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MESSRS. DUNCAN DAVISON & CO.'S NEW PUBLICATIONS.

PIANOFORTE.

Britsac, Jules "BELLA ADORATA," Morceau de boudoir

Diehl. Louis •'REINDEER GALOP"

Dawes, Albert * AULD LANG SYNE," with Variations

Ditto "SOUTHDOWN POLKA".

Guenee, L _ "LA CHASSE," Morceau de Salon

GreTille, Hon. Mrs. » BALLAB1LE M1LITARE"

Holmes, W. H •'HIGHLAND ECHO"

Ditto "INSPIRATION," by Woln*(Selectlons, No. I)

Ditto '• GAIETY," by Handel (Salections, No. S)

Holmes, Miss G. ... "AIR," with Variations

Ditto , "LES ETOILES ET LEUR LANGAOR"

Harvey, R. F "PENSEZ A MOI," Reverie

Monreal, G "Li DIVINA MELOD1A," Nocturne

Mornot, Engine...... "A SUMMER'S DAY"

Ditto "A SUMMER'S EVE"

McKorkell, C "MARCH" ...

Pech, James "MAYDEW POLKA"

Richards, Brinley ... "LEOPOLD MAZURKA"

, .. "ETHEL," Romance

,D "FUGUE in G MINOR," from bis Harpsichord

Lessons, as played by Miss Arabella GoddardJ ...

VOCAL.

Allen, G. B "THE MEADOW GATE"

Aguilar, E "SYMPATHY"

Baker, H "THE STEPPING STONES"

Baife, M. W "I LOVE YOU"

[ Ditto "I'M NOT IN LOVE, REMEMBER"

Ditto "OH, TAKE ME TO THY HEART AGAIN" ...

Cobham.M "AWAKE, LITTLE PILGRIM," Sacred Song ...

Foster, Alice "MERRILY, MERRILY SHINES THE MORN"...

Ferrari, A "EIGHT BALLADS," Nos. I to «, each

LUti, W.Meyer ... "UNDER THE LINDEN TREE"

Ditto „ "MERRY LITTLE MAUD"

Meyerbeer, G "ASPIRATION," Cantlque for Six Voices, and Bass

Solo

Maclarren, G. A. ... ".THREE FOUR-PART SONGS," for Male Voices,

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"Welcome, Heavenly Peace," Four.part Song'

"The Bud is on the Bough," Four-part Song—(Male Voices) 11 And were they not the Happy Days ?" Four-part Song ..

"Beauty is dead," Four-part Song

"Who shall be Fairest ?" Four-part Song

"O spare my Tender Flowers," Four-part Song ... ...

"Ripe Strawberries," Five-part Song

"Smile, O Heaven, upon the Day," Chorus (Satanella)

"Sancta Maria," Chorus (Dlnorah)

"A Legend of the Rhine," Part Song (Male Voices)
"The Hostess's Daughter," Part Song (Male Voicel)

"The Rover," Part Song (Male Voices)

"The Three Wishes," Part Song

"O'er the calm and Sparkling Waters," Chorus (Les Vepres) "Lowly we do bend before Thee," Quartet (Dlnorah)

"A Capstan Chorus," Chorus (Male Voices) ...

"The Return from the Tavern," Chorus (Dinorah)

"Good Night," Quartet (Martha) „

The above handsomely bound, price 9s.

Frank Mori Frank Mori Frank Mori Frank Mori Frank Mori Frank Mori J. L. Hatton M. W. Balfe Meyerbeer Henry Smart Henry Smart Henry Smart J. Pech Verdi

Henry Smart

Meyerbeer,

Flotow

BOOSEY & SONS' MUSICAL LIBRARY, Holies Street

REGENT STREET AND PICCADILLY.

MONDAY POPULAR CONCERTS.

LAST TWO CONCERTS OF THE SEASON.

principal |jtrformtrs.

Pianoforte-Miss AB&BELL* OODDASD and Mr. CHABLK3 HALLE
Violin-M. SAINTON and Herr BECXEO.
Viola - Xr. DOYLE. Violoncello - Signor PIATTI.
VocalisU - Had. de PAEZ, Had. LAUBA BAXTER, Horr HEBHANN3,
Mr. SANTLET, and Mr. SIMS REEVES.
Conductor-Mr. BENEDICT.

