street, Cavendith Square, London.

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TVTEW SONGS by BALFE. — "I LOVE YOU," sung

_L 1 by Mr. Sims Restf* with such Immense success nt Mr. Martin's (Exeter Hall), Mr. Lindsay Sloper's, and Miss Susannah Cole's Concerts (St. James's Hall), and at Mr. Balfe's benefit concert at the Royal Surrey Gardens before 10,000 persons, 3s.; Rs well as Balfe's two charming Ballads, " Oh ! take me to they heart again," 2s., sung by Miss K»tb Ramo (mezzo-soprano) at Mad. do Vaucheran's Concert; and "I'm not in love, remember," 2s. 6d., sting by Mile. Biblatzbk at the fashionable Concerts at Campden House, arc published by Duncan Davison and Co. 244 Regent Street, corner of Little Argyll Street, W.

"T LOVE YOU." By Emile Berger. Sims Reeves'

_1_ popular Ballad, composed expressly for him by Balfe, arranged for the Pianoforte by the above popular author, li now published, price 'it , by Duncan Davison & Co. 244 Regent -Street, W.

"T LOVE YOU." By L Libbich. Sims Reeves'

JL popular Ballad, composed expressly for him by Balfe, transcribed for the Pianoforte by I. Llebieh, is now published, price 2s. (forming No. 1 of Two Popular Melodies for the Pianoforte by the above author), by Duncan^Davison & Co., 244 Regent Street, W.

"T NEVER KNEW HOW DEAR THOU WERT."

JL New Song, by H. K. Morlby. composed expressly for and sung by Miss Lascelles (the Foetrv by Catherine Warpteld) is just published, price 2s. 6d., by Duncan Davison and Co. 244 Hegcnt Street, W.

"T WOULD I WERE A BUTTERFLY,'* by A.

JL Schloesskk, sung with immense applause by Mad. Lrmmbns-shbrrincton, Is published, price 2s. 6d. by Duncan Davison & Co. 244 Regent Street, W.

"riOOD NIGHT," New Song by A. Reichardt,

Composer of "Thou art so near and yet so faT," is published, with English and Herman Words, and a Portrait of Herr Reichardt, price 2s. bd. by Duncan Davison & Co. 244 Regent Street, W.

TATILBYE COOPER'S NEW SONG, "Tho Meadow

T T Gate," composed expresslv for him Ivy GeonOE B. Allen, Is now published, price 2s. OA. by Duncan Davison und Co. 244 Hegcnt Street, W.

"flOOD NIGHT," Reverie by Kuhe on Rcicbardt's

\JT popular Wiejrenlied (Cradle Song), is now published for the Pianoforte, price 3s. by Duncan Davison and Co. 244 Regent Street, W.

GB. ALLEN'S Now FANTASIA on « OBERON." • composed expressly for and dedicated to Miss Arabella Goddabd, is now published, price 5s. by Duncan Davison and Co. 244 Regent Street, W.

GOD SAVE THE QUEEN," for Four Male Voices, as sunn by the Choir of 3000 FRENCH ORPHEONISTS. at the Fetes given In the Crystal Palace, Sydenham, arranged especially for them by Cam Ill K Db Vois, Is published in score, price 6d., by Duncan Davison and Co. 244 Regent Street, W.

MEYERBEER'S FOURTH MARCIIE AUX FLAMBEAUX (" Royal Wedding March "), composed in honour of the Marriage of the Princes* Royal of England with Prince Frederick William of Prussia, which was played with such immense effect by lh« Band of the Guides at the Fete of the OrpheonUtes at the Crystal Palace, is published for the Pianoforte, price 4s., by Duncan Davison & Co., 244 Regent Street, London, W.

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"\TEW ENGLISH DUET.—" Sweet is the dream," Duet

J_ x by Campana, being an Knglish version of his celebrated aria "Sera d'Amore." Price 2s. Gd. Hoosey & Sons, Holies Street.