MONDAY EVENING, Jtjkb 25,

MOZART NIGHT.

MONDAY EVENING, July 2,

(The Directors' Benefit), Me Programme will be etUeted front the Works of

hit TAB GREAT 1 ASTERS

Oa MONDAY EVENING, JUNE 23, 1S60,

TWENTY-SIXTH CONCERT Or THE SEASON,

MOZART NIGHT.

Part I.

Quintet, in A. for Clarinet and String-ed In»trumenta?by unanimous clesiiv)Mozart Mr. LAZARUS. Herr BECKER, Herr RIE3, Mr. DOYLE, and Sijnor PIATTI.

Sone, " L' Adilio" Motart

'Mad. LAURA BAXTER.

Air, " Non temer" Mozart

Mid. DS PAEZ.
Violin obligate, Herr BECKER.

Sone. " Dalla sua pace" Mozart

Mr. SIMS REEVES.

., in D major. Pianoforte alone (first time! Mozart

Mits ARABELLA GODDARD.

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On MONDAY EVENING, JULY 2, 18G0,

TWENTY-SEVENTH CONCERT Or THE SEASON, THE PROORAMME WILL BE SELECTED EROM THE WORKS OF

ALL THE GREAT MASTERS.

Part I.

Quartet, in C m»|or (first time) Spohr

M ^AINTOM, Herr (JOFrRIB, Mr. DOYLE, and Sljnor PIATTI.

Sone, "fne Wanderer" Schubert

'Mr. SANTLEY.

Harpsichord Lessons (by desire) Scarlatti

Mr. CHARLES HALLE.

Lleder Kreis (by desire) .V,V.-.;v»"JftlJi!"M

Mr. SIMS REEVES, accompanied en the Pianoforte by Mr. LH.'.S. HALLli.

Prelude, Sarabande, and Gavotte (by desire) ••**•<»

Violoncello, Sig. PIATTI j uccoropanied on tbe Pianoforte by Mr. BENEDICT. Part II.

Quartet, in E flat major. Op. 4+ ilcndcUeohn

M. SAINTON, Herr GOFFRIE, Mr. DOYLE, and Signor PIATTI.

Sons-. " May" Meyerbeer

'Mr. SIMS REEVES.

Suite de Pieces, in E major, Pinnoforte alone, concluding with

"Tbe Harmonious Blacksmith " (by desire) Handel

Miss ARABELLA GODDAKD.

Sonar, "H penaier" Hagd*

'Mr. SANTLEY.

Song;, " La Gita in Gondola" Roennt

Mr. SIMS REEVES.

Duet, for Two Pianofortes, in I) major (first time). Mozart

Mr. CHARLES HALLE ami Miss ARABELLA GODDARD.

Coitimctor:— MR. BENEDICT.

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UNDER TUB MOST DlsTINOUlinED PATRONAGE OP

HER MOST GRACIOU3 MAJESTY THE QUEEN,
11.R.H. THE PRINCE CONSORT,
THEIR ROYAL HIGHNESSES THR PRINCESSES AND PRINCES OF THE
ROYAL FAMILY,
The Most Worshipful the Grand Master of Ireland,
His Grace the DUKE of LF.INSTER,
And several other Distinguished Freemasons;
His Excellency the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, the
EARL of EGLINTON and W1NTON.
The LORD BISHOP OF MANCHESTER,
Tbe Right Worshipful the Mayor of Manchester, 1V1K HIACKIE, Esq.

His Womhip the Mavor of Sslford, W. HARVEY, Esq.
SIR FREDERICK GORR OUSELS Y, Bart., Director of Music at the
University of Oxford.

And many ojthe Mobility, Gentry, Clergy, and Distinguished Families of the Ktnphv.