THE MAZURKAS of CHOPIN, edited by J. W. Davison, complete In One large Volume, music sire (100 pages), with Preface by the Editor, and Portrait of Choi'lli, price 8s., or superbly bound in crimson cloth, gilt edges, price Kit. fid.; Rossini's Stabat Mater, for Pianoforte, by Smart, complete, 3s.; Moiart's Twelfth Mass, do. 3s.; Moore's Irish Melodies, for Pianoforte, by Nordmann, 2s. 6d. ; Mendelssohn's Soiibs without Words, complete, with Portrait and Introduction by J. W. Davison, rloth, 7s. 6d.; Meyerbeer's Dinorah, complete, for Pianoforte Solo, 7s. Gd. ; the Juvenile Pianoforte Album, 12 nieces. Illustrated and bound, 3s. Gd. ; th- Operatic Album, inn gems from the newest Operas, for Pianoforte, incloth. 12s. i liootey's 100 Heels and Country Dances, for Pianoforte,2s. fid.; Hooscy's 100 Waltz.s, by Strauss, Lanni r nnd Labltaky, for l'iano, 3«.; Clernv'l Etude de la Velocitfe. 2s. Gil.; Cxerny's 101 Exercises, 2s.; Bnoiey's Part-Son? Miscellany, 18 Original Compositions, handsomely bound, to.; the Harmonium Museum. 100 Sacred and Secular Subject, for Harmonium, with Inttruciions, 7s. fid.; Eugel's Harmonium Operatic Album, GO Gems for Harmonium, 7s. fid.; Christy's Minstrels' Album, 24 Songl In One Hook, 2s. Cd.; the Verdi Album, 25 Songs, in English and Italian, 4s. . Dinorah, for Voice and Piano, complete, 12s. Doosey & Sons, Hulle, Street.

"THE HARP OF WALES."

Sung by Mr. SIMS BEEVES,

COMPOSED BY BRINLEY RICHARDS.

■ . Price 2s. 6d.

'*' The Harp of Wales' (sung for the first time) Is a very graceful ion*. ndroiraU, adapted for Mr. Sims Reeves, and sung by the distinguished tenor with a refinement of expression which produced a magical effect on the audience, and raised demands' for repetition which were not to be denied."—Daily Telegraph.

"' The Harp of Wales,' beautifully sung by Mr. Sims Reeves, was "Mnimouilr redemanded.**—Morning Post."

** The other was new and sung for the first time by Mr. Sims Reeres. It Is called the * Harp of Wales,' and is a lovely and expressive melody. It was enthuilasucaliy encored."—Daily News.

"Mr. Richards did honour to his fatherland by introducing a new song, ' The Harp of Wales,' which is sure to become a favourite of the Cymrf, who are justly proud of their bards. So admirably was this sung by Mr. Sims Reeves, that an encore »u inevitable, and the ballad was as warmly applauded the second time as the finrMusical World.

London: Duncan Davison & Co., Depot General de la Maisoo Brandm, de Paris; 244 Regent Street, corner of Little Argyll Street, where may be obtained— "THE SULIOTE WAR SONG," sung by Mr. Santtey, priee 3s. 11 THE BLIND MAN & SUMMER," sung by Miss Palmer, price 2s. Gd. "ETHEL," Romance for the Pianoforte, price 2i. M LEOPOLD," Maiurka Favourite, price 2s.

Composed by Brinley Richards

SANTA LUCIA, by WILHELM GANZ. A brilliant and effective Transcription for the Piano of this Popular Air. Price k. London: Ashdown and Parry (successors to We&sel and Co.), 1R Hanover Square.

JOHN FIELD'S SIX CELEBRATED NOCTURNES,

t\ edited by Franz Liszt. Price 2s. each. London: Ashdown and Parry (successors to Wessel & Co.), 18 Hanover Square.

KULLAK, LES ARPEGES.—This celebrated piece, played by Mr. Charles Halle with immense success, is published by Asbdoia apd Parry, 18 Hanover Square, London.

GOOD NIGHT," by R. ANDREWS. Reichardt's charming Wiegenlied (Cradle Songj, transcribed for the Ptwofone bjtV above popular author, is now published, price 2s, by Duncan Davison 4 Co, 144 Reiient Street, W., where R. ANDREWS'S transcription for the Pianoforte of "THOU ART SO NEAR AND YET SO FAR" (Reichardt) may be obtiined, price 2s.

EAMSGATE SANDS QUADRILLE. — The most popular set of the day. Founded on lavoorite nnd well-known mdoAtos,iltetratlng a visit to Ramsgnte, in characteristic music. By Burckhardt. With * »<»■ superb Frontispiece, by Urandard, in Colours. Boosey & Son*, Holies Street.

NOTRE DAME. Romance for the Pianoforte, by Emile Berger. Founded on a very beautiful subject by Pergolesi. Priced. Illustrated by Laby. Published this day by Boosey & Sons, Holies Street.

SCHLOESSER'S BRILLIANT DUETS for Pianoforte, on Oberon, Dinorah, Traviata, and Rignletto. 5t. each. All effectlse, brilliant, and moderately difficult. Boosey & Sons, Holies Street.

THE BALL ROOM MUSIC-BOOK", price 4s. in crimton cloth, containing 50 Waltzes, 40 Polkas, 10 Galops, 2 OlMtjuM***' tovianas, and 12 Sets of Quadrilles (complete). Boosey & Sons, Holies Street.

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AN EVENING WITH MEYERBEER (published this day). M61ange for the Pianoforte, by NoBrmajiK, introducing- bwitifol tabjects from Crociato, Hubert le Diablo, DlDorah, Lea Huguenots, VieUuiJrcsolo, Gi.; duet also.

AN EVENING WITH BALFE, solo and duet.

AN EVENING WITH CHRISTY'S MINSTRELS, solo and duet.

Boosey a Sons, Holies Street.

rriHE DRIPPING WELL, for Pianoforte. By GoLun«

_L Third Edition. Boosey & Sons, Holies Street. _

BOOSEYS SHILLING PIANOFORTE TUTOR. 3G pages, music size. _

piIEAP EDITION of IL TROVATORE for Voice

\J and Pianoforte, with English and Italian Words, In 8 monthly P"". commencing October 1. Boosey & Sons, Holies Street.

WORCESTER MUSICAL FESTIVAL.
(From our own Correspondent.')