DR. HARE'S

GREAT NATIONAL ENTERPRISE

Organised In 1848, and developed at THE ROYAL COLLEGE OF MUSIC, BRIDGE STREET, MANCHESTER, established by him expressly as a Great National Institution to facilitate the Encouragement and l'romollon of NATIVF MUSICAL TALENT, and llw GENERAL ADVANCEMENT OF MUSIC AMONG THE RISING GENERATION, upon his new and effective system, also as a Normal School, for the training of masters to conduct CoNsnvsToiaEs or Music to he established throughout the United Kingdom, for Little Children, the whole comprising an entirely new scheme of NATIONAL EDUCATION, by blending music with general Instruction, so that the study of music shall become a branch of education in the humblest of schools of this country. To illustrate and to rouse an interest in every town and city for these institutions. Dr. Mark travels with a number of hU pupils occasionally through the country—giving lectures, and introducing his highly approved and pleasing Musical Entertainment, entitled DR. MARK AND HIS LITTLE MEN, who number upwards of Thirty Instrumentalists,'and a most Efficient Chorus, the whole forming a most unique and complete Juvenile Orrhestra. composed of LITTLE ENGLISH. IRISH, SCOTCH AND WELCH BOYS, FROM FIVE TO SIXTEEN YEARS OF AGE, who play Operatic Selections, Solos, Marches, Quadrilles, Galops, &c, and sing Songs and Choruses In a most effective manner, and to whom Dr. Mark gives a gratuitous General and Musical Education.

APPOINTMENTS OF MASTERS AND ARRANGEMENTS OF CLASSES IN
THE ABOVE INSTITUTION.
Principal of tbe Royal College of Music; Director, Coi
Conductor; Lecturer to both Prlvati
and Practical Instrumental and Vocal 1

Master of the Gen-rnl Educational Department;)

n,l

Music; Director, Composer, and)
Private and Public, Theoretical > Dr. Mark.
Vocal Classes )

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Writing, Reading, Arithmetic, Grammar, Dictation,, , T

History, Geography, Practical Geometry, and Book-1 Tethers.

PRACTICAL ASSISTANT TEACHERS.

Organ >. Mr. Bakes.

r„.»„ f Herr Siekers.

Pianoforte ... „ J Mr. Elder. ]

CMons. RoOUlRR. Vlolln J Mr. Bkabo.

Violoncello, Double Bass, and Viola [ Mtmt.*donoi!nt''

Flute, Piccolo, Oboe, and Clariouet _ Sig. Cortesi.

Cornet and other Brass Instruments Mr. H. Russell.

Concertina (German and English) Mr. Elder.

Vocal Classes ... { ""'"j??TM1 "d

Dr. MARK h» also made provision for the Orphans of the Musical Profession possessing musical talent, who will find the above institution a happy home, *nd receive a most effective general and musical education, board, and clothing, Tree of all expense.

Little Boys, from five to nine rears of age, apprenticed for three, five, or seven rears by paying a moderate entrance fee to cover the expenses of .instrument and books. .

Twelve appointments ready for Master;.

For Prospectuses, apply direct, to the Royal College of Muric, Bridge Street, Manchester.

Dr. MARK is also open to Engagements with his little Men,

Dr. MARK begs to invite the Parents and Friends, and all those interested In his Enterprise and In the Education of the Youths of this country, to visit his establishment. Visiting hours:—From Nine to Eleven, turn., and Two and Four, p.m. Saturdays and Sundays excepted.

CANTERBURY HALL CONCERTS.—Westminster

Road Lessee, Mr. C. MORTON—Every Evening.—C. H. Gounod's Opera,

Faust—Faust, Mr. Henry Hf-khkri; MephUtbuhe.es, Mr. C Bernard, Siobel, Mrs. Andrbson ; Marguerite, Miss RrssEL. Conductor. Herr Jonohmans—and Selections from Dinorah, Trovatorc, and Macbeth. Several interesting Pictures have been added to the Fine Arts Gallery. The suite of Halls have been re-decorated and beautified, and constitute one of the most unique and brilliant sights of the metropolis.

DOUBLE BASSES for sale, six fine-toned Instruments by good Makers; a VIOLONCELLO by Banks, In Case; TENORS by Foster and Fendt; VIOLINS by Straduarlus, Guarnerius, Steiner &c.; also a self-acting ORGAN, in a Carved Mahogany Case, plays 71 tunes. For Particulars apply to J. Moore, Buxton Road, Huddors8cJd. .

of No. 10 Little New Street, in the Pariah of St. Bride, in the City of London, at No. 5 New-street Square, In the said Parish. ', at the Office of Boosbt «* Soxs, SW Holies Street— Saturday, JumM, I860.