Wohcesteb, Sept. 15, 1860. Wb were necessarily compelled to close our notice at the termination of the Thursday morning's performance. The concert the same evening, being the last, was attended by an audience which not only filled the hall to sufTocation — even standing room being unobtainable,—but overflowed into lobbies and staircase, and necessitated the refusal of upwards of 300 persons, who had unwisely deferred taking tickets until the last moment, and so had only themselves to thank for the disappointment. A selection from Vincent Wallace's Lurline, including the overture, the songs, "Flow on, O silver Rhine," by Miss Parepa; "Sweet Form," by Mr. Sims Reeves; the quartet, "Through the world;" and chorus, "Sail, sail on the midnight gale;" inaugurated the first part. Mad. Novello's reading of "Robert tolque j'aime," although somewhat deficient in energy, was much applauded, as were also Mad. Sainton-Dolby and Mad. RudersdorfF—the first, in Handel's "Cangio d'aspetto;" the last, in Ferdinand Hitler's "Wanderer's night hymn," and "The Lark." Arnold's old song, ''Flow, thou regal purple stream," originally sung in The Castle of Andalttsia,vt&is forcibly given by Mr. Weiss; and a fine performance by Mr. Blagrove of his own violin fantasia on Luisa Miller, brought the first part to a close. That the overture to William Tell should be received with enthusiasm and encored (the last movement being repeated), was not surprising; and, if we had occasion in the opening of our article to take exception to the local conductors generally, we must make the amende to Mr. Dove, whom we congratulate upon his direction in both the sacred and secular music. Mr Sims Reeves was encored in a new ballad, by Mr. Henry Oakeley (an amateur of the neighbourhood), to Lord Byron's "Farewell, if ever fondest prayer." Mozart's duet, "La dove prende," by Mr. and Mad. Weiss; the familiar "La biondina in gondoletta," executed by Mile. Parepa; two national airs by Mad. Clara Novello, and a third upon a vociferous recall; Balfe's "Green trees," by Mad. Sainton-Dolby; "D mio piano," by Signor Belletti; Mendelssohn's "0 hills, O vales," with a bolero of Eandcgger, sung by Mad. Rudersdorff; and "God save the Queen," solos by Mile. Parepa, brought the concert to an end at eleven o'clock. By some want of arrangement the windows, which on Tuesday night, with less than 600 persons, and a very cold north-east wind blowing, were kept open to the manifest discomfort of the audience, as already mentioned, were this time carefully closed; the external temperature being decidedly mild. The consequence was, that the densely crowded room was warm to an unpleasant degree, an evil admitting of a very simple remedy, to which it seemed nobody's business to attend. An improvement has been effected since the last meeting in the lighting of the orchestra—a semicircular line of gas jets throwing an ample flood of light on the music-desks. The weather, which up to this point had been magnificent, took a turn, and Friday morning broke with heavy clouds and a generally lowering look, foreboding rain, which soon came down in cold driving showers. Fortunately, before eleven o'clock the sun burst forth, and all looked bright again by the time that the stream of people and carriages had set in towards the Cathedral. Here, as elsewhere, the Afessiah is sure | to attract the largest attendance, and nearly 2500 persons were | assembled in the Cathedral, an increase of 700 on the Festival of '57. As every reserved seat had been taken for some days, an additional space was made in the aisles, and several found seats in the choir, where the effect is, perhaps, finer than in any other part. From an early hour numbers of vehicles from the country poured in; the spring-cart and old-fashioned gig, evidently accustomed to do duty on ordinary market days, for the conveyance of the sturdy farmer and his thrifty wife, now carried the roseate daughters, dressed in their best, and bearing that glow of health in their faces which residence in fresh air and among green fields alone can give. Numbers too came in by trains from Gloucester and the neighbouring towns, and speedily made their way to the Cathedral, anxious to secure a good position as early as possible. Later in the morning came one unbroken line of elegant equipages, many of the unquestionable Long-Acre stamp, and showing by their emblazoned coats-of-arms the style and title of the occu

pants; Worcestershire being remarkably rich in county families and aristocratic residents. We missed, however, the presence of Earl Dudley, who, as Lord Ward, has made himself so well known a supporter of matters musical, and we should have thought would have made a point of attending, or if not, at least of sending a handsome donation, considering his large possessions in the county. AFe do not at present see his name amongst the donors to the charity, but hope we may yet hear of a cheque being forwarded from North Britain, where his lordship is at present enjoying himself in Grouseland.

With one exception (the chorus "Let us break their bonds," which opened unsteadily,) the execution of Messiah was irreproachable, and the effect such as it is impossible to obtain elsewhere. Mad. Clara Novello seemed determined to leave an impression on her hearers which should not easily be forgotten, and the emotion was manifest not only among the audience, but also in the orchestra, when she had finished her last air, "I know that my Redeemer liveth." We could not be surprised at this being re-demanded by the Dean; and although we have elsewhere expressed our opinion as to the propriety, or rather impropriety, of encores, knowing that this was the last time we should ever have an opportunity of hearing Mad. Novello, we felt that this was an exceptional case, and shared in the general satisfaction When the song was repeated. As an instance of the superior capabilities of a cathedral for sound, we may state that the most delicate note of the pianissimo shake with which the air concludes was distinctly heard at the furthest end of the building. Mr. Sims Reeves sang "Comfort ye," with all his accustomed pathos, and "Thou shalt break them," with almost more than his usual vigour and impassioned energy. Not less admirable was his delivery of the recitative air, "Behold and see." "How beautiful are the feet," fell to Mad. Weiss, who again sang with the care and skill of a true artist, while Mad. Sainton-Dolby, in the airs "He shall feed his flock," and "He was despised," as usual left nothing to be desired. Mr. Weiss and Signor Belletti divided the bass music—the Englishman taking the first, and the Italian the second part, and both singing their best. Of course Mr. T. Harper played the trumpet obbligato to "The trumpet shall sound." The entire audience remained standing during the choruses, "For unto us a child is born," "Lift up your heads," and the "Hallelujah," and it was a fair sight to see the multitude rising up as if by general assent. In no country but England can such a spectacle be witnessed. The collection on Friday amounted to £290 lis. 8d; the corresponding day at the last Festival realised £247 lis. 8d. Mr. Sims Reeves, we learn, gave ten guineas, and the total of the collections, including the sums obtained at the early services, amounted to £1124 lbs. 4d. We understand that there arc yet other donations to come in—Worcester,with commendable rivalry, being determined to exceed Gloucester in the sum gathered for the charity. In 1857, £999 lis. 7d. was the total of the four days' collection.

A grand full-dress ball at the Guildhall brought the Festival to a brilliant termination. Dancing was kept up with unflagging spirit to the strains of Adams's band until four in the morning, and even then many evinced no desire to depart. The supper was on the most liberal scale, the comestibles of the highest order of excellence, and the champagne of undeniable quality. The stewards, however, should be reminded that their duty consists in something more than wearing a distinguishing mark in their button-hole, and taking all the best partners for themselves, as many strangers were present who had to remain as unwilling "wall-flowers the whole of the evening. Before concluding our notice, special mention must be made of the excellent example set by the Dean—the Rev. Dr. Peel (brother of the late Sir Robert Peel)—who kept open house throughout the week. The duties of secretary are not merely confined to the actual week of the Festival, but extend over several months beforehand, and are not concluded until some time after the meeting is over, involving a correspondence of much extent, and an amount of labour and knowledge of details incredible to the uninitiated. To the Rev. Robert Sargeant, who has now fulfilled this arduous post for the last three meetings, all credit must be given for the admirable way in which ho has acquitted himself; and to his pasevering activity the unprecedented success of the Festival is in great measure due.

THE ORGAN*

Tenth Study. On Quality Of Tone (timbre) And Its Thbee Principal Causes. First Principal Cause,Scale.

It is undoubtedly the duty of every pipe in the organ to give the sound of some one note of the gamut with the greatest possible perfection; but this one note may be given with equal perfection in an almost infinite variety of qualities of tone, and in as many different shades of the same. This one note may remain the same, without varying in the slightest degree as regards the pitch, in a hundred different pipes, but its special quality of tone may be different in every one of them. To take an example in illustration of this matter, in the works of two piano-makers whose works are everywhere most justly celebrated, Erard and Pleyel; how striking is the difference between the pianos of one and the other! The latter aims at giving to his instruments all those qualities of tone which are tender, delicate, and refined, though nervous; and in this the quality of his instruments approaches, generally speaking, more nearly of the two to that of the German and English makers. The first, on the contrary, gives to his pianos, both grand and cottage, a brilliancy, a roundness, and an elasticity of tone, which accompanies all the modifications of their sound without causing it to lose its chief characteristic—namely, roundness; and, what is not a little remarkable, from father to son, from uncle to nephew, the respective qualities of the two makers are perpetuated in such a way that, as we still find in the pianos by Pleyel a reflection of that grace and elegance which may be met with in the still musical, though now perhaps somewhat antiquated ideas of a composer of the same name, so we may find in the pianos of Peter Erard the vigorous, brilliant, and flexible organisation of his great uncle Sebastian. With these two pianomakers the notes maybe the same in each, the pitch may not vary; what is fa with one may be fa with the other, what is do, do; and yet, for all that, the do and fa of Pleyel are no more the do and fa of Erard, as regards quality of tone, than the do and fa of Erard are those of Pleyel. Any maker, any pianist, of even the most moderate experience in such matters, would detect at once the difference between the qualities of tone of both these makers.