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"the Worth Of Art Appears Most Eminent In Mcsic, Since It Requires No Material, No Subject-matter, Whose

IB Deducted: It Is Wholi/i Form And Power, And It Raises And Ennobles Whatever It Expresses"Odthe

SUBSCRIPTION—Stamped for Postage—20s. PER ANNUM Payable in advance by Cash or Post-Office Order to B00SEY & SONS, 28 Holies Street, Cavendish Square, London, W.

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MESSRS. DUNCAN DAVISON & CO.'S NEW PUBLICATIONS.

: PIANOFORTE.

Brissac, Jules "BELLA ADORATA," Morceau de boudoir

Dichl, Loulj "REINDEER GALOP"

Dawes, Albert "AULD LANG SYNE," with Variation!

Ditto "SOUTHDOWN POLKA"

Guen6e, I "LA C1IASSE," Morceau de Salon

Creville, Hon. Mr». "BALLAB1LE MILITARE"

Holmes, W. H "HIGHLAND ECHO"

Ditto "INSPIRATION," by Wolff (Selection!, No. I) ...

Ditto "GAIETY," by Handel (Selections, No. 2)

Holme!, Miss G. ... "AIR," with Variations

Ditto "LES ETOILES ET LEUR LANGAGE"

Harvey, R, F "PENSEZ A MOI," Reverie

Monreal, G "LA DIVINA MELODIA," Nocturne

Mornot, Engine "A SUMMER'S DAY"

Ditto "A SUMMER'S EVE"

McKorkt.ll, C "MARCH''

Pccb.Jame "MA YDE W POLK A" ...

Richards, Brinley ... "LEOPOLD MAZURKA"

; Ditto "ETHEL," Romance

Scarlatte, D "FUGUE In G MINOR," from his Harpsichord

Lessons, as played by Miss Arabella Goddard)

Allen, G. B

Aguilar, E ,

Baker, H

Balfe, M. W

[j Ditto

Ditto

Cobban). M

Foster, Alico

Ferrari, A

Liitz, W. Meyer

Ditto

Meyerbeer, G

Macfarren, G- A. ..

McKorkell, C

Mori, Frank

Osborne, G. A.

Relchardt, A

Richards, Brinley..

Ditto

Ditto

Stirling, Elizabeth.. Schlocsser, A

VOCAL.

« THE MEADOW GATE"

"SYMPATHY"

"THE STEPPING STONES"

"I LOVE YOU"

"I'M NOT IK LOVE, REMEMDE1'."

"OH, TAKE ME TO THY HEART AGAIN" ... "AWAKE, LITTLE PILGRIM," Sacred Song ... "MERRILY, MERRILY SHINES THE MORN "...

"EIGHT BALLADS," Nos. t to S, each

"UNDER THE LINDEN TREE"

■• MERRY LITTLE MAUD"

'• ASPIRATION," Cantiquo for Six Voices, arjd Bass

Solo

"THREE FOUR-PART SONGS," for Malo Voices,

each V and

"FLOWERS, LOVELY FLOWERS"

"WERT THOU MINE"

"THE DEW DROP AND THE ROSE"

"GOOD NIGHT" (Wiegenlied)

"THE SULIOTE WAR SONG"

"THE HARP OF WALES"

•'THE BLIND MAN AND SUMMER"

•' LEONORA"

"I WOULD I WERE A BUTTERFLY"

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London: DUNCAN DAVISON and CO. 244 Regent Street, South Corner of Little Argyll Street.

Depot General de la Maiion Brandus de Paris.

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UNDER TUB MOST OISTINGUISHEI) PlTRONACB OF

HER MOST GRACIOUS MAJESTY THE QUEEN, H.R.H. THE PRINCE CONSORT, THEIR ROYAL HIGHNESSES THE PRINCESSES AND PRINCES OF THE HOYAL FAMILY. The Must Worshipful the Grand Master of Ireland, His Gr.xe the DUKE of LEINSTER, A nd scvii-al other Distinguished Freemasons; His Excellency the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, the EARL of EOLINTON and W1NTON, The LORD BISHOP OK MANCHESTER, The Right Wurshipful the Major of Manchester, IV1K MAC KIE, Esq.