Quality of tone, then, may^e described as this or that particular shade out of those unnumbered shades which it is possible to give to one and the same note. Thus, a note or pipe of an organ may have this or that shade of tone — it may be delicate or cutting, sweet or tender, and still be the same note in the scale. For example, the note do of the scale may be given in any of these different qualities of tone in as many different organ-pipes, and still be the note do; for, without any change at all in the note, quality of tone may vary infinitely, and quality of tone alone.

This quality of tone depends mostly on three things —namely, on scale, form, and material. Scale is not that which is usually understood by this word, but is the greater or less distance from one another of the sides of the pipes; in other words, scale is the same thing as the diameter of the pipe. The Germans call it measure, mensur. From this it may be seen that the very same note may be expressed by pipes of different diameters. There are also a great many varieties of scale or measure; but they may be all reduced to three principal ones, to the full scale, the fine scale, and the mean scale. The arithmetic proportions between three pipes made to sound the same note, but each in a different scale, is thus given by Dnm Bedos :—" Let us take," he says, "a pipe, the height of which is six inches: if it is made to the fine scale, its diameter should be six lines; if made to the mean scale, and an open pipe, its diameter should be nine lines; and if to the full scale, and an open pipe, it should be twelve lines; if a stopped pipe, and made to this last scale, its diameter should be by fourteen lines." This writer takes care to observe that these measures are not absolute, and allows to builders, as we should also do, considerable freedom in every case. He would also grant that, besides the fine scale, there is another, the very finr, and, in a word, that the scale of organ pipes varies according to their situation, the special duties they have to perform, and the effect they are intended to produce. "Thus," he says, "the do of four feet,

* From L'Orgue, sa Connaissantc, son Administration, et son Jeu, by Joseph Rcguicr.

which is the third do of a series of pipes, the longest of which is sixteen feet, should not be more than three inches in diameter; but that, if this do of four feet is intended to be itself the first of a series of pipes, and therefore the largest of them, then its diameter should be increased to three inches and a half." In fact, the comparative shrillness in the tone of the pipes of this series must be compensated for by the vigour of their sounds. Now the more the scale enlarges the size of a pipe, the greater does the vibrating column of air become which is gathered within it« walls; the more the scale is narrowed, so much the more also is the sound resulting from it diminished, so much the more refined does it become in the quality of its tone.

Pipes of the full scale, which absorb a great quantity of wind, are suited to the largest organs only, to sound-boards only of the largest dimensions. These sounds ought to be at the Tery greatest degree of roundness and force. The very fine scale, on the contrary, is a luxury in the way of sound that a bare sufficiency of means alone does not admit of. It is that sort of quality which represents the delicate and rather meagre sounds of the viol, and which gives point to certain foundation open pipes, which are indispensable to the general body of organ tone m its more perfect state. Pipes of this quality of tone arc, in matter of fact, put upon all the clarions in greater or less quantity, and with good reason, because of the effect of this kind of pipes, which is sweet, though penetrating, and very useful as an acconipauinient to the voice.

Pipes of mean scale have generally more sweetness than delicacy as compared with the others, though they are not deficient either in a certain amount of brightness. Like everything else of i mixed charactc , they do not at all times take after the stock from which they first drew their origin. Thus deprived, as they are, of the strength and mellowness of pipes of the full scale, they partake of the infirmities of the fine scale, without possessing, «t the same time, the delicacy, the refined and pleasing quality of tone, which is its distinguishing characteristic. In a large organ they are placed on the choir sound-board, or, when their number is very considerable, on some subordinate sound-board, for it is usu»l to place some series of them on each of the key-boards. Regard, however, must at all times be had to the place for which theorgjn is being built. In a small church, where a large number of pipes of full scale would be simply deafening, it would he found very useful to combine with a sufficient number of those, pipes of the mean, and even the fine scale ; but within the walls of a vast cathedral, all the efforts of pipes, more especially of this last scale, would be utterly abortive and without effect. Pipes of both the mean and fine scale do certainly occupy a most necessary place in organ building, but they should not prevail in it to such a degree as is too often found to be the case in those sham organ schemes to which poor congregations, and other good but simple persons, are asked to put their names by dishonourable organ-builders.