His Worship the Mavor of Salford, W. HARVEY, Hiq. SIR FREDERICK GORE OUSEI.RY, Bart., Director of Music at the University of Oxford. And many of the Mobility, Gentry, Clergy, and Distinguished Families of the Empire,

DE, MARK'S

GREAT NATIONAL ENTERPRISE

Organised In )84R, and developed at THE ROYAL COLLEGE OF MUSIC, BRIDGE STREET, MANCHESTER, established by him expressly as a Great National Institution to facilitate the Encouragement nnd Promoiion of NATIVE MUSICAL TALENT, and the GENERAL ADVANCEMENT OF MUSIC AMONG THE RISING GENERATION, upon his new and effective system, also as a Normal Scyoot, for the training or masters to conduct Conservatoires op Mcsic to he established throughout the United Kingdom, for Little Children, the whole comprising an entirely new scheme of NATIONAL EDUCATION, by blendui',' music with general instruction, so that the study of music shall becomes branch of education in the humblest of schools of this country. To illustrate and to rouse an interest in every town and city for these institutions, Dr Mark travels with a number of his pupils oc casionally through the country—giving lectures, and introducing his highly approved and pleasing Musical Entertainment, entitled DR. MARK AND HIS LITTLE MEN, who number upwards of Thirty Instrumentalists, and a most Efficient Chorus, the whole forming a most unique and complete Juvenile Orchestra, composed of LITTLE ENGLISH. IRISH. SCOTCH AND WELCH BOYS. FROM FIVE TO SIXTEEN YEARS OF AGE, who play Operatic Selections, Solos, Marches, Quadrilles, Galops, &c, and sing Songs and Choruses in a most effective manner, and to whom Dr. Mark gives a gratuitous General and Musical Education.

APPOINTMENTS OF MASTERS AND ARRANGEMENTS OF CLASSES IN
THE ABOVE INSTITUTION.
Principal of the Royal College of Music; Director, Composer, and)
Conductor; Lecturer to both Private and Public, Theoretical > Dr. Mask.

and Practical Instrumental and Vocal Classes )

Master of the Gen ral Educational Department;) M
Writing, Reading Arithmetic, Grammar. Dictation, { T?., ELL

keeping' ..fT*!^ .a"d £"t ) ***** tZktT*.

PRACTICAL ASSISTANT TEACHERS.

Mr. Bakir.

( Herr Siemers.

/ Mr. Elder.

lfI ( Mom. Ro-guier.

Violin {Mr."

Violoncello, Double Bnss, and Viola...

Flute, Piccolo, Oboe, and Clarionet ...
COinet and other Brass Instruments ...
Concertina (German and English) ...
Vocal Classes ... -

Organ f... Pianoforte

Beano. ("Mons. Vieuxtehps. "I Mr. T. Donovan. ... Sig. Cortesi. .. Mr. H. Russell. ., Mr. Elder. f Messrs. Powell and — "'f Elder. Dr. MARK has also made provision for the Orphans of the Musical Profession possessing musical talent, who will find the above Institution a happy home, and receive a most effective general and musical education, hoard, and clothing, free of all expense.

Little B iys. from five to nine years of age, apprenticed for three, fire, or seven years by paying a moderate entrance fee to cover the expenses of instrument and books.

Twelve appointments ready for Masters. For Prospectuses, apply direct to the Royal College of Music, Bridge Street, Manchester.

Dr. MARK is also open to Engagements with his little Men.

Dr. MARK begs to invite the Parents and Friends, and all those interested In Ml Enterprise and in the Education of the Youths of this country, to visit bis establishment. Visiiing hours:—From Nino to Eleven, a.m., and Two and Four, p.m. Saturdays and Sundays excepted.

NEW SONGS by J. W. DAVISON, "Rough wind that meanest loud" {sung by Mr. Santley at the Monday Popular Concerts); "Swifter far than Summer's night," (sung hy Miss Palmer at the Monday Popular Concerts): "False friend, wilt thou smile or weep." Beatrice's son? in the Cenel (sung bv Madame Salntcm-Dolby, at the Monday Popular Concerts, St. James'! Hill); are published by Cramrr, Beale. and Co., 201 Regent Street.