Writers on this subject do not find it difficult to give some notions of comparison between scale and scale as long as the question L< only about open flue pipes, because these pipes are for the niosl part made in the form of a cylinder, the apex of which is the same size in diameter as the base. Put the pipes of reed-stops being conical in shape and wider above than below, their diameter and their length depend on one another, and it is not therefore easy to establish so exactly in their case an arithmetic proportion between one scale and the other. Nevertheless, Dora Bedos gives some measures by which the lengths of reed-pipes as compared with their diameters may be approximately determined, and these are the measures commonly in use amongst builders. Following him, then, they speak of a trumpet of 6 inches, of 5, or ol 4 inches for the three scales of the trumpets, which corresponds in its notes with the do of eight feet in the open flue pipes. Dom Bedos himself gives three different measures for the scale of the trumpet, and says that the first measure or full scale should be five inches and nine lines; the second, or mean scale, should tie four inches and nine lines; and the third, or fine scale, should be four inches and two lines.* This is a matter which it is impor

* It will, of course, be borne in mind that the French inches arc rather longer than the English, and that the lisne is rather less than the English 16th. N. Tr.

tant to study, and the comparison is one that should often be made, with the compass in the eye, if not in the hand, for the diameters and speaking lengths of the pipes for reed-stops are some of those many things on which dishonourable builders speculate with cruel impunity, making use of far too many pipes of fine and mean scale where they should place pipes of full scale, and this even in large churches, and without any regard to what may be the importance of the instrument which they are employed to build.

As regards organs for accompaniment only, commonly called choir organs, and, indeed, as regards great organs for small churches, this class of builders always find an excuse for their avarice in the smallness of the locality and the position of the organ; and hence, if possible, we intend to give a graduated table of- the scale of one note as compared with another for each scale of the three kinds, and for every note of the key-board. By this means, on inspecting an organ, the eye, however little practised, will detect at once the scale which the builder has chosen as his starting point, and the greater or less exactness with which, in the same series of pipes, he has observed the proportions of one note to another throughout this scale so chosen. I say the proportions, and not the progression, for a strict logical progression would be the cause of such magnitude in the largest pipes made to the full scale, that it would not be possible either to find a place for them, or if such a place could be found, to supply them with a sufficient quantity of wind. But still there are proportions for the lowest bass pipes of the full scale, which are not the proportions for the corresponding pipes of the mean scale; as there is also a means by which the size of the lowest bass pipes of the mean scale may be distinguished from that of the lowest bass pipes of the fine scale. Where these proportions are not attended to, there is not only the difference between what the diameters really are, and what they ought to be, but there is also the very ^reat difference between the quality of the sound in such pipes from what it really ought to be; a difference whicli amidst the general body of full-organ tone may possibly escape the notice of the ordinary unpractical hearer, but cannot escape that of either the inspector of the organ—if he knows his business—or of the builder himself, who cannot be supposed to be ignorant of such matters, or of the professed musician.

Supposing for a moment that there was no difference in the quality of the sounds produced by pipes of different scales, the builder would no doubt do most wisely in choosing for his standard the smallest scale of the three, as being for him the least expensive; but when he does so, well knowing that there is this difference, then he takes you in. Not only does he do so by taking metal from your pipes and money from your purse, but also by taking the soul out of your organ, in depriving it of all its most pure qualities of tone, and leaving it with such qualities only as are for the most part dull and veiled in the open flue pipes, thin and cutting and without body in the reed pipes. Or, if your organ has not all these defects, it still has one which is no less intolerable than these, and that is, that it is not the organ as at first contracted for between the purchaser and the builder, an organ that is of such and such a scale in all its parts, and consequently of such and such a quality of tone. When we consider, and we know it to be the fact, that a reed-pipe will speak just passably at three-fourths Of that length which is necessary for it in order that it may produce its better tones, we shall more easily understand what the injustice is which is committed by a fraudulent builder, who thus murderously cuts off the heads of his pipes. To such an one of course the. more perfect quality of tone in his pipes is as nothing, so long as he can reckon with any amount of certainty, either on the profit ho is about to make out of you upon his instrument, or on the fact that it will be placed in a church where there is no lack of resonance, or, more than all, on the ignorance of those who are to hear it.