The above Songs form Nos. 1, 2, and 3 of Vocal Illustration! of Shelley. "Mr. Santlev w.is encored in one of the thoroughly picturesque anil poetical settings of Shelley, by Mr. J. W. Duvison, mentioned a week or two since. His song,' Rough wind that rooanest loud,' is a thoroughly good song."— Mkcnaum.

'■ Madame Saiuun-Dolnv's greatest efforts were called forth by Mendelssohn's 1 Night* tong, and Mr. J. W. Davison's ' False friend, wilt tliou smile or w*cp* (from Shelley's 'Cenci'). to both of which she did the amplest Justice. The latter work II one of tli» most poetical and beautiful of the ■ Vocal Illustrations of Shelley,'composed by Mr. Davison many years ago. and which, though rarely heard, possess far more sterling merit than nine-tenths of the most admired song! of the day. A more Intellectual treatment of the words could not well be imagined. Mr. Davison has completely caught the spirit of the poetry, and heightened in beauty by the potent charm, which belong only to the lisler'art. 'Fall, friend, wilt thou smile or weep,' lung to perfection by Madame Sainton-Dolby, »ss enthusiastically applauded." r Mornnsg Post, April W, I860.

Cramer, Beale, and Chappell, 201 Regent Street.

THE DEFINITION AND DESCRIPTION OF THE
ORGAN.

WITH SOME ACCOUNT OF ITS MECHANISM.*

The Organ is a wind instrument, with a key-board, the sounds of which are fixed, but capable of being sustained at the will of the player, especially consecrated to the service of the Church.

This definition makes the organ liable to all that may be expected of it by the laws both of art and religion.

On first looking at its case exteriorly, we are struck more especially with three things: with the immense size of its pipes in front, which we take to be the most powerful in the instrument, though they are, on the contrary, the least so; with the key-boards, which, though we should hardly have thought it perhaps, were we to put down the keys, would at once give utterance to those great pipes; and with a quantity of knobs or handles, which stand out from the case of the organ on two sides of the key-board, and carrying, each of them, the name of some instrument, such as the flute, the viol da gamba, the trumpet, and the like. But nothing of all this acts or speaks alone, for in order to this various parts of the organ must be joined together, and all these various parts do not at once meet the eye.

The organ has no voice, but by means of the wind inhaled by the bellows, and these are placed as near the main body of the instrument as possible, in order that they may send the wind the more directly into the pipes which rest upon it. Herein we may compare the instrument to a man, who would not be able to make himself understood without inhaling the air, which, after it has been equally distributed throughout his lungs, is driven out by them again through the vocal passages. The bellows, with its feeders, is as much the chest to the organ as the lungs are to the human frame. Put in motion by the blower, they fill themselves one after the othcr,f and are emptied into a common channel placed near their extremity, and this is called the main wind trunk.

From this main channel other wind trunks branch off, as branches from the same common root, and carry the source of its sound into all parts of the instrument, as the branches of the tree carry the sap, or rather, as we have taken the human frame for our analogy, these smaller wind trunks are as the arteries, which, by means of the heaven-sprung system of the circulation, carry on the blood, which is pumped forth by the heart, throughout the whole of the body. The wind thus conveyed by one or many channels, gathers itself together and is compressed in a sort of chest or large hollow table, on which the pipes of the organ are placed, and is called the sound- board. The interior of the soundboard is but little less complicated than the vocal organ of the human body. It is from them that the compressed air has to escape by the pallets, and so to be transformed into distinct and varied sounds in the hundreds of pipes which bristle on the surface of the sound-board. This wind box, this transformer of the compressed air into sound, is, as it were, the centre of all the mechanical parts of the instrument, which are necessary for the production of sound; the place where they all meet together, and to which they all tend, and hence, perhaps, its name of sound-board. Here it is that we find out if the bellows are weak or strong, if the hand of the organist touches the keys with or without effect, if the pallets on being opened cause an harmonious sound, or merely a disagreeable cyphering, and thus the sound-board becomes the centre of all that is good or bad in the organ; it is, to continue our analogy taken from the human frame, as the heart, to which all the system of the circulation of the blood flows as to a centre; and as the throat, from whence proceeds the word, expressive of the inward soul.

But how is this mechanical contrivance, this magic air-transformer, to be itself made to act, for though we should fill all the sound-boards imaginable with wind, this alone would not be sufficient to create a sound, still less an harmonious sound. The instrument just turned out from the hands of the builder, and

• From L'Orgue, sa connaissance, son administration, et son jeu, by Joseph Rcgnicr. Fourth Study.

t Note of Translator.—This refers to the more common wny of making organ bellows in France, which is more old-fashioned than the English way.

supplied with wind by the action of the bellows, is still only a dumb instrument. The mysterious power of giving speech to the organ is to be found in the organist, who after a preliminary operation, of which we will speak presently, places his hands upon the clavier or key-board, the true key to his mysterious power, as its Latin root clavis indicates, and it is then only that the instrument ceases to be dumb, and sings in accents of joy or sadness according to the genius of the man, of whom it may be said to be both slave and master.

Three things then concur for making the organ speak; a bellows, which may be called the starting point; the pipes, which are placed upon the sound-board, and may be called the end; and thirdly, the hands of the organist, which may be called the means, for it is to them that all the mechanism of the organ from the clavier to the sound-board is subject, and it is by their means that the passages for the air, which supplies the pipes, are opened or shut as the organist pleases.

Since the most interesting details of all this mechanism meet in the sound-board, as in a centre, we will briefly analyse its form and action. In doing this, we do not intend to give a formal list of its many component parts, but simply to give such a general account of them as may be sufficient for our present purpose. In building, especially, we want to see a great deal, to know but little.

The sound-board then, as we have already said, may be described as a long, square-cornered chest, six or eight inches in depth, the upper-board of which is pierced with as many holes as there are pipes to be placed in order, as an harmonious forest of trees, upon its surface. All the pipes which emit the same quality of tone are planted together in a straight line in the same row, and each row of pipes of the same quality of tone is called a stop. The 'hole in the foot of each pipe is in communication with the interior of the sound-board, but is separated from the wind by two obstacles, viz., a register and a pallet.

The register is a rule of wood, placed within the sound-board, exactly under the feet of the pipes, and sliding horizontally backwards and forwards, in a groove, as completely air-tight as it is smooth and even. This rule, so-called because it rules or directs the action of the wind, is itself pierced with holes exactly corresponding with those in the upper-board of the sound-board for the feet of the pipes, in such way that, as the rule is moved, the holes in the feet of the pipes and those of the rules are perpendicular or set the one to the other. When they are perpendicular to one another, the ruler, far from being an obstacle to the entrance of the wind into the pipes, is, on the contrary, its conductor, for then the foot of the pipes, by which the wind enters, is in immediate communication with the interior of the soundboard.

We will suppose, then, that the organist wishes to make that quality of sound or that stop which represents the trumpet heard throughout the extent of the key-board. Before putting his hands on the key-board, he places it on one of those knobs, which stand out from the case of the organ, which serve as places for inscribing the names of the registers, and, in this instance, he places it on that one of them which is labelled trumpet, and draws it out. No sooner has he done so than the wind before shut up within the soundboard, so far as this obstacle is concerned, is at once enabled to be in direct communication with the pipes of the quality of tone required, and the preliminary operation is thus far completed. The organist repeats this action for all the registers of which he intends to compose his orchestra. Thus, if he wishes it to be con

Eosed of a bourdon and flute, as well as the trumpet, he draws the nobs which answer to those registers; if only two of those registers, he pushes in one of the three, and so of the rest.

But the second obstacle has still to be removed; the pallet must be made to open. The pallet may be described as a little door on a spring, occupying a lower region in the sound-board, a region which may be very properly called that of storms, inasmuch as a certain amount of force is required to overcome the resistance of the wind which rushes headlong from the action of the bellows into the space opened by the gaping of the pallet, and called a groove. The pallet is connected with the key by means of a tracker, which is sometimes of very considerable length, but however far removed the pallet may be from the key-board by the tracker, it is affected by the slightest action on the key, and that

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