A few words only remain to be said on the relations between the scale and the length of the speaking part of the pipe. As a general rule, this latter may be diminished in proportion as the ioriner is increased, and, vice versa, the length of the pipe may be increased if its diameter is very considerably diminished. Thus an open flue pipe of fine scale sounding the eight-feet do, ought certainly to be more than eight feet long, because the amount of

air necessary for the production of this note will be very considerably diminished by the narrowness of the diameter of the pipe. But this increase in the length of a pipe is only found to be necessary in the very fine scale, when it is used as a starting point; in the fine and mean scales the pipe of eight feet is cut to the same length as the pipe which produces the same note in the full scale; and the reason of this is, that these three scales, fine, mean, and full, are calculated upon a sufficient quantity of vibrating air; with this only difference, that the fuller the scale of a pipe, the fuller also will be the tone produced by it. For it is clear that the full scale causing the air to vibrate in a greater space, and being provided with a vibrating apparatus in proportion to the size of this space, will produce much more powerful sounds than the other two.

To conclude: after having made these observations on the differences between the three chief scales, it would remain for us to consider the quality of tone in pipes which, owing to the directions faken by their sides, unite to themselves the characteristics now of one now of another scale, as is the case with some flue pipes, and the bodies of those trumpet pipes, which begin with being of fine scale, enlarge themselves gradually into full scale, and end oft with being no larger than the very fine scale. But this is less a question of diameter than of form, and as such it is more fitted to become the subject for another chapter.

THE LONDON CONCERT SEASON*

With the close of the operatic season came also the termination of the concert-giving period in London, or, to speak more correctly and generally, the period when the aristocratic and more especially art-loving world is in town.

Most of the concerts given by the various musical associations, as well as the morning and evening concerts of individual artists, took place between the 1st May and the 1st August. It is almost incredible what a number of musical entertainments there have been in the course of these three months, and what patronage — for without patronage there is nothing to be done — what love of the art, and also what fashion and bon ton are brought into play to procure a full attendance for each concert. Filling a coucertroom here is a very different thing to what it is in Paris, where two-thirds of the audience enter with free admissions, and the real profit of the concert-giver is next to nothing. In London there is a large subscription list for all the oratorios and orchestral concerts, as well as for the Associations for chamber-music, while the artists who lend their assistance, and likewise those who, relying upon their reputation and the distinguished patronage they enjoy, give concerts of their own, find it worth their while to do so — a state of things long since passed away in Paris. Like everything else in London, the orchestral and vocal associations are colossal and innumerable.

After naming the Sacred Harmonic, the Musical Society of London, the Amateur Musical, the Philharmonic, and the New Phiharmonic Societies, the Vocal Association, the Tonic Sol-Fa Association, Leslie's Choir, the Society of British Musicians, the London Orchestral Association, the Bach Society, Ilullah's Concerts, the Monday Popular Concerts, the London Glee and Madrigal Society, the English Glee and Madrigal Union, the Choral Society, the Arion, Kobinson's Choir, the Musical Union, Wilby's Quartet Union, and Dando's Quartet Concerts, I have by no means exhausted the entire list. As we see, Paris, despite all its vapouring about art, is nothing in comparison. In that city associations for oratorios and choral works arc out of the question, while the two or three orchestral associations to be found in j addition to the Concert-Society of the Conservatory, drag on their existence with difficulty.

The Monday Popular Concerts, a new institution, have been fortunate enough to secure the continuous favour of the public, I and that, too, from the beginning of November to the beginning of July. And what do we hear at them? Waltzes by Strauss, polkas by Wallerstein, and selections from operas? Not a bit of

• From the Niederrheinische Mutik-Zeitung,

